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Studies

Andrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973 /1

Publication

Author(s):
Andrews, F.M.; Withey, S.B.
Title:
Social Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
Source:
Plenum Press, 1976, New York, USA

Investigation

Public:
18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/7
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 222
Non Response:
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face
Using highly structured questionnaires.

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Selfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole.....?
7  delighted
6  pleased
5  mostly satisfied
4  mixed
3  mostly dissatisfied
2  unhappy
1  terrible

Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale'  (original version)
Classification:
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-a
Author's label:
Life1 (+ Life2 and Life4) (G1-G2-G4)
Page in publication:
66
Error estimates:
Reliability: repeat-reliability (correlation between scores on same questions asked twice during the interview) between Life1 and Life2: r=+.60 repeat-reliability between Life1 and Life3: r=+.60 repeat-reliability between Life2 and Life3: r=+.60 Validity:
Observed distribution
Frequencies
1: 0%,   2: 3%,   3: 3%,   4: 10%,   5: 36%,   6: 40%,   7: 8%   (total 100%)
Summary Statistics
On original range 1 - 7 On range 0-10
Mean:
5.31 7.18
SD:
1.06 1.76
Full text:
Selfreport on single question, asked twice in interview:

How do you feel about your life as a whole......?
7  delighted
6  pleased
5  mostly satisfied
4  mixed
3  mostly dissatisfied
2  unhappy
1  terrible

Summation: arithmetic mean

Name: Andrews & Withey's "Delighted-Terrible Scale" (original version)
Also known as Lehman's 'Global life satisfaction'
Classification:
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-a
Author's label:
Life3 (G3)
Page in publication:
66
Full text:
Selfreport on single question:

Which (of the faces) best described how you feel about your life as a whole?
7  completely happy
6
5
4  neither happy nor unhappy
3
2
1  completely unhappy
Classification:
M-AO-u-sq-f-7-a
Author's label:
Faces (G5)
Page in publication:
66
Observed distribution
Frequencies
1: 0%,   2: 2%,   3: 1%,   4: 4%,   5: 27%,   6: 46%,   7: 20%   (total 100%)
Summary Statistics
On original range 1 - 7 On range 0-10
Mean:
5.74 7.90
SD:
0.99
Full text:
Selfreport on single question:

"Here is a picture of a ladder. At the bottom of the ladder is the worst life you might reasonably expect to have. At the top is the best life you might expect to have. Of course, life from week to week falls somewhere in between. Where was your life most of the time during the past year?"
[ 9 ] best life you might expect to have
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]   
[ 1 ]  worst life you might expect to have


  Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating (modified version)
Classification:
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-a
Author's label:
Ladder (G6)
Page in publication:
66
Observed distribution
Frequencies
1: 1%,   2: 2%,   3: 3%,   4: 4%,   5: 18%,   6: 29%,   7: 29%,   8: 10%,   9: 4%   (total 100%)
Summary Statistics
On original range 1 - 9 On range 0-10
Mean:
6.13 6.40
SD:
1.50
Full text:
Selfreport on single question:

"Here are some circles that we can imagine represent the lives of different people. Circle eight has all pluses in it, to represent a person who has all the good things in his life. Circle zero has all minuses in it, to represent a person who has all the bad things in his life. Other circles are in between. Which circle do you think comes closest to matching your life?"
(circles not reproduced here )
8  + + + + + + + +
7  + + + + + + + -
6  + + + + + +  - -
5  + + + + +  -  - -
4 + + + +  -  -  - -
3  + + +  -  -  -  - -
2  + +  -  -  -  -  - -
2  +  -  -  -  -  -  - -
0   -  -  -  -  -  -  - -

Name: Andrews & Withey's 'Circles Scale'
Classification:
O-GBB-u-sq-c-9-a
Author's label:
Circles: whole life (G7)
Page in publication:
66
Observed distribution
Frequencies
1: 0%,   2: 1%,   3: 0%,   4: 2%,   5: 10%,   6: 25%,   7: 35%,   8: 24%,   9: 3%   (total 100%)
Summary Statistics
On original range 0 - 8 On range 0-10
Mean:
5.74 7.20
SD:
1.18
Full text:
Selfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days?   Would you say that you are....?
3  very happy
2  pretty happy
1  not too happy
Classification:
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aa
Author's label:
Three-point happiness (G31)
Page in publication:
68
Full text:
Selfreport on single question:

