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Correlational findings

Study Schaefer & Bayley (1963): study US 1929

Public:
Children followed from age 0 to 18, Berkeley, California, USA, 1929-47
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 54
Non Response:
13% drop-outs (7 children and their mothers)
Assessment:
Multiple methods
Behavioral observation and interviews

Correlate

Authors's label
Mother's characteristics (at Ss age 9-14)
Our Classification
Operationalization
Ratings by three judges on the basis of interview protocols (one to three interviews).

Assessed  ±10 years after rating of baby happiness.

a . Ignoring
'Does the mother ignore or reject her child?' (5-item index).

b. Perceives child as a burden
'Does this mother perceive the child as more a burden and inconvenience than a source of happiness?' (5-item index).

c. Use of fear to control
'Does this mother attempt to use fear as a way of controlling and teaching the child?' (5-item index).

d. Wish to control the child
'Does this mother seem to wish to control the child?' (5-item index).

e. Keeps child socially isolated
'Does this mother tend to keep her child socially isolated?'(5-item index).

f. Intrusiveness
'Does this mother seem to be unaware of the fact that a child has a mind of his own and that he should be able to do his own thinking without forceful intrusion by the mother?'(4-item index).

g. Excessive contact with child
'Does the mother wish to keep the child closely attached to herself?' (5-item index).

h. Fostering dependency in child
'Does this mother tend to baby her child or foster dependency in him?' (5-item index).

i. Achievement demand
'Does the mother set high standards of achievement for the child?' (6-item index).

j. Emotional involvement with child
'Extent and intensity of emotional and behavioral involvement with the child' (6-item index).

k. Positive evaluation of child
'Does this mother have a positive evaluation of the child?'(6-item index)

l. Expression of affection for child
'Does this mother openly express her love and affection for the child?' (5-item index).

m. Equalitarianism
'Does this mother relate to the child as an equal?' (4-item index).

n. Positive mother-child relationship
'Positiveness of mother-child rela-tionship?' (differentiated from
over-possessiveness) (7-item index).

o. Permits and stimulates autonomy
'Does the mother think the child should be free to act independently and should be allowed to work or play apart from his parents?' 5-item index).

p. Punitiveness
'Does the mother seem positive and unkind?' (6-item index).

q. Irritability
'Does this mother tend to be irri-table?' (5-item index).

r. Strictness
'Does this mother believe in rigid rules and strict enforcement of those rules?' (4-item index).

s. Anxiety
'Does the mother appear overtly anxious?' (5-item index).

t. Emotional withdrawal
'Does this mother withdraw from external involvements?' (6-item index).

u. Dependency
'Is she a dependent mother?' (8-item index).

v. Sociability
'Is this mother a sociable person?'
(6-item index).

w. Cooperativeness
'Does this mother seem cooperative overtly?' (excluding officiousness, interventions, selfabasing cooperation) (7-item index).

x. Positive emotional state
'Does this mother tend towards positive emotional states?' (7-item index).

y. Communicativeness
'Does this mother communicate freely in the interview?' (5-item index).

z. Rejection of homemaking role
'Does this mother seem to reject the role of homemaker?' (5-item index).

aa. Estimated intelligence
'Does this mother have a high intelli-gence?' (6-item index).

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a = Happiness (hedonic level) was rated 12 times between 10-36 months of age. Ratings combined: months 10 + 11 + 12 / 13 + 14 + 15 / 18 + 21 + 24 / 27 + 30 + 36.

