- Children followed from age 0 to 18, Berkeley, California, USA, 1929-47
- N = 54
- Non Response:
- 13% drop-outs (7 children and their mothers)
Behavioral observation and interviews
- Authors's label
- Freedom allowed by the mother (at Ss age 9-14)
- Our Classification
- Ratings by three judges on the basis of interview-protocols (one to three interviews).
Assessed ±10 years after rating of baby- happiness.
a.Permits and stimulates autonomy
'Does the mother think the child should be free to act independently and should be allowed to work and play apart from his parents?' (5-item index).
'Does the mother seem to be unaware of the fact that a child has a mind of his own and that he should be able to do his own thinking without forceful intrusion by the mother?'(4-item index).
'Does the mother believe in rigid rules and strict enforcement of those rules?' (4-item index).
d.Wish to control the child
'Does the mother seem to wish to control the child?' (5-item index).
e.Fostering dependency in child
'Does the mother tend to baby her child or foster dependency in him?' (5-item index).
f.Excessive contact with child
'Does the mother wish to keep the child closely attached to herself?' (5-item index).
g.Keeps child socially isolated?'
'Does this mother tend to keep her child socially isolated?'
Observed Relation with Happiness
Months Months Months Months
10-12 13-15 18-24 27-36
-Boys -.20(ns) -.45(ns) -.34(ns) -.34(ns)
-Boys -.03(ns) +.28(ns) +.16(ns) +.16(ns)
-Boys -.06(ns) -.28(ns) -.12(ns) +.07(ns)
-Boys -.24(ns) -.19(ns) -.09(ns) -.09(ns)
-Boys +.33(ns) +.57(05) +.41(ns) +.41(ns)
-Boys +.20(ns) +.29(ns) +.12(ns) +.12(ns)
-Boys +.21(ns) +.21(ns) +.21(ns) +.21(ns)