How do you feel how happy you are.....?
7  delighted
6  pleased
5  mostly satisfied
4  mixed (about equally satisfied and dissatisfied)
3  mostly
2  unhappy
1  terrible
Classification:
O-HV-u-sq-v-7-b
Author's label:
Seven-point happiness (G32)
Page in publication:
68
Full text:
Selfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....?  (yes/no)
A   Particularly excited or interested in something?
B   So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C   Proud because someone complimented you on something  
     you had done?
D   Very lonely or remote from other people?
E   Pleased about having accomplished something?
F   Bored?
G   On top of the world?
H   Depressed or very unhappy?
I    That things were going your way?
J    Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no  = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
Classification:
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-a
Author's label:
Affect balance (G37)
Page in publication:
68
Full text:
Selfreport on single question

Think back over what your life has been like during the past ten weeks. It may help to try to remember some of the specific things that happened to you, or which you did during this period. Your answers should add up to ten weeks.
For what part of that time did you feel about your life as a whole?
- delighted
- pleased
- mostly satisfied
- mixed
- about equally satisfied and dissatisfied
- mostly dissatisfied
- unhappy
- terrible

Measure: number of weeks felt unhappy
Classification:
M-TH-cm-sq-th%-10-a
Author's label:
Weeks delighted(G18)
Remarks:
Findings based on this measure are not reported in this publication.
Page in publication:
67

