# Distributional Findings on Happiness by measure type and by year in the general public of Denmark (DK)

Typical text:
In general, how happy would you say you are?:
- very happy
- fairly happy
- not very happy
very = 3...not very = 1
Finding Measure Code Year Original (1 - 3) Scale (0 - 10) mean SD mean SD O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aa 1975 2.36 0.58 7.53 1.58 O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ai 1976 2.27 0.57 7.41 1.47 O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ai 1976 2.29 0.60 7.34 1.62 O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ai 1977 2.27 0.58 7.41 1.51 O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ai 1978 2.34 0.59 7.59 1.54 O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ai 1978 2.30 0.56 7.48 1.45 O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ai 1979 2.31 0.56 7.49 1.46 O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aa 1982 2.08 0.72 6.91 1.86 O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aa 1983 2.17 0.65 7.14 1.69 O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aa 1983 2.25 0.67 7.35 1.75 O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aa 1984 2.24 0.65 7.21 1.74 O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aa 1985 2.27 0.64 7.30 1.70 O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aa 1986 2.28 0.65 7.32 1.74 O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aa 1986 2.13 0.68 6.93 1.80 Average 2.25 0.62 7.32 1.64
Typical text:
Taking all things together, would you say you are?:
- very happy
- quite happy
- not very happy
- not at all happy
very = 4 ......not at all = 1
Finding Measure Code Year Original (1 - 4) Scale (0 - 10) mean SD mean SD O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a 1981 3.25 0.51 7.68 1.21 O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a 1990 3.36 0.62 7.87 1.55 O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a 1999 3.39 0.60 7.95 1.48 O-HL-u-sq-v-4-af 2006 3.46 0.56 7.55 1.74 O-HL-u-sq-v-4-x 2007 3.24 0.55 7.61 1.38 O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a 2017 3.21 0.64 7.49 1.68 Average 3.32 0.58 7.69 1.51
Typical text:
How happy do you feel as you live now?
- very happy
- somewhat happy
- neither happy nor unhappy
- not very happy
- not happy at all
very happy = 5 .... Not happy at all = 1
Finding Measure Code Year Original (1 - 5) Scale (0 - 10) mean SD mean SD O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ha 1993 3.77 0.77 6.93 1.92 Average 3.77 0.77 6.93 1.92
Typical text:
Considering your life as a whole, would you describe it as
- very unhappy
- unhappy
- mixed
- happy
- very happy
very happy = 7 .... very unhappy = 1
Finding Measure Code Year Original (1 - 7) Scale (0 - 10) mean SD mean SD O-HL-g-sq-v-7-a 2002 5.35 0.97 7.50 1.88 Average 5.35 0.97 7.50 1.88
Typical text:
Taking all things together on a scale of one to ten, how hapy would you say you are?
1 very unhappy
:
10 very happy
Finding Measure Code Year Original (1 - 10) Scale (0 - 10) mean SD mean SD O-HL-u-sq-n-10-b 2003 8.32 1.41 8.13 1.57 O-HL-u-sq-n-10-b 2007 8.33 1.42 8.14 1.58 Average 8.32 1.41 8.13 1.57
Typical text:
Generally speaking, how happy do you feel?
10 extremely happy
:
0 extremely unhappy
Finding Measure Code Year Original (0 - 10) Scale (0 - 10) mean SD mean SD O-HL-u-sq-n-11-a 2002 8.32 1.42 8.32 1.42 O-HL-u-sq-n-11-a 2004 8.32 1.41 8.32 1.41 O-HL-u-sq-n-11-a 2006 8.33 1.39 8.33 1.39 O-HL-u-sq-n-11-a 2007 8.37 1.34 8.37 1.34 O-HL-u-sq-n-11-a 2010 8.27 1.46 8.27 1.46 O-HL-u-sq-n-11-a 2012 8.38 1.47 8.38 1.47 O-HL-u-sq-n-11-a 2014 8.24 1.54 8.24 1.54 O-HL-u-sq-n-11-a 2018 8.38 1.35 8.38 1.35 Average 8.33 1.42 8.33 1.42
Typical text:
How satisfied are you with the life you lead?
