Findings on happiness in Bradburn (1969): study US 1963

Publication
Author(s)Bradburn, N.M.
TitleThe Structure of Psychological Well-Being.
SourceAldine Publishing, 1969, Chicago, USA
Investigation
Public21-60 aged, urban areas, USA, 1963 - 64
Collect period1
Last assesment1964
 T1:1963/1, T2:63/6, T3:63/10, T4:64/1
Survey nameNot available
SampleNot available
 Probability area samples in: 1. Sub-urban county near Washington D.C. The population was chosen because of expected changes by an experimental community mental health program. Predominantly middle class; 17% semi- or unskilled laborers (N: 1277; non-response: 26%, 20% dropouts; Interviewed in January, 1963 and in October, 1963). 2. Working class neigbourhood, Chicago. The population was chosen because of expected race tensions. 40% semi- or unskilled laborers (N: 252; non-response: 15%, 30% dropouts; Interviewed in January, 1963 and in October, 1963). 3. All-white suburb, Detroit. The city of Detroit was chosen because of expected changes in the auto- mobile industry. Many skilled workers in automobile industry; both white-collar and skilled blue-collar; 25% semi- or unskilled laborers (N: 542; non-response: 15-20%, 21% dropouts; Interviews in: January, 1963; October, 1963; January, 1964). 4. Negro inner city population, Detroit. The city of Detroit was chosen because of expected changes in the auto- mobile industry. Many workers in automobile industry; predominantly lower economic status; 75% semi- or unskilled laborers; 62% females (N: 446, non-respons: 15-26%, 21% dropouts; Interviews in: January, 1963 and October, 1963). 5. Ten metropolitan areas served together as a comparison group. The sample resembles the USA population rather well; 25% semi- or unskilled laborers N: 270; non-response: 15-26%, 23% dropouts; Interviews in: January, 1963 and October, 1963).
Respondents N =2787
Non Response 20%, Attrition 30%
AssesmentInterview: face-to-face
 Repeated interviews at home using highly structured questionnaires
General remarksThis study uses 'ridit analysis' which compares the distribution of happiness in categories with its distribution in the entire sample. For this purpose the sample of 10 metropolitan areas is used as a reference.
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on 10 questions: During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no) A Particularly exited or interested in something? B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair? C Proud because someone complimented you on something you had done? D Very lonely or remote from other people? E Pleased about having accomplished something? F Bored? G On top of the world? H Depressed or very unhappy? I That things were going your way? J Upset because someone criticized you? Answer options and scoring: yes = 1 no = 0 Summation: -Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I -Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J -Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS Possible range: -5 to +5 Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
ClassificationA-BB-cm-mq-v-2-a
Author's labelPsychological well-being
RemarksActual range: 2% score -4 or -5, 5% -3, 10% -2, 14% -1, 21% 0, 20% +1, 15% +2, 10% +3, 3% +4 or +5
Error estimatesReliability: Equivalence: - positive items : G ranging from +.23 to +.72 - negative items : G ranging from +.41 to +.71 - positive x negative items : G ranging from -.28 to +.25 - positive affect score x negative affect score : T1: G=+.08, T3: G=+.02 Washington suburban county : T1: G=+.13, T3: G=+.07 Working class neighbourhood, Chicago : T1: G=+.04, T3: G=-.06 All-white suburb, Detroit : T1: G=+.08, T3: G=+.14 Negro inner city, Detroit : T1: G=+.04, T3: G=-.20 Ten metropolitan areas : T1: G=+.11, T3: G=+.02 Retest reliability (retest after 3 days, N=174): - Affect Balance Scale : G=+.76 - Index of Positive Affects : G=+.83 - Index of Negative Affects : G=+.81 - positive items separately : G ranging from +.86 to +.96 - negative items separately : G ranging from +.90 to +.97 Repeat reliability: Non-significant differences in average Ridit values in the four interviews for affect balance, positive affect and negative affect. White suburb Detroit only. Validity:
Finding used in
nation ranks
Yes
 On original range -5 - 5On range 0 - 10
Mean0.355.35
Standard deviation


Full textSelfreport on single question: Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say that you are....? 3 very happy 2 pretty happy 1 not too happy
ClassificationO-HL-c-sq-v-3-aa
Author's labelPsychological well-being
Error estimatesReliability: Repeat reliability: All samples: T1 - T3: +.74 for males, G= +.71 for females. White suburb, Detroit only: T1 - T2: G=+.65 for males, G=+.79 for females T2 - T3: G=+.68 for males, G=+.79 for females T3 - T4: G=+.80 for males, G=+.84 for females Validity:
Finding used in
nation ranks
Yes
 On original range 1 - 3On range 0 - 10
Mean2.256.25
Standard deviation

