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Correlational findings

Study Schaefer & Bayley (1963): study US 1929

Public:
Children followed from age 0 to 18, Berkeley, California, USA, 1929-47
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 54
Non Response:
13% drop-outs (7 children and their mothers)
Assessment:
Multiple methods
Behavioral observation and interviews

Correlate

Authors's label
Later characteristics (at 9-12 years of age)
Our Classification
Operationalization
Repeated expert rating on the basis of observation of expressive behaviour in test situations on bi-polar 7-point scales.
Assessed ± 9 years after rating of baby-happiness. Each child rated 6 times between age 9-12.
Ratings combined: 9 + 9½ + 10 / 10½ + 11 + 12.

a. Not shy
    Shy - at ease

b. Friendly attitude towards examiner
    Unfriendly - friendly

c. Cooperation
    Unwilling -  willing

d. Attitude towards task (interested)
    Bored - interested

e. Exerts efforts
    Poor - excellent

f. Attention to instructions
    Inattentive - attentive

g. Not distractable
    Distractable - intent on task

h. Systematic method of performance
    Random - systematic

i. Rapid execution of tasks
    Slow - rapid

j. Swift comprehension of tasks
    Slow - swift

k. Estimated validity of test
    Low - high

l. Activity control    
    Overactive - underactive.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a = Happiness (hedonic level) was rated 12 times be- tween 10-36 months of age. Ratings combined: months 10 + 11 + 12 / 13 + 14 + 15 / 18 + 21 + 24 / 27 + 30 + 36.



          Months   Months   Months   Months
          10-12    13-15    18-24    27-39
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.01 a:Not shy
-Boys:
  9 -10: -.00(ns) -.06(ns) +.08(ns) +.04(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.03 10½-12:  -.15(ns) -.02(ns) +.06(ns) +.05(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.12 -Girls:
   9-10:  -.04(ns) -.22(ns) -.18(ns) +.03(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.13 10½-12:  +.03(ns) +.09(ns) +.26(ns) +.22(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.02 b.Friendly attitude towards examiner.
-Boys:
  9 -10:  +.03(ns) -.02(ns) +.04(ns) -.11(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.15 10½-12:  +.06(ns) +.26(ns) +.22(ns) +.07(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.26 -Girls:
  9 -10:  -.22(ns) -.33(ns) -.34(ns) -.16(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.12 10½-12:  +.11(ns) +.16(ns) +.14(ns) +.08(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.04 c.Cooperation
-Boys:
  9 -10:  +.05(ns) +.04(ns) +.07(ns) +.00(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.17 10½-12:  +.12(ns) +.29(ns) +.20(ns) +.06(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.11 -Girls:
  9 -10:  -.24(ns) -.12(ns) -.14(ns) +.05(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.33 10½-12:  +.43(ns) +.40(ns) +.13(ns) +.34(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.09 d.Attityde towards task (interested)
-Boys:
  9 -10:  +.15(ns) +.09(ns) +.06(ns) +.05(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.28 10½-12:  +.13(ns) +.29(ns) +.43(05) +.26(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.11 -Girls:
  9 -10:  -.26(ns) -.16(ns) -.09(ns) +.08(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.43 10½-12:  +.39(ns) +.56(05) +.31(ns) +.46(05) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.07 e.Exerts effort
-Boys:
  9 -10:  +.08(ns) +.09(ns) +.06(ns) +.05(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.19 10½-12:  +.05(ns) +.24(ns) +.29(ns) +.17(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.05 -Girls:
  9-10:  -.32(ns) -.05(ns) +.04(ns) +.14(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.20 10½-12:  +.18(ns) +.33(ns) +.09(ns) +.20(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.07 f.Attention to instructions.
-Boys:
  9 -10:  +.06(ns) +.11(ns) -.01(ns) +.13(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.15 10½-12: -.01(ns) +.11(ns) +.16(ns) +.33(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.05 -Girls:
  9 -10: -.09(ns) +.01(ns) -.10(ns) -.04(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.29 10½-12:  +.24(ns) +.42(ns) +.16(ns) +.36(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.13 g.Not distractable.
-Boys:
  9 -10: +.12(ns) +.12(ns) +.09(ns) +.20(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.20 10½-12: +.12(ns) +.16(ns) +.22(ns) +.30(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.02 -Girls:
  9 -10: -.15(ns) +.01(ns) -.02(ns) +.07(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.26 10½-12:  +.22(ns) +.39(ns) +.12(ns) +.32(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.16 h.Systematic method of performance.
-Boys:
  9 -10:  +.04(ns) +.08(ns) +.22(ns) +.30(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.30 10½-12:  +.15(ns) +.27(ns) +.37(ns) +.41(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.02 -Girls:
  9 -10:  -.11(ns) -.01(ns) -.01(ns) +.19(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.22 10½-12:  +.10(ns) +.33(ns) +.21(ns) +.24(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.01 i.Rapid execution of task.
-Boys:
  9 -10:  -.12(ns) +.03(ns) +.00(ns) +.14(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.19 10½-12:  +.08(ns) +.12(ns) +.19(ns) +.35(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.32 -Girls:
  9 -10:  -.12(ns) -.44(05) -.43(ns) -.29(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.07 10½-12:  +.04(ns) +.10(ns) +.08(ns) +.05(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.23 j.Swift comprehension of task.
-Boys:
  9 -10:  +.12(ns) +.07(ns) +.26(ns) +.46(05)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.28 10½-12:  +.14(ns) +.19(ns) +.38(ns) +.42(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.21 -Girls:
  9 -10:  -.22(ns) -.31(ns) -.29(ns) -.02(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.26 10½-12:  +.21(ns) +.31(ns) +.25(ns) +.26(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.17 k.Estimated validity of test.
-Boys:
  9 -10:  +.27(ns) +.17(ns) +.13(ns) +.09(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.21 10½-12:  +.10(ns) +.26(ns) +.33(ns) +.14(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.22 -Girls:
  9 -10:  +.11(ns) +.12(ns) +.19(ns) +.44(05)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.27 10½-12:  +.36(ns) +.27(ns) +.14(ns) +.30(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.35 l.Activity control
-Boys:
  9 -10:  +.36(ns) +.38(ns) +.41(ns) +.26(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.27 -Girls:
  9 -10:   -.10(ns) -.25(ns) -.46(05) -.27(ns)