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Happiness Measures

Measures of Happiness: C-BW-c-sq-l-11-c

Characteristics

Code:
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-c
Focus:
Contentment: Best-Worst possible life (C-BW)
Time frame:
currently (today, these days, presently) (c)
Mode:
1 question (sq)
Scale Type:
ladder scale (l)
Scale Range:
11

Description

Self report on single question:

Here is ladder representing the 'ladder of life'. Let's suppose the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you; and the bottom, the worst possible life for you. On which step of the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
10 best possible
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 worst possible life

This question was followed (not preceded) by items on life 5 years ago and 5 years from now.

List of Studies Using this Measure

Study Population N Mean
Standard Deviation
Helliwell et al. (2018): study ZZ World samples 2005 /1 N = 900000
Mean
= 5.460
SD
= 1.110
Graham & Nikolova (2013a): study ZZ 2010 15+ Aged General Public in 120 Nations 2010- 2012 N = 301516
Mean
= 5.450
SD
= 2.180
Diener & Tay (2015): study ZZ 2005 15+ Aged, general public, 164 nations, 2005-2013 N = 1229431
Mean
= 5.400
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study CA 2011 15+ aged general population, Canada, 2011 N = 1012
Mean
= 7.420
SD
= 1.810
Helliwell et al. (2015): study NL Sint Maarten 2012 15+ aged general population, Netherlands, Sint Maarten N = 1004
Mean
= 5.910
SD
= 2.020
Helliwell et al. (2015): study NL Sint Maarten 2010 15+ aged general population, Netherlands, Sint Maarten, 2010 N = 997
Mean
= 6.050
SD
= 1.880
Helliwell et al. (2015): study NL Sint Maarten 2011 15+ aged general population, Netherlands, Sint Maarten, 2011 N = 1001
Mean
= 5.940
SD
= 1.860
Helliwell et al. (2015): study NL Sint Maarten 2006 15+ aged general population, Netherlands, Sint maarten N = 1008
Mean
= 5.260
SD
= 1.930
Helliwell et al. (2015): study XY Cyprus-Turkish 2012 15+ aged general population, North Cyprus, 2012 N = 497
Mean
= 5.460
SD
= 2.740
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study CA 2014 15+ aged general population,Canada, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.280
Gallup World View (2012): study CG 2012 15+ aged general publc Congo (Brazzaville), 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.910
SD
= 2.110
Graham & Nikolova (2013a): study ZZ Latin America 2010 15+ aged general public , Latin American countries, 2010- 2012 N = 100000
Mean
= 6.220
SD
= 2.420
Graham & Nikolova (2013a): study ZZ South Sahara Africa 2011 15+ aged general public . Sub Sahran Africa 2011 N = 23674
Gallup World View (2012): study AL 2012 15+ aged general public Albania, 2012 N = 1029
Mean
= 5.510
SD
= 1.920
Gallup World View (2012): study AR 2012 15+ aged general public Argentina, 2012 N = 998
Mean
= 6.460
SD
= 2.090
Gallup World View (2012): study AU 2012 15+ aged general public Australia, 2012 N = 998
Mean
= 7.190
SD
= 1.760
Gallup World View (2012): study AZ 2012 15+ aged general public Azerbaijan, 2012 N = 998
Mean
= 4.910
SD
= 1.890
Gallup World View (2012): study BD 2012 /1 15+ aged general public Bangladesh, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.720
SD
= 1.920
Gallup World View (2012): study BY 2012 15+ aged general public Belarus, 2012 N = 1012
Mean
= 5.740
SD
= 2.030
Gallup World View (2012): study BJ 2012 15+ aged general public Benin, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.190
SD
= 1.640
Gallup World View (2012): study BO 2012 15+ aged general public Bolivia, 2012 N = 942
Mean
= 6.010
SD
= 2.160
Gallup World View (2012): study BF 2013 15+ aged general public Burkina Faso, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.320
Gallup World View (2012): study BI 2011 15+ aged general public Burundi, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.700
SD
= 1.740
Gallup World View (2012): study KH 2012 15+ aged general public Cambodia, 2012 N = 996
Mean
= 3.890
SD
= 1.700
Gallup World View (2012): study CM 2013 15+ aged general public Cameroon, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.270
Gallup World View (2012): study CL 2012 15+ aged general public Chile, 2012 N = 1001
Mean
= 6.590
SD
= 2.120
Gallup World View (2012): study CO 2012 15+ aged general public Colombia, 2012 N = 994
Mean
= 6.370
SD
= 2.520
Gallup World View (2012): study CD 2012 15+ aged general public Congo (Knishas), 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.630
