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Correlational findings

Study Schaefer & Bayley (1963): study US 1929

Public:
Children followed from age 0 to 18, Berkeley, California, USA, 1929-47
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 54
Non Response:
13% drop-outs (7 children and their mothers)
Assessment:
Multiple methods
Behavioral observation and interviews

Correlate

Authors's label
Mother characteristics (at Ss age 0-3)
Our Classification
Operationalization
Ratings by three judges on the basis of notes on observations of about 20 tes-ting sessions in first 3 years of child.
a. Permits and stimulates autonomy
'Does the mother think the child should be free to act independently and be allowed to work or play apart from the parents?' (5-item index).
b. Ignoring
'Does the mother ignore or reject her child?' (7-item index).
c. Perceives child as burden
'Does the mother perceive the child as more a burden and inconvenience than a source of happiness?' (7-item index).
d. Use of fear to control
'Does the mother attempt to use fear as a way of controlling and teaching the child?' (5-item index)
e. Punishment
'Does the mother believe in punishment as an effective method of influencing the child's behavior?'(7-item index).
f. Intrusiveness
'Does the mother seem to be unaware of the fact that a child has a mind of his own and that he should be able to do his own thinking without forceful intrusing by the mother?(4-item index).
g. Concern about child's health
'Does this mother seem to be preoccupied with her child's health?' (5-item index).
h. Achievement demand
'Does she concern herself about the child's achievement?' (4-item index).
i. Excessive contact with child
'Does the mother wish to keep the child closely attached to herself?'(4-item index).
j. Fostering dependency on child
'Does this mother tend to baby he child or foster dependency on him?'(6-item index).
k. Emotional involvement with child
'Extent and intensity of emotional and behavioral involvement with the child' (5-item index).
l. Expression of affection for child
'Does the mother openly express her love and affection for her child?' (6-item index).
m. Equalitarianism
'Does the mother tend to relate to the child as an equal?' (5-item index).
n. Positive evaluation of child
'Does the mother tend to have a positive evaluation of the child a person?' (6-item index).
o. Suppression of aggression
'Does the mother's ideal seem to be a quiet, passive child rather than an active, aggressive one?' (4-item index).
p. Punitiveness
'Does the mother seem punitive and unkind?' (4-item index).
q. Strictness (rigidity)
'Does the mother believe in rigid rules and strict enforcement of those rules?' (5-item index)
r. Irritability
'Does the mother tend to be irritable?' (6-item index).
s. Anxiety
'Does this mother appear overtly anxious during the session?'
(5- item index).
t. Negative emotional states
'Does she tend towards negative emotional states?' (5-item index).
u. Mood swings
'Does she show mood swings?' (5-item index).
v. Dominance
'Does the mother show competitive, domineering behavior in the family and examining situation?' (6-item index).
w. Self-abasement
'Does this mother seem self-abasing?(6-item index)
x. Dependency
'Is she a dependent mother?' (7-item index).
y. Over-conscientiousness
'Is she an over-conscientious mother?' (3-item index).
z. Sociability
'Does this mother tend to be a social person?' (6-item index).
aa. Cooperativeness
'Does this mother seem cooperative overtly?' (excluding officiousness, interventions, self-abasing coope-ration) (7-item index).
ab. Narcissism
'Does she try to draw attention to herself?' (3-item index).
ac. Rejection of homemaking role
'Does she seem to reject the role of homemaker?' (5-item index).
ad. Estimated intelligence
'Does this mother have a high intelligence?' (4-item index).
ae. Poor physical health
'Is this mother physically healthy?' (3-item index).
af. Financial stress
'Does this mother seem to be subject to financial strain?' (5-item index).

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a = Happiness (hedonic level) was rated 12 times between 10-36 months of age. Ratings combined: months 10 + 11 + 12 / 13 + 14 + 15 / 18 + 21 + 24 / 27 + 30 + 36.

