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Studies

Schaefer & Bayley (1963): study US 1929

Publication

Author(s):
Schaefer, E.S.; Bayley, N.
Title:
Maternal Behavior, Child Behavior and Their Intercorrelation.
Source:
Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, Serial no. 87, 1963, Vol. 28, 3 - 127

Investigation

Public:
Children followed from age 0 to 18, Berkeley, California, USA, 1929-47
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 54
Non Response:
13% drop-outs (7 children and their mothers)
Assessment:
Multiple methods
Behavioral observation and interviews

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Time sampling of happy behaviors

The children were rated during the first 3 years of their lives, after 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30 and 36 months of living for 'Emotional tone: unhappy - happy' on a 7-point scale.
Scoring rated on 7-step numerical scale.

Summation:
Later the ratings of 10 - 12, 13 - 15, 18  - 24, and 27 - 36 months were combined.

Rated on 7-step numerical scale.
Classification:
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a
Author's label:
Emotional tone
Error estimates:
Retest reliability within combined months: 10 - 12 months: for boys r = +.83, for girls r = +.56 13 - 15 months: for boys r = +.80, for girls r = +.85 18 - 24 months: for boys r = +.78, for girls r = +.47 27 - 36 months: for boys r = +.66, for girls r = +.63 Retest reliability between combined months: 10 - 12 x 13 - 15 months: for boys r = +.64 (05), for girls r = +.72 (05) 10 - 12 x 18 - 24 months: for boys r = +.61 (05), for girls r = +.51 (05) 10 - 12 x 27 - 36 months: for boys r = +.50 (05), for girls r = +.48 (05) 13 - 15 x 18 - 24 months: for boys r = +.65 (05), for girls r = +.69 (05) 13 - 15 x 27 - 36 months: for boys r = +.68 (05), for girls r = +.48 (05) 18 - 24 x 27 - 36 months: for boys r = +.64 (05), for girls r = +.72 (05)

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Activity Active Speed of movements Active Later marital happiness of mother Parents marital satisfaction Mother characteristics (at Ss age 0-3) Parental behavior (earlier for adults, current for young) Mother's characteristics (at Ss age 9-14) Later family situation Freedom allowed by the mother (at Ss age 0-3) Permissive vs dominant Freedom allowed by the mother (at Ss age 9-14) Permissive vs dominant Happiness at age 12 - 18 Long term happiness (< 10 years ago) Current characteristics (at 10-36 months of age) PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS Later characteristics (at 27-96 months of age) PERSONALITY: LATER Later characteristics (at 9-12 years of age) PERSONALITY: LATER Later characteristics (at 12-18 yearsof age) PERSONALITY: LATER Later characteristics (at 12-18 yearsof age) PERSONALITY: LATER Activity Later personality development Speed of movements Later personality development