Gallup World View (2012): study HR 2012 15+ aged general public Croatia, 2012 N = 940
Mean
= 6.020
SD
= 2.060
Gallup World View (2012): study CI 2009 15+ aged general public Côte d'Ivoire, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.190
SD
= 1.480
Gallup World View (2012): study DK 2012 15+ aged general public Denmark, 2012 N = 997
Mean
= 7.510
SD
= 1.700
Gallup World View (2012): study DJ 2011 15+ aged general public Djibouti, 2011 N = 986
Mean
= 4.360
SD
= 2.370
Gallup World View (2012): study DO 2012 15+ aged general public Dominican Republic, 2012 N = 989
Mean
= 4.750
SD
= 2.740
Gallup World View (2012): study EC 2012 15+ aged general public Ecuador, 2012 N = 999
Mean
= 5.960
SD
= 2.120
Gallup World View (2012): study EG 2012 15+ aged general public Egypt, 2012 N = 4178
Mean
= 4.200
SD
= 2.040
Gallup World View (2012): study SV 2012 15+ aged general public El Salvador, 2012 N = 993
Mean
= 5.930
SD
= 2.340
Gallup World View (2012): study EE 2012 15+ aged general public Estonia, 2012 N = 999
Mean
= 5.360
SD
= 1.960
Gallup World View (2012): study FI 2012 15+ aged general public Finland, 2012 N = 998
Mean
= 7.420
SD
= 1.630
Gallup World View (2012): study FR 2012 /1 15+ aged general public France, 2012 N = 1986
Mean
= 6.640
SD
= 1.790
Gallup World View (2012): study GA 2012 15+ aged general public Gabon, 2012 N = 995
Mean
= 3.970
SD
= 2.010
Gallup World View (2012): study GE 2012 15+ aged general public Georgia, 2012 N = 995
Mean
= 4.250
SD
= 1.950
Gallup World View (2012): study DE 2012 15+ aged general public Germany, 2012 N = 13210
Mean
= 6.700
SD
= 1.830
Gallup World View (2012): study GR 2012 15+ aged general public Greece, 2012 N = 995
Mean
= 5.090
SD
= 2.490
Gallup World View (2012): study GT 2012 15+ aged general public Guatemala, 2012 N = 979
Mean
= 5.850
SD
= 2.680
Gallup World View (2012): study GN 2012 15+ aged general public Guinea, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.650
SD
= 1.650
Gallup World View (2012): study HT 2012 15+ aged general public Haiti, 2012 N = 503
Mean
= 4.410
SD
= 1.780
Gallup World View (2012): study HN 2012 15+ aged general public Honduras, 2012 N = 997
Mean
= 4.600
SD
= 2.540
Gallup World View (2012): study HK 2012 15+ aged general public Hong Kong, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.480
SD
= 1.930
Gallup World View (2012): study HU 2012 15+ aged general public Hungary, 2012 N = 1003
Mean
= 4.680
SD
= 2.090
Gallup World View (2012): study IS 2012 15+ aged general public Iceland, 2012 N = 995
Mean
= 7.590
SD
= 1.560
Gallup World View (2012): study ID 2012 /1 15+ aged general public Indonesia, 2012 N = 2978
Mean
= 5.360
SD
= 1.600
Gallup World View (2012): study IQ 2012 /1 15+ aged general public Iraq, 2012 N = 1988
Mean
= 4.650
SD
= 1.970
Gallup World View (2012): study IE 2012 15+ aged general public Ireland, 2012 N = 997
Mean
= 6.960
SD
= 1.870
Gallup World View (2012): study IL 2012 15+ aged general public Isreal, 2012 N = 993
Mean
= 7.110
SD
= 1.740
Gallup World View (2012): study JM 2011 15+ aged general public Jamaica, 2011 N = 491
Mean
= 5.370
SD
= 2.330
Gallup World View (2012): study JP 2012 /1 15+ aged general public Japan, 2012 N = 1991
Mean
= 5.960
SD
= 1.900
Gallup World View (2012): study KZ 2012 15+ aged general public Kazakhstan, 2012 N = 969
Mean
= 5.750
SD
= 1.960
Gallup World View (2012): study KR 2012 /1 15+ aged general public Korea (south), 2012 N = 1969
Mean
= 6.000
SD
= 2.070
Gallup World View (2012): study KW 2012 15+ aged general public Kuwait, 2012 N = 997
Mean
= 6.220
SD
= 1.610
Gallup World View (2012): study KG 2012 15+ aged general public Kyrgyzstan, 2012 N = 995
Mean
= 5.200
SD
= 1.580
Gallup World View (2012): study LA 2012 15+ aged general public Laos, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.870
SD
= 1.690
Gallup World View (2012): study LV 2012 15+ aged general public Latvia, 2012 N = 993
Mean
= 5.120
SD
= 1.890
Gallup World View (2012): study LB 2012 /1 15+ aged general public Lebanon, 2012 N = 2010
Mean
= 4.570
SD
= 2.320
Gallup World View (2012): study LR 2011 15+ aged general public Liberia, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.200
Gallup World View (2012): study LY 2012 /1 15+ aged general public Libya, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.800
Gallup World View (2012): study LT 2012 15+ aged general public Lithuania, 2012 N = 987
Mean
= 5.770
SD
= 1.840
Gallup World View (2012): study LU 2012 15+ aged general public Luxembourg, 2012 N = 994
Mean
= 6.960
SD
= 1.780
Gallup World View (2012): study MK 2012 15+ aged general public Macedonia, 2012 N = 1020
Mean