Scores in123
%8.059.033.0

Full textSelfreport on single question: In getting the things you want out of life, how would you say that you are right now.....? 3 very well 2 pretty well 1 not too well
ClassificationC-W-c-sq-v-3-a
Author's labelPsychological well-being
RemarksAssessed at T3: 27% very well, 65% pretty well, 8% not too well M=2.19 Ms'=6.0
Finding used in
nation ranks
Yes
 On original range 1 - 3On range 0 - 10
Mean2.196.00
Standard deviation

Scores in123
%8.065.027.0

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Finding
Subject description
AgeA04abCurrent age (in years)
Amount of worriesW07ab01Amount of worrying
Change in anxiety (Increase)M14aa02aChange in anxiety
Change in employmentE02aa02abFalling unemployed
Change in employmentE02aa02acGetting (re)employed, also classified as above ↑
Change in marital happinessM03aa02bChange in satisfaction with marriage
Change in marriage happinessM03aa02bChange in satisfaction with marriage
Change in payI01aa02aChange in income level
Change in worries (Increase)W07aa02Change in worries
Chatting with friends on telephoneF06ac04Telephone calls with friends
Contacts with friends other than relativesF06acCurrent contacts with friends
Contacts with relativesF03ab02Contacts with relatives
Distance traveled from home during the past few weeksL03ac02kTraveling
DivorcedM02ab03aVs separated
Earlier affectH04ab01bPast happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Earlier happinessH04ab01aRecent happiness (< 1 year ago)
EducationE01ab02Level of school-education
Employment status of spouceM04ab03bEmployment of spouse
Ever expected a nervous breakdownH13aa01Earlier mental health
Family incomeI01ab03Household income
Feeling of inadequate job performanceW06ab02Self-perceived work-performance
Frequency of contacts with relativesF03ab02Contacts with relatives
Getting what one wants from life _BH07ab03cA-AB by C-RW
Getting what one wants from life_AH07aa03cO-HL by C-RW
Gone to new placesL03aa02bChange in specific leisure activities
Having debtsP12ab03Debts
Having made new friendsS06aa02Change in personal contacts
Having met new peopleS06aa02Change in personal contacts
Increase in subjective debts levelP12aa02Change in possessions
Increase of incomeI01aa02aChange in income level
Job advancementO01aa03aAdvancement in current job
Long-term illnessH14ab02dChronic illness
Long-term illnessH14acCurrent functional health, also classified as above ↑
Male sexG01aaSex (male vs female)
Marital tensionM03ab06Tensions in relationship
Marriage companionshipM03ab05Shared activities
Marriage hap[pinessM03ac03Satisfaction with marriage
Marriage sociabilityM03ab05Shared activities
Married vs. divorcedM02aa03Married vs divorced
Married vs. never marriedM02aa01Married vs never married
Married vs. separatedM02aa04Married vs separated
Married vs. widowedM02aa02Married vs widowed
Never married vs. divorcedM02ab01bVs divorced
Never married vs. separatedM02ab01cVs separated
Never married vs. widowedM02ab01aVs widowed
New activities engaged inL03aa02bChange in specific leisure activities
New ego-oriented activities engaged inL03aa02bChange in specific leisure activities
New other-oriented activities engaged inS06aa02Change in personal contacts
New other-oriented activities engaged inL03aa02bChange in specific leisure activities, also classified as above ↑
NoveltyL03aa02bChange in specific leisure activities
Number of childrenC03ab02Children in the household
Occupational prestigeO01ac01aSocial prestige of occupation
Organisational activityS07ab02Attendance to meetings
Panel dropoutI06ac02Panel-dropout
Physical symptomsH15ab01Current physical complaints
Psychological anxietyH15ab02Current mental complaints
Psychological well-beingH07aa02bO-HL by A-AB
Recent illnessH14acCurrent functional health
Satisfaction with work_AW05aa02bChange in satisfaction with work
Satisfaction with work_BW05ad01Satisfaction with work-as-a-whole
Social trauma: Kennedy's assassinationN12ab02Civil war
Social trauma: Kennedy's assassinationE03ab01bpTrend happiness in urban/rural dwellers, also classified as above ↑
White collar jobO01ac01cManual or non-manual
White raceE04ab03tEthnic status in the USA
Widowed vs. divorcedM02ab02aVs divorced
Widowed vs. separatedM02ab02bVs separated
Wish to change lifeL05ac01aWish to change life
Worry about debtP12acAttitudes to one's possessions