            Months   Months   Months   Months
            10-12    13-15    18-24    27-36
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.22 a:Permits and stimulates autonomy
-Boys     +.18(ns) +.15(ns) +.26(ns) +.29(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.11 -Girls    -.09(ns) -.08(ns) -.12(ns) -.14(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.22 b:Ignoring
-Boys      -.03(ns) -.23(ns) -.26(ns) -.35(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.21 -Girls     +.04(ns) -.11(ns) -.40(05) -.38(05) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.39 c:Perceives child as burden
-Boys      -.18(ns) -.32(ns) -.54(05) -.53(05)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.32 -Girls     -.16(ns) -.32(ns) -.42(05) -.39(05) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.27 d:Use of fear to control
-Boys      -.13(ns) -.20(ns) -.39(05) -.38(05)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.39 -Girls     -.29(ns) -.26(ns) -.49(05) -.52(05) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.25 e:Punishment
-Boys     -.06(ns) -.19(ns) -.36(ns) -.41(05)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.32 -Girls     -.20(ns) -.26(ns) -.40(05) -.44(05) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.36 f:Intrusiveness
-Boys      -.36(ns) -.34(ns) -.35(ns) -.40(05)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.03 -Girls     +.12(ns) +.07(ns) +.02(ns) -.07(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.10 g:Concern about child's health
-Boys      -.25(ns) -.11(ns) -.13(ns) +.10(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.20 -Girls     +.12(ns) +.12(ns) +.30(ns) +.26(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.14 h:Achievement demand
-Boys      -.22(ns) -.04(ns) -.11(ns) -.18(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.28 -Girls     +.27(ns) +.18(ns) +.30(ns) +.35(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.12 i:Excessive contact with child
-Boys      -.12(ns) -.08(ns) -.16(ns) -.14(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.17 -Girls     +.00(ns) +.07(ns) +.29(ns) +.30(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.29 j:Fostering dependency on child
-Boys      -.39(05) -.32(ns) -.27(ns) -.17(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.19 -Girls     +.12(ns) +.08(ns) +.20(ns) +.35(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.03 k:Emotional involvement with child
-Boys      -.08(ns) +.02(ns) +.00(ns) -.07(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.35 -Girls     +.17(ns) +.27(ns) +.46(05) +.49(05) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.16 l:Expression of affection for child
-Boys      +.03(ns) +.15(ns) +.23(ns) +.21(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.32 -Girls     +.16(ns) +.22(ns) +.42(05) +.48(05) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.35 m:Equalitarianism
-Boys      +.22(ns) +.26(ns) +.49(05) +.44(05)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.46 -Girls     +.37(ns) +.39(05) +.53(05) +.55(05) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.28 n:Positive evaluation of child
-Boys      +.17(ns) +.26(ns) +.42(05) +.28(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.32 -Girls     +.15(ns) +.22(ns) +.42(05) +.48(05) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.30 o:Suppression of aggression
-Boys      -.39(05) -.21(ns) -.30(ns) -.31(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.27 -Girls     -.08(ns) -.36(ns) -.40(05) -.22(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.31 p:Punitiveness
-Boys      -.06(ns) -.25(ns) -.48(05) -.46(05)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.35 -Girls     -.28(ns) -.31(ns) -.44(05) -.38(05) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.15 q:Strictness (rigidity)
-Boys      -.15(ns) -.06(ns) -.29(ns) -.11(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.46 -Girls     -.33(ns) -.37(ns) -.56(05) -.57(05) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.49 r:Irritability
-Boys      -.29(ns) -.42(05) -.57(05) -.69(05)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.26 -Girls     -.24(ns) -.30(ns) -.32(ns) -.34(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.30 s:Anxiety
-Boys      -.39(05) -.36(ns) -.58(05) -.62(05)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.07 -Girls     -.20(ns) -.19(ns) -.04(ns) +.15(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.29 t:Negative emotional states
-Boys      -.07(ns) -.34(ns) -.44(05) -.30(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.41 -Girls     -.43(ns) -.41(ns) -.44(05) -.37(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.41 u:Mood swings
-Boys      -.29(ns) -.31(ns) -.50(05) -.56(05)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.22 -Girls     -.17(ns) -.25(ns) -.32(ns) -.16(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.27 v:Dominance
-Boys      -.21(ns) -.15(ns) -.34(ns) -.40(05)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.20 -Girls     +.23(ns) +.14(ns) +.16(ns) +.28(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.16 w:Self-abasement
-Boys      -.23(ns) -.02(ns) -.27(ns) -.11(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.08 -Girls     -.08(ns) -.24(ns) -.01(ns) +.02(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.28 x:Dependency
-Boys      -.39(05) -.24(ns) -.16(ns) -.34(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.21 -Girls     +.33(ns) +.09(ns) +.13(ns) +.30(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.03 y:Over-conscientiousness
-Boys      -.17(ns) +.06(ns) -.11(ns) +.10(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.14 -Girls     +.10(ns) -.07(ns) +.26(ns) +.27(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a Ra² = -.01 z:Sociability
-Boys     -.02      +.08     +.10     -.22
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.36 -Girls     +.48(05) +.35(ns) +.37(ns) +.24(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.46 aa:Cooperativeness
-Boys      +.34(ns) +.35(ns) +.45(05) +.68(05)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.15 -Girls     -.09(ns) +.07(ns) +.33(ns) +.29(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.27 ab:Narcissism
-Boys      -.30(ns) -.23(ns) -.15(ns) -.40(05)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.37 -Girls     +.55(ns) +.35(ns) +.33(ns) +.23(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.16 ac:Rejection of home making role
-Boys      +.03(ns) -.10(ns) -.21(ns) -.37(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = 0 -Girls     +.19(ns) +.01(ns) -.15(ns) -.06(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.51 ad:Estimated intelligence
-Boys      +.43(05) +.51(05) +.52(05) +.56(05)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.22 -Girls     +.16(ns) +.07(ns) +.30(ns) +.34(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.27 ae:Poor physical health
-Boys      -.07(ns) -.27(ns) -.28(ns) -.48(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.02 -Girls     -.03(ns) -.05(ns) +.09(ns) -.10(ns) A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.41 af:Financial stress
-Boys      -.32(ns) -.38(ns) -.52(05) -.44(05)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.20 -Girls     -.35(ns) -.16(ns) -.06(ns) -.23(ns)