Correlational findings

Study Schaefer & Bayley (1963): study US 1929

Children followed from age 0 to 18, Berkeley, California, USA, 1929-47
N = 54
Non Response:
13% drop-outs (7 children and their mothers)
Multiple methods
Behavioral observation and interviews


Authors's label
Freedom allowed by the mother (at Ss age 0-3)
Our Classification
Ratings by three judges on the basis of notes on obser- vations of about 20 testing sessions in the child's first 3 years of life.

a.Permits and stimulates autonomy
'Does the mother think the child should
be free to act independently and be allowed to work or play apart from the parents?' (5-item index).

'Does the mother seem to be unaware of the fact that a child has a mind of his own and that he should be able to do his own thinking without forceful intrusion by the mother?'(4-item index).

c.Strictness (rigidity)
'Does the mother believe in rigid rules and strict enforcement of those rules?" (5-item index).

d.Fostering dependency on child
'Does this mother tend to baby her child or foster dependency on him?' (6-item index).

e.Excessive contact with child
'Does the mother wish to keep the child closely attached to herself?' (4-item index).

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a = Happiness (hedonic level) was rated 12 times between months 10-36 of age. Ratings combined: months 10 + 11 + 12 / 13 + 14 + 15 / 18 + 21 + 24 / 27+ 30 + 36.

Boys N = 15, girls N = 16

             Months   Months   Months   Months
             10-12    13-15    18-24    27-36
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.22 a:Permits and stimulates autonomy
-Boys      +.18(ns) +.15(ns) +.26(ns) +.29(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.11 -Girls     -.09(ns) -.08(ns) -.12(ns) -.14(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.36 b:Intrusiveness
-Boys      -.36(ns) -.34(ns) -.35(ns) -.40(05)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.03 -Girls     +.12(ns) +.07(ns) +.02(ns) -.07(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.15 c:Strictness (rigidity)
-Boys      -.15(ns) -.06(ns) -.29(ns) -.11(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.46 -Girls     -.33(ns) -.37(ns) -.56(05) -.57(05) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.29 d:Fostering dependency on child
-Boys      -.39(05) -.32(ns) -.27(ns) -.17(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.19 -Girls     +.12(ns) +.08(ns) +.20(ns) +.35(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.12 e:Excessive contact with child
-Boys      -.12(ns) -.08(ns) -.16(ns) -.14(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.17 -Girls     +.00(ns) +.07(ns) +.29(ns) +.30(ns)