Correlational findings

Study Schaefer & Bayley (1963): study US 1929

Children followed from age 0 to 18, Berkeley, California, USA, 1929-47
N = 54
Non Response:
13% drop-outs (7 children and their mothers)
Multiple methods
Behavioral observation and interviews


Authors's label
Freedom allowed by the mother (at Ss age 9-14)
Our Classification
Ratings by three judges on the basis of interview-protocols (one to three interviews).

Assessed ±10 years after rating of baby- happiness.

a.Permits and stimulates autonomy
'Does the mother think the child should be free to act independently and should be allowed to work and play apart from his parents?' (5-item index).

'Does the mother seem to be unaware of the fact that a child has a mind of his own and that he should be able to do his own thinking without forceful intrusion by the mother?'(4-item index).

c.Strictness (rigidity)
'Does the mother believe in rigid rules and strict enforcement of those rules?' (4-item index).

d.Wish to control the child
'Does the mother seem to wish to control the child?' (5-item index).

e.Fostering dependency in child
'Does the mother tend to baby her child or foster dependency in him?' (5-item index).

f.Excessive contact with child
'Does the mother wish to keep the child closely attached to herself?' (5-item index).

g.Keeps child socially isolated?'
'Does this mother tend to keep her child socially isolated?'

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a = Happiness (hedonic level) was rated 12 times be- tween months 10-36 of age. Ratings combined: months 10 + 11 + 12 / 13 + 14 + 15 / 18 + 21 + 24 / 27 + 30 + 36.

             Months   Months   Months   Months
             10-12    13-15    18-24    27-36
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.33 a:Permits and stimulates autonomy
-Boys      -.20(ns) -.45(ns) -.34(ns) -.34(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.10 -Girls     +.19(ns) +.01(ns) -.06(ns) +.26(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.14 b:Intrusiveness
-Boys      -.03(ns) +.28(ns) +.16(ns) +.16(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.25 -Girls     -.06(ns) -.18(ns) -.30(ns) -.45(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.10 c:Strictness (rigidity)
-Boys      -.06(ns) -.28(ns) -.12(ns) +.07(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.08 -Girls     +.28(ns) +.16(ns) -.06(ns) -.07(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.15 d:Wish to control the child
-Boys      -.24(ns) -.19(ns) -.09(ns) -.09(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.06 -Girls     -.02(ns) +.03(ns) -.03(ns) -.23(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.43 e:Fostering dependency in child
-Boys      +.33(ns) +.57(05) +.41(ns) +.41(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.09 -Girls     -.16(ns) -.27(ns) -.06(ns) +.12(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.18 f:Excessive contact with child
-Boys      +.20(ns) +.29(ns) +.12(ns) +.12(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.24 -Girls     -.34(ns) -.17(ns) -.13(ns) -.33(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.21 g:Keeps child socially isolated
-Boys      +.21(ns) +.21(ns) +.21(ns) +.21(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.21 -Girls     -.01(ns) -.12(ns) -.22(ns) -.49(ns)