Data on Trend Inequality of Happiness in Nations

Inequality of happiness is the degree to which citizens in a country differ in how much they like the life they live.
This difference is expressed in the standard deviation (SD) of responses to single questions about happiness in general population surveys. This concept and the statistic are discussed in Kalmijn, W. & Veenhoven, R. Measuring inequality of happiness in nations. In search for proper statistics.


Measure of happiness: type and code

SPSS variable code



World Database of Happiness (WDH) Distributional Findings in Nations‘Transformed scores#
SD Happiness3-step, all variantssd-hl3_usUSA1947WDH table 111a
3-step, O-HL/c/sq/v/3/aasd-hl3a_usUSA1947WDH table 111a
3-step, O-HL/g/sq/v/3/dsd-hl3d_usUSA1975WDH table 111a
4-step, all variantssd-hl4_usUSA1946WHD table 111b
SD Life satisfaction2-step, O-SLP/g/sq/v/2/bsd-ls2_usUSA1979WDH table 121a
4-step, O-SLL/u/sq/v/4/bsd-ls4_beBelgium1973WDH table 121c
4-step, O-SLL/u/sq/v/4/bsd-ls4_deGermany (re-united)1990WDH table 121c
4-step, O-SLL/u/sq/v/4/bsd-ls4_deeGermany (former East)1990WDH table 121c
4-step, O-SLL/u/sq/v/4/bsd-ls4_dewGermany (former West)1973WDH table 121c
4-step, O-SLL/u/sq/v/4/bsd-ls4_dkDenmark1973WDH table 121c
4-step, O-SLL/u/sq/v/4/bsd-ls4_eu8*EU-81973WDH table 121c
4-step, O-SLL/u/sq/v/4/bsd-ls4_frFrance1973WDH table 121c
4-step, O-SLL/u/sq/v/4/bsd-ls4_grGreece1981WDH table 121c
4-step, O-SLL/u/sq/v/4/bsd-ls4_ieIereland1973WDH table 121c
4-step, O-SLL/u/sq/v/4/bsd-ls4_itItaly1973WDH table 121c
4-step, O-SLL/u/sq/v/4/bsd-ls4_jpJapan1958WDH table 121c
4-step, O-SLL/u/sq/v/4/bsd-ls4_luLuxemburg1973WDH table 121c
4-step, O-SLL/u/sq/v/4/bsd-ls4_nlNetherlands1973WDH table 121c
4-step, O-SLL/u/sq/v/4/bsd-ls4_ptPortugal1985WDH table 121c
4-step, O-SLL/u/sq/v/4/bsd-ls4_spSpain1985WDH table 121c
4-step, O-SLL/u/sq/v/4/bsd-ls4_ukUK (Great Britain)1973WDH table 121c
4-step, O-SLL/u/sq/v/4 variants a,e,fsd-ls4a_jpJapan1958WDH table 121c
4-step, O-SLW/u/sq/v/4/eeqls4b_jpJapan1992WDH table 121c
5-step, O-SLW/u/sq/v/5 variants a,g,k,lsd-ls5_jpJapan1978WDH table 121d
4+5 step, mean eqls4_jp and eqls5_jpsd-ls45_jpJapan1958WDH table 121c+d
SD Best-Worst
(Cantril ladder)
11-step, C-BW/c/sq/l/11/asd-bw11_usUSA1959WDH table 131b

* Weighted average: EU-8 = Belgium x 0.037423 + Denmark x 0,19263 + France x 0,213337 + West-Gernamy x 0,243826 + Italy x 0,211549 + Luxemburg x 0,0001503 + Netherlands x 0,056975 + UK x 0,216118

# Standard deviations transformed to response range 0-10. Method explained in the Introductory text to the Collection of Distributional Findings in Nations, Chapter 7, section 7.3.3 ‘Converting mean scores of equivalent items’.

Same variable in data file ‘States of Nations’ Inequality of happiness