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Satisfaction with amount of fun Pleasant (vs unpleasant) Satisfaction with accomplishment Successful (vs failure)
Satisfaction with own accomplishments
Realization of employment goals
Satisfaction with self-adjustment Satisfaction with own coping Satisfaction with amount of beauty Interesting (vs boring) Satisfaction with spare time activities Satisfaction with leisure activities Satisfaction with leisure Satisfaction with leisure Satisfaction with amount of imagination Interesting (vs boring) Satisfaction with contribution to others life Satisfaction with contributions to others
Satisfaction with meaning
Meaningful (vs useless)
Satisfaction with chances of getting a good job Perceived chances for employment Satisfaction with freedom from bother Easy (vs hard) Satisfaction with privacy Attitude to privacy
Varied
Satisfaction with neatness Satisfaction with neatness of local streets Satisfaction with one's dependability and sincerity Satisfaction with own morality Satisfaction with health and amount ofphysical work Satisfaction with physical activity
Satisfaction with health
Satisfaction with amount of sleep Satisfaction with amount of sleep Satisfaction with one's creativity Satisfaction with own coping
Satisfaction with own creativeness
Satisfaction with marriage and family life Satisfaction with family
Satisfaction with marriage
Satisfaction with children Attitudes to one's own children Satisfaction with family Satisfaction with family-life Satisfaction with agreement in family Satisfaction with family Satisfaction with sex life Satisfaction with sex-life Satisfaction with close adult relatives Satisfaction with close adult relatives Satisfaction with treatment by others Satisfaction with compatriots in nation
Attitudes to own popularity
Satisfaction with admiration and acceptance by others Attitudes to own reputation
Attitudes to own popularity
Satisfaction with friends Satisfaction with friends Satisfaction with respect from others Satisfaction with respect for rights in nation
Attitudes to own popularity
Satisfaction with reliability of others Satisfaction with moral climate Satisfaction with income and financial security Satisfaction with income\finances Satisfaction with physical needs met Satisfaction with physical needs met Satisfaction with house, appartment Satisfaction with housing Satisfaction with job Satisfaction with work-as-a-whole Satisfaction with taxes Satisfaction with taxes in nation Satisfaction with safety Satisfaction with safety in vinicity
Attitudes to victimization
Satisfaction with neighborhood Satisfaction with local environment Satisfaction with services Satisfaction with local shops Satisfaction with sport and recreation facilities Satisfaction with local recreation Satisfaction with local government Attitudes to local government Satisfaction with natural environment Attitude to local natural environment Satisfaction with the weather Attitude to local climate Satisfaction with national government Attitudes to national government Satisfaction with standards and values of society Satisfaction with moral climate Satisfaction with the way people over 40 think and act Satisfaction with compatriots in nation
Current attitudes
Satisfaction with media Satisfaction with media in nation Satisfaction with housework Satisfaction with home-making Satisfaction with religious faith Satisfaction with religion Satisfaction with beneficience Satisfaction with contributions to others Satisfaction with mobility Satisfaction with local transport Satisfaction with use of own education Satisfaction with education Satisfactions with links to the past and traditions Perceived continuity of time Overall happiness : Ladder: most ( E ) O-DT by C-BW Overall happiness Circles: whole life_A O-DT by O-further Highest happiness in past year Ladder: best Extremes of happiness experienced Lowest happiness in the past year Ladder: worst Extremes of happiness experienced Happiness compared to others Circles: R-others Perceived difference with own happiness Past change in happiness Past progress Recent change Expected change in happiness: Future progress In the near future (up to 5 years) Expected change in happiness: Progress:past&future In the near future (up to 5 years) Variation in past happiness Ladder: best-worst Recent change
Variability of affects
Past happiness Ladder: 5 years ago In recent past Expected happiness Ladder: 5 years hence In the near future (up to 5 years) Perceived happiness of others Circles: others Perceived level of happiness of compatriots Overall happiness_D O-DT by M-AO Overall happiness Ladder: most_D C-BW by M-AO Overall happiness Circles: whole life _C O-further by M-AO Overall happiness_A O-DT by C-BW Overall happiness Circles: whole life_E O-further by C-BW Overall happiness_F O-DT by O-further Overall happiness Ladder: most_B O-further by C-BW Overall happiness_B O-HL by O-DT Overall happiness Circles: whole life_B O-HL by O-further Overall happiness_C O-HL by O-DT Overall happiness Ladder: most_C O-HL by C-BW Overall happiness Circles: whole life_F O-HL by O-further Overall happiness_E O-DT by A-AB Overall happiness Ladder: most_A A-AB by C-BW Overall happiness Circles: whole life_D O-further by A-AB Feeling about life as a whole Faces: whole life_C O-DT by M-AO Feelings about the good parts of life: Good parts Good and bad parts of life Amount of good parts of life: Number of pluses Good and bad parts of life Weeks feeling delighted O-DT by M-TH Feelings about the poor aspects of life: Bad parts Good and bad parts of life Amount of bad parts of life: Number of minuses Good and bad parts of life Weeks unhappy O-DT by M-TH Amount of neutral parts of life: Number of neutrals Good and bad parts of life Happiness: Three-pt. happiness_C O-HL by O-DT
Sequence of items
Happiness: Seven-pt. happiness_B O-DT by O-further Worries Amount of worrying Today's mood Mood during the day of interview Affect balance_C O-DT by A-AB Interestingness of life Interesting (vs boring)
Good and bad parts of life
Usefulness of life Meaningful (vs useless) Rewardingness of life Gratifying (vs frustrating) Idealness of life Ideal (vs intolerable) Contentment with life Gratifying (vs frustrating)
Varied
Joy in life Pleasant (vs unpleasant) Ableness in life In control (vs drifting)
Efficacious, productive
Feeling about life compared to others Perceived difference with own happiness Perceived overall life quality compared to compatriots Perceived difference with own happiness Perceived overall life quality compared to others Perceived difference with own happiness Uniqueness of life Unique (vs common) Stability in feelings about life Perceived stability of feelings about life Amount of change in feelings about life Perceived stability of feelings about life Wish to change life Wish to change life Perceived overall happiness of others Perceived level of happiness of compatriots Weeks delighted_B M-AO by M-AO Weeks unhappy_A M-AO by M-AO Happiness: Three-pt. happiness_A O-HL by M-AO Happiness: Seven-pt. happiness_A O-further by M-AO Affect balance_F A-AB by M-AO Weeks delighted_A C-BW by M-AO Weeks unhappy_C C-BW by M-AO Happiness:Three-pt. happiness_B O-HL by C-BW Happiness: Seven-pt. happiness_E O-further by C-BW Affect balance_A A-AB by C-BW Feeling about life as a whole Faces: whole life_B O-further by M-AO Weeks unhappy_E O-further by M-AO Happiness: Three-pt. happiness_F O-HL by O-further Happiness: Seven-pt. happiness_F O-further by O-further Affect balance_B O-further by A-AB Feeling about life as a whole Faces: whole life_B O-HL by M-AO Weeks delighted_C O-HL by M-AO Weeks unhappy_D O-HL by M-AO Happiness: Seven-pt. happiness _D O-HL by O-further Affect balance_E O-further by A-AB Weeks delighted_E O-further by M-AO Happiness: Three-pt. happiness_E O-HL by O-HL Affect balance_D O-HL by A-AB Feeling about life as a whole: Faces: whole life_D A-AB by M-AO Weeks delighted_D A-AB by M-AO Weeks unhappy_B A-AB by M-AO Happiness: Three-pt. happiness_D O-HL by A-AB Happiness: Seven-pt. happiness_C O-further by A-AB Recent happiness In recent past Weighted feelings about aspects of life Good and bad parts of life Happiness relative to neighbor Perceived difference with own happiness
Attitudes to happiness of others
Satisfactions Mixed multiple life-appraisals Satisfaction with independence Satisfaction with freedom Satisfaction with oppertunity to change things Satisfaction with opportunity to change things Satisfaction with the way young people think and act Satisfaction with compatriots in nation Feeling about life as a whole: Faces: whole life_E C-BW by M-AO Satisfaction with school facilities in the area Satisfaction with school-facilities
Satisfaction with local schools