            Months   Months   Months   Months
            10-12    13-15    18-24    27-36
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.37 a:Ignoring
-Boys     -.31(ns) -.41(ns) -.39(ns) -.39(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.34 -Girls    -.27(ns) -.37(ns) -.30(ns) -.44(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.26 b:Perceives child as a burden.
-Boys     -.40(ns) -.33(ns) -.28(ns) -.03(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.04 -Girls    +.27(ns) -.28(ns) -.14(ns) -.02(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.29 c:Use of fear to control
-Boys      -.26(ns) -.35(ns) -.28(ns) -.28(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.05 -Girls     +.10(ns) -.03(ns) -.07(ns) -.19(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.15 d:Wish to control the child
-Boys      -.24(ns) -.19(ns) -.09(ns) -.09(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.06 -Girls     -.02(ns) +.03(ns) -.03(ns) -.23(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.21 e:Keeps child socially isolated
-Boys      +.21(ns) +.21(ns) +.21(ns) +.21(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.21 -Girls     -.01(ns) -.12(ns) -.22(ns) -.49(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.14 f:Intrusiveness
-Boys      -.03(ns) +.28(ns) +.16(ns) +.16(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.25 -Girls     -.06(ns) -.18(ns) -.30(ns) -.45(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.18 g:Excessive contact with child
-Boys      +.20(ns) +.29(ns) +.12(ns) +.12(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.24 -Girls     -.34(ns) -.17(ns) -.13(ns) -.33(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.43 h:Fostering dependency in child
-Boys      +.33(ns) +.57(05) +.41(ns) +.41
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.09 -Girls     -.16(ns) -.27(ns) -.06(ns) +.12(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.60 i:Achievement demand
-Boys      +.48(ns) +.65(05) +.60(05) +.68(05)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.19 -Girls     +.32(ns) +.21(ns) +.00(ns) +.23(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.67 j:Emotional involvement with child
-Boys      +.46(ns) +.79(05) +.72(05) +.72(05)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.15 -Girls     -.03(ns) +.06(ns) +.19(ns) +.39(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.27 k:Positive evaluation of child
-Boys      +.06(ns) +.30(ns) +.36(ns) +.36(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.32 -Girls     +.31(ns) +.38(ns) +.12(ns) +.48(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.23 l:Expression of affection for child
-Boys      +.14(ns) +.34(ns) +.22(ns) +.22(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.05 -Girls     -.12(ns) -.02(ns) -.02(ns) +.34(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.49 m:Equalitarianism
-Boys      +.36(ns) +.57(05) +.51(ns) +.51(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.14 -Girls     +.03(ns) +.08(ns) +.04(ns) +.40(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.29 n:Positive mother-child relationship
-Boys      +.29(ns) +.32(ns) +.28(ns) +.28(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.16 -Girls     +.12(ns) +.13(ns) +.05(ns) +.35(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.33 o:Permits and stimulates autonomy
-Boys      -.20(ns) -.45(ns) -.34(ns) -.34(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.10 -Girls     +.19(ns) +.01(ns) -.05(ns) +.26(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.33 p:Punitiveness
-Boys      -.34(ns) -.33(ns) -.32(ns) -.32(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.10 -Girls     -.05(ns) -.08(ns) +.03(ns) -.31(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.21 q:Irritability
-Boys      -.15(ns) -.24(ns) -.23(ns) -.23(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.11 -Girls     -.03(ns) -.21(ns) -.03(ns) -.19(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.10 r:Strictness
-Boys      -.06(ns) -.28(ns) -.12(ns) +.07(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.08 -Girls     +.28(ns) +.16(ns) -.06(ns) -.07(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.07 s:Anxiety
-Boys      -.24(ns) -.15(ns) +.05(ns) +.05(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = 0 -Girls     -.21(ns) -.06(ns) +.21(ns) +.06(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.15 t:Emotional withdrawal
-Boys      +.06(ns) -.08(ns) +.31(ns) +.31(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.03 -Girls     -.28(ns) +.01(ns) +.21(ns) -.08(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.14 u:Dependency
-Boys      -.06(ns) +.07(ns) +.18(ns) +.36(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.13 -Girls     +.19(ns) +.03(ns) +.09(ns) +.19(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.35 v:Sociability
-Boys      +.28(ns) +.31(ns) +.40(ns) +.40(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.16 -Girls     +.25(ns) +.03(ns) +.02(ns) +.34(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.26 w:Cooperativeness
-Boys      +.32(ns) +.20(ns) +.26(ns) +.26(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.20 -Girls     +.18(ns) +.18(ns) +.14(ns) +.29(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.56 x:Positive emotinal state
-Boys      +.62(05) +.57(05) +.58(05) +.46(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.12 -Girls     -.16(ns) -.21(ns) -.17(ns) +.08(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.09 y:Communicativeness
-Boys      +.34(ns) +.08(ns) -.04(ns) -.04(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.09 -Girls     +.14(ns) -.02(ns) +.06(ns) +.19(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.23 z:Rejection of homemaking role
-Boys      -.21(ns) -.15(ns) -.28(ns) -.28(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.09 -Girls     -.28(ns) -.23(ns) +.14(ns) +.00(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.35 aa:Estimated intelligence
-Boys      +.33(ns) +.26(ns) +.41(ns) +.41(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.10 -Girls     +.34(ns) +.02(ns) -.10(ns) +.12(ns)