- very satisfied
- fairly satisfied
- not very satisfied
- not at all satisfied
very = 4 ....... not at all = 1
Finding Measure Code Year Original (1 - 4) Scale (0 - 10) mean SD mean SD O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-i 1973 3.46 0.60 7.89 1.61 O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-i 1975 3.49 0.59 7.87 1.65 O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-i 1975 3.35 0.58 7.58 1.54 O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-i 1976 3.43 0.64 7.71 1.77 O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-i 1976 3.43 0.66 7.72 1.82 O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-i 1977 3.51 0.57 8.02 1.53 O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-i 1977 3.46 0.65 7.78 1.79 O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-i 1978 3.49 0.63 7.87 1.76 O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-i 1978 3.53 0.61 8.06 1.63 O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-i 1979 3.45 0.62 7.78 1.73 O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-i 1980 3.49 0.62 7.95 1.68 O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-i 1981 3.55 0.61 8.03 1.68 O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-i 1982 3.53 0.59 8.05 1.59 O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-i 1982 3.55 0.56 8.03 1.56 O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-i 1983 3.48 0.62 7.93 1.68 O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-i 1983 3.52 0.57 8.02 1.54 O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-i 1984 3.51 0.63 8.01 1.69 O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b 1984 3.56 0.55 8.07 1.55 O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-i 1985 3.59 0.60 8.21 1.62 O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-i 1985 3.52 0.57 7.94 1.61 O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-i 1986 3.59 0.60 8.14 1.67 O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-i 1986 3.46 0.62 7.81 1.73 O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-i 1987 3.59 0.55 8.21 1.47 O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-i 1987 3.42 0.62 7.78 1.67 O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-i 1988 3.58 0.55 8.11 1.55 O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-i 1988 3.18 0.75 7.01 2.09 O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-i 1989 3.54 0.57 8.00 1.61 O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-i 1989 3.52 0.59 8.04 1.59 O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-i 1989 3.51 0.62 7.93 1.73 O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-i 1990 3.59 0.58 8.22 1.57 O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-i 1990 3.54 0.61 8.09 1.63 O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-i 1991 3.57 0.59 8.17 1.57 O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-i 1991 3.59 0.58 8.22 1.57 O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-i 1992 3.62 0.58 8.30 1.55 O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-i 1992 3.58 0.60 8.19 1.62 O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-i 1993 3.60 0.58 8.18 1.62 O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-i 1993 3.60 0.58 8.25 1.56 O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-i 1994 3.64 0.57 8.30 1.59 O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-i 1994 3.57 0.60 8.16 1.62 O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-i 1995 3.62 0.54 8.25 1.50 O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b 1996 3.65 0.52 8.33 1.45 O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b 1996 3.64 0.54 8.28 1.51 O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b 1997 3.59 0.56 8.15 1.57 O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b 1998 3.63 0.58 8.27 1.60 O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b 1999 3.58 0.60 8.13 1.67 O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b 2000 3.53 0.60 8.00 1.67 O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b 2000 3.58 0.53 8.13 1.49 O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b 2001 3.58 0.59 8.13 1.62 O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b 2001 3.59 0.60 8.16 1.67 O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b 2002 3.58 0.60 8.14 1.67 O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b 2002 3.61 0.55 8.21 1.53 O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b 2003 3.56 0.61 8.07 1.68 O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b 2004 3.60 0.58 8.18 1.62 O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b 2005 3.62 0.58 8.25 1.60 O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b 2005 3.58 0.60 8.14 1.67 O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b 2006 3.61 0.60 8.21 1.66 O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b 2006 3.60 0.58 8.18 1.62 O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b 2007 3.60 0.58 8.18 1.62 O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b 2007 3.64 0.56 8.30 1.54 O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b 2008 3.60 0.60 8.18 1.66 O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b 2008 3.59 0.60 8.16 1.67 O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b 2009 3.68 0.51 8.40 1.42 