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Correlational findings

Study Schaefer & Bayley (1963): study US 1929

Public:
Children followed from age 0 to 18, Berkeley, California, USA, 1929-47
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 54
Non Response:
13% drop-outs (7 children and their mothers)
Assessment:
Multiple methods
Behavioral observation and interviews

Correlate

Authors's label
Later characteristics (at 27-96 months of age)
Our Classification
Operationalization
Repeated expert ratings on the basis of observation of expressive behaviour in test-situations on bi-polar 7-point scales.
Rated 14 times between 27-96 months of age. Ratings combined: 27 + 30 /  33 + 36 / 42 + 48 / 54 + 60 /  60 + 72 / 78 + 84 / 90 + 96.

a. Friendliness
   3-item index:
   - initial response to situation (negative-friendly)
   - secondary response to situation(negative - friendly)
   - attitude towards task (unwilling - eager)

b. Cooperativeness
   2-item index:
   - variability in cooperation (variable - consistent)
   - attention to instructions (inattentive - alert)
    
c. Attentiveness
   3-item index:
   - external distraction (distractible - single-minded)
   - association (flightly - controlled)
   - maintenance of effort (easily discouraged - persisten)

d. Facility
   3-item index:
   - comprehension of task (slow -   swift)
   - verbal responses (vague -definite)
   - method of performance (random - systematic)

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a = Happiness (hedonic level) was rated 12 times be- tween 10-36 months of age. Ratings combined: monhts 10 + 11 + 12 / 13 + 14 + 15 / 18 + 21 + 24 / 27 + 30 + 36.


          Months   Months   Months   Months
          10-12    13-15    18-24    27-36
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.20 a:Friendliness
-Boys  
  27-30: +.48(05) +.35(ns) +.27(ns) +.48(05)
  33-36: +.33(ns) +.26(ns) +.40(ns) +.40(ns)
  42-48: +.06(ns) +.21(ns) -.02(ns) +.23(ns)
  54-60: +.23(ns) +.32(ns) +.08(ns) +.23(ns)
  66-72: +.26(ns) +.23(ns) +.34(ns) +.26(ns)
  78-84: +.02(ns) +.07(ns) +.14(ns) +.15(ns)
  90-96: -.12(ns) -.07(ns) +.05(ns) -.15(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.07 -Girls
  27-30: +.16(ns) +.52(05) +.75(05) +.72(05)
  33-36: +.05(ns) +.33(ns) +.53(05) +.66(05)
  42-48: -.10(ns) +.15(ns) +.19(ns) +.18(ns)
  54-60: -.17(ns) +.04(ns) +.22(ns) +.29(ns)
  66-72: -.50(05) -.16(ns) +.15(ns) +.08(ns)
  78-84: -.47(05) -.27(ns) -.10(ns) -.20(ns)
  90-96: -.39(ns) -.19(ns) -.22(ns) -.13(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.11 b:Cooperativeness
-Boys  
  27-30: +.20(ns) +.00(ns) +.13(ns) +.23(ns)
  33-36: +.22(ns) +.04(ns) +.27(ns) +.25(ns)
  42-48: +.06(ns) +.05(ns) -.02(ns) -.04(ns)
  54-60: +.08(ns) +.18(ns) +.08(ns) +.22(ns)
  66-72: -.01(ns) +.18(ns) +.20(ns) +.17(ns)
  78-84: +.15(ns) +.19(ns) +.18(ns) +.23(ns)
  90-96: -.11(ns) +.09(ns) +.00(ns) -.08(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.02 -Girls
  27-30: -.02(ns) +.21(ns) +.35(ns) +.16(ns)
  33-36: -.22(ns) +.09(ns) +.34(ns) +.28(ns)
  42-48: -.14(ns) +.12(ns) +.22(ns) +.08(ns)
  54-60: -.25(ns) -.11(ns) +.08(ns) +.01(ns)
  66-72: -.32(ns) -.18(ns) +.12(ns) +.06(ns)
  78-84: -.52(05) -.29(ns) -.08(ns) -.16(ns)
  90-96: -.20(ns) -.15(ns) -.18(ns) +.06(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.16 c:Attentiveness
-Boys  
  27-30: +.10(ns) -.12(ns) +.20(ns) +.26(ns)
  33-36: +.28(ns) -.05(ns) +.29(ns) +.16(ns)
  42-48: +.14(ns) -.01(ns) +.14(ns) +.12(ns)
  54-60: +.18(ns) +.18(ns) +.25(ns) +.34(ns)
  66-72: +.05(ns) +.20(ns) +.32(ns) +.36(ns)
  78-84: +.01(ns) +.10(ns) +.20(ns) +.29(ns)
  90-96: -.02(ns) +.13(ns) +.15(ns) +.23(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.04 -Girls
  27-30: -.56(05) -.34(ns) -.10(ns) -.15(ns)
  33-36: -.23(ns) -.03(ns) +.19(ns) +.28(ns)
  42-48: -.05(ns) +.13(ns) +.21(ns) +.15(ns)
  54-60: -.01(ns) +.00(ns) +.10(ns) +.04(ns)
  66-72: -.27(ns) -.16(ns) +.07(ns) +.10(ns)
  78-84: -.34(ns) -.14(ns) +.02(ns) -.10(ns)
  90-96: -.24(ns) -.14(ns) -.14(ns) -.01(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.29 d:Facility
-Boys  
  27-30: +.10(ns) +.12(ns) +.24(ns) +.45(05)
  33-36: +.12(ns) +.15(ns) +.36(ns) +.53(05)
  42-48: -.07(ns) -.04(ns) +.18(ns) +.46(05)
  54-60: +.23(ns) +.23(ns) +.50(05) +.62(05)
  66-72: +.19(ns) +.27(ns) +.50(05) +.62(05)
  78-84: +.05(ns) +.13(ns) +.35(ns) +.55(05)
  90-96: +.08(ns) +.19(ns) +.39(ns) +.57(05)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.04 -Girls
  27-30: -.22(ns) +.04(ns) +.19(ns) +.18(ns)
  33-36: -.18(ns) +.03(ns) +.22(ns) +.25(ns)
  42-48: -.11(ns) +.20(ns) +.33(ns) +.45(05)
  54-60: -.12(ns) +.02(ns) +.14(ns) +.24(ns)
  66-72: -.18(ns) -.05(ns) +.12(ns) +.30(ns)
  78-84: -.22(ns) -.14(ns) -.05(ns) -.01(ns)
  90-96: -.12(ns) -.07(ns) -.16(ns) -.01(ns)