Correlational findings

Study Schaefer & Bayley (1963): study US 1929

Children followed from age 0 to 18, Berkeley, California, USA, 1929-47
N = 54
Non Response:
13% drop-outs (7 children and their mothers)
Multiple methods
Behavioral observation and interviews


Authors's label
Later characteristics (at 12-18 yearsof age)
Our Classification
Ratings by two judges on the basis of notes from observations in test situations at different ages.
Ratings were made on 96 adjective scales (7-point) which were clustered afterwards.

a. Timid, self-conscious, sensitive, lacks confidence, shy, easily hurt, inhibited, serious, humorless, rigid, precise.

b. Courteous, respectful, conservative, compliant, tactful, cooperative, patient, considerate.

c. Conscientious, dependable, perservering.

d. Friendly, talkative, not unfriendly.

e. Social in situation, interested in people, natural, straight-forward.

f. Independent, assertive, out-going, leader, resourceful, takes initiative, independent at home.

g. Bold, boastful, impulsive, uninhibited, show-off, pleasure-loving, opinionated.

h. Irritable, disrespectful, domineering, pugnacious, noisy, demanding, tactles not dependable, excitable, distractible.

i. Defiant, rude, sarcastic, critical.

j. Hostile, resentful.

k. Sulky, bitter.

l. Discontented, unhappy, dissatisfied, complains.

m. Gloomy, not cheerful.

n. Reserved, cold, aloof, uncommunicative.

o. Popular, belongs to groups.

p. Calm, not nervous.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a = Happiness (hedonic level) was rated 12 times be- tween months 10-36 of age. Ratings combined: months 10 + 11 + 12 / 13  + 14 + 15 / 18 + 21 + 24 / 27 + 30 + 36.

Girls only (n = 19)

              Months   Months   Months   Months
              10-12    13-15    18-24    27-36
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.07 a.timid
            +.24(ns) +.29(ns) -.05(ns) -.18(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.03 b.courteous
            +.23(ns) +.12(ns) -.15(ns) -.06(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.16 c.conscientious
            +.34(ns) +.22(ns) +.02(ns) +.04(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.04 d.friendly
            -.10(ns) -.07(ns) +.04(ns) -.02(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.12
            -.24(ns) -.18(ns) -.04(ns) -.01(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.01 f.independent
            -.29(ns) -.17(ns) +.22(ns) +.20(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.15 g.bold
            -.34(ns) -.24(ns) +.03(ns) -.06(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.04 h.irritable
            -.14(ns) -.10(ns) +.08(ns) -.02(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.09 i.defiant
            -.02(ns) +.06(ns) +.24(ns) +.06(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = 0 j.hostile
            +.03(ns) -.02(ns) +.04(ns) -.06(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.07 k.sulky
            -.01(ns) +.00(ns) +.18(ns) +.09(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.03 l.discontented
            +.09(ns) +.07(ns) +.02(ns) -.07(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.11 m.gloomy
            +.14(ns) +.21(ns) +.19(ns) -.09(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.14 n.reserved
            +.15(ns) +.16(ns) +.12(ns) +.12(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = +.06 o.popular
            -.06(ns) -.11(ns) +.09(ns) +.32(ns)
A-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a mr = -.11 p.calm
            -.10(ns) -.22(ns) -.24(ns) +.10(ns)