O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b 2009 3.66 0.51 8.35 1.44 O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-i 2010 3.63 0.54 8.33 1.44 O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-i 2010 3.67 0.51 8.43 1.36 O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-i 2011 3.65 0.54 8.38 1.43 O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-i 2011 3.67 0.53 8.43 1.42 O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-i 2012 3.67 0.57 8.38 1.57 O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-i 2012 3.65 0.54 8.32 1.50 O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-i 2013 3.65 0.59 8.32 1.63 O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-i 2013 3.66 0.53 8.35 1.49 O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-i 2014 3.71 0.50 8.49 1.39 O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-i 2014 3.65 0.57 8.32 1.58 O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-i 2015 3.74 0.46 8.57 1.29 O-SLu-u-sq-v-4-i 2015 3.68 0.51 8.40 1.42 O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b 2016 3.71 0.52 8.48 1.44 O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b 2016 3.63 0.56 8.27 1.55 O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b 2017 3.71 0.51 8.49 1.42 O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b 2017 3.69 0.52 8.43 1.47 O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b 2018 3.71 0.48 8.49 1.33 O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b 2018 3.65 0.59 8.32 1.63 O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b 2019 3.72 0.49 8.52 1.38 O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b 2019 3.68 0.53 8.40 1.48 O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b 2020 3.71 0.50 8.49 1.39 O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b 2021 3.38 0.64 7.57 1.79 O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b 2021 3.58 0.55 8.12 1.54 O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b 2022 3.57 0.57 8.10 1.60 O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b 2023 3.69 0.51 8.45 1.43 O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b 2023 3.67 0.54 8.38 1.52 Average 3.58 0.57 8.15 1.58
Typical text:
Overall, how satisfied are you with your present life?
- very satisfied
- fairly satisfied
- neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
- fairly dissatisfied
- very dissatisfied
very satisfied = 5 ..... very dissatisfied = 1
Finding Measure Code Year Original (1 - 5) Scale (0 - 10) mean SD mean SD O-SLL-u-sq-v-5-a 1990 4.26 0.91 7.52 1.83 O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-e 1993 3.97 0.82 7.43 2.06 Average 4.12 0.87 7.48 1.95
Typical text:
All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole now?
10 satisfied
.: .
1 dissatisfied
Finding Measure Code Year Original (1 - 10) Scale (0 - 10) mean SD mean SD O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a 1981 8.19 1.74 7.99 1.94 O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a 1990 8.16 1.89 7.96 2.10 O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a 1999 8.24 1.82 8.04 2.02 O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-b 2003 8.38 1.52 8.20 1.69 O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-b 2007 8.48 1.64 8.31 1.82 O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-b 2016 8.20 8.00 * O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a 2017 7.90 1.86 7.67 2.06 Average 8.22 1.75 8.03 1.94
Typical text:
All things considered, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your life as-a-whole these days?
10 very satisfied
:
0 not satisfied
Finding Measure Code Year Original (0 - 10) Scale (0 - 10) mean SD mean SD O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cc 1975 8.26 1.99 8.26 1.99 O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cc 1983 7.55 2.01 7.55 2.01 O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cd 2002 8.44 1.58 8.44 1.58 O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cd 2004 8.47 1.47 8.47 1.47 O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cd 2006 8.48 1.50 8.48 1.50 O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-a 2007 8.08 1.46 8.08 1.46 O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cd 2007 8.52 1.42 8.52 1.42 O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-a 2008 8.23 1.44 8.23 1.44 * O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cd 2010 8.35 1.55 8.35 1.55 * O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cd 2012 8.57 1.50 8.57 1.50 * O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cj 2013 8.00 8.00 * O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cd 2014 8.36 1.61 8.36 1.61 * O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cd 2018 8.50 1.48 8.50 1.48 * O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cc 2018 7.80 7.80 Average 8.26 1.58 8.26 1.58
Typical text:
A: How satisfied are you with your life as a whole?
B: How satisfied are you with how your life has turned out so far?
C: How happy are you?
0 extremely dissatisfied
:
10 extremely satisfied
Finding Measure Code Year Original (0 - 10) Scale (0 - 10) mean SD mean SD O-Sum-*-mq-n-11-a 2006 8.26 8.26 Average 8.26 8.26
Typical text:
All things considered, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your life as-a-whole these days?
10 very satisfied
:
0 not satisfied
Missing cases of average life-satisfaction in nations estimated on the basis of a combination of observed components of happiness in that nation:
1) Afffective component, measured using responses to multiple questions about yesterday's affective experience, from which an affect balance score was computed
2) Cognitive component, measured using responses to single question on Best-Worst possible life
Computation explained in EHERO Working Paper 2021-3 https://www.eur.nl/en/ehero/media/2021-03-ehero-workingpaper2021-3 How to complete the ranklist of happiness in nations
Finding Measure Code Year Original (0 - 10) Scale (0 - 10) mean SD mean SD O-SLW-*-ds-nt-11-a 2007 8.30 O-SLW-*-ds-nt-11-a 2008 7.96 O-SLW-*-ds-nt-11-a 2009 7.91 O-SLW-*-ds-nt-11-a 2010 8.21 O-SLW-*-ds-nt-11-a 2011 8.32 O-SLW-*-ds-nt-11-a 2012 8.12 O-SLW-*-ds-nt-11-a 2013 8.35 O-SLW-*-ds-nt-11-a 2014 8.07 O-SLW-*-ds-nt-11-a 2015 8.09 O-SLW-*-ds-nt-11-a 2016 8.26 O-SLW-*-ds-nt-11-a 2017 8.24 O-SLW-*-ds-nt-11-a 2018 8.38 O-SLW-*-ds-nt-11-a 2019 8.47 Average 8.21
Typical text:
During the past few weeks did you ever feel (yes/no)
- particularly excited or interested in something?
- so restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
- proud because someone complimented you on something you had done?
- very lonely or remote from other people?
- bored?
- on top of the world?
- depressed?
- that things were going your way?
- upset because someone criticized you?
Finding Measure Code Year Original (-5 - 5) Scale (0 - 10) mean SD mean SD A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-a 1981 1.97 1.72 6.97 1.72 A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-a 1990 1.93 1.85 6.93 1.85 Average 1.95 1.78 6.95 1.78
Typical text:
Now thinking about today, how would you describe your mood, has it been ..?
4 somewhat good
5 very good
Finding Measure Code Year Original (1 - 5) Scale (0 - 10) mean SD mean SD A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-a 1993 4.10 0.83 7.75 2.07 Average 4.10 0.83 7.75 2.07
Typical text:
Do you want more days like yesterday?
- yes
- no
% yes
Finding Measure Code Year Original (0 - 100) Scale (0 - 10) mean SD mean SD A-AOL-yd-sq-v-2-a 2007 74.00 Average 74.00
Typical text:
Did you feel yesterday.. (yes/no)?
- enjoyment
- worry
- anger
- depression
- did you smile and laugh a lot
Finding Measure Code Year Original (-100 - 100) Scale (0 - 10) mean SD mean SD A-AB-yd-mq-v-2-tb 2008 59.38 7.97 A-AB-yd-mq-v-2-tb 2009 51.54 7.58 A-AB-yd-mq-v-2-tb 2010 63.03 8.15 A-AB-yd-mq-v-2-tb 2011 59.46 7.97 A-AB-yd-mq-v-2-tb 2012 56.52 7.83 Average 57.99 7.90
Typical text:
Did you feel yesterday (yes/no)
- well-rested
- treated with respect
- smile and laugh a lot
- learn or do something interesting
- enjoyment
- physical pain
- worry
- stress
- anger

Rated:
0: no
1: yes

Computation: (A+B+C+D+E) - (F+G+H+I+J)
Finding Measure Code Year Original (-100 - 100) Scale (0 - 10) mean SD mean SD A-AB-yd-mq-v-2-mb 2006 60.00 8.00 A-AB-yd-mq-v-2-mb 2007 57.00 7.85 A-AB-yd-mq-v-2-mb 2008 59.00 7.95 A-AB-yd-mq-v-2-mb 2009 56.00 7.80 A-AB-yd-mq-v-2-mb 2010 64.00 8.20 A-AB-yd-mq-v-2-mb 2011 60.00 8.00 A-AB-yd-mq-v-2-mb 2012 57.00 7.85 A-AB-yd-mq-v-2-mb 2013 61.00 8.05 A-AB-yd-mq-v-2-mb 2014 53.00 7.65 A-AB-yd-mq-v-2-mb 2015 57.00 7.85 A-AB-yd-mq-v-2-mb 2016 59.00 7.95 Average 58.45 7.92
Typical text:
Did you feel yesterday.. (yes/no)?
- well rested
- worried
- proud
- depressed
- ...etc
Computation: % positive affect minus % negative affect
Finding Measure Code Year Original (-100 - 100) Scale (0 - 10) mean SD mean SD A-AB-yd-mq-v-2-o 2007 62.00 A-AB-yd-mq-v-2-o 2012 59.97 Average 60.98
Typical text:
Did you feel yesterday.. (yes/no)?
- well rested
- worried
- proud
- depressed
- ...etc
Computation: % positive affect minus % negative affect
Finding Measure Code Year Original (-100 - 100) Scale (0 - 10) mean SD mean SD A-AB-yd-mq-v-2-b 2007 60.00 Average 60.00
Typical text:
Suppose the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you and the bottom of the ladder the worst possible life. Where on this ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
- 10
- .
- .
- 0
Finding Measure Code Year Original (0 - 10) Scale (0 - 10) mean SD mean SD C-BW-c-sq-l-11-c 2005 8.02 1.34 8.02 1.34 C-BW-c-sq-l-11-c 2006 8.01 1.34 8.01 1.34 C-BW-c-sq-l-11-c 2006 8.00 8.00 C-BW-c-sq-l-11-c 2007 7.83 1.50 7.83 1.50 C-BW-c-sq-l-11-c 2008 7.97 1.41 7.97 1.41 C-BW-c-sq-l-11-c 2009 7.68 1.58 7.68 1.58 C-BW-c-sq-l-11-c 2010 7.77 1.52 7.77 1.52 C-BW-c-sq-l-11-c 2011 7.79 1.50 7.79 1.50 C-BW-c-sq-l-11-c 2012 7.52 1.70 7.52 1.70 C-BW-c-sq-l-11-c 2013 7.59 1.72 7.59 1.72 C-BW-c-sq-l-11-c 2014 7.51 1.67 7.51 1.67 C-BW-c-sq-l-11-c 2015 7.51 1.62 7.51 1.62 C-BW-c-sq-l-11-c 2016 7.56 1.61 7.56 1.61 C-BW-c-sq-l-11-c 2017 7.59 1.67 7.59 1.67 C-BW-c-sq-l-11-c 2018 7.65 1.65 7.65 1.65 C-BW-c-sq-l-11-c 2019 7.69 1.47 7.69 1.47 C-BW-c-sq-l-11-c 2020 7.52 7.51 Average 7.72 1.55 7.72 1.55
Typical text:
On the whole my life is close to how I would like it to be
- strongly agree
- agree
- neither agree nor disagree
- disagree
- strongly disagree
Finding Measure Code Year Original (1 - 5) Scale (0 - 10) mean SD mean SD C-RA-u-sq-v-5-a 2007 3.90 0.89 6.80 1.78 Average 3.90 0.89 6.80 1.78
Typical text:
During the past 4 weeks….. Have you been a happy person?
- all of the time
- most of the time
- a good bit of the time
- some of the time
- a little of the time
- none of the time
Finding Measure Code Year Original (1 - 6) Scale (0 - 10) mean SD mean SD M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-a 1994 4.52 1.25 Average 4.52 1.25
Typical text:
Finding Measure Code Year Original (-100 - 100) Scale (0 - 10) mean SD mean SD A-AB-yd-mq-v-2-fb 2005 70.59 8.53 A-AB-cw-mq-v-4-c 2006 1.39 0.71 A-AB-yd-mq-v-2-fb 2007 63.35 8.17 A-AB-yd-mq-v-2-j 2011 0.65 A-AB-yd-mq-v-2-fb 2013 66.77 8.34 A-AB-yd-mq-v-2-fb 2014 59.99 8.00 A-AB-yd-mq-v-2-fb 2015 61.16 8.06 A-AB-yd-mq-v-2-fb 2016 62.85 8.14 A-AB-yd-mq-v-2-fb 2017 61.79 8.09 A-AB-yd-mq-v-2-fb 2018 61.54 8.08 A-AB-yd-mq-v-2-fb 2019 68.09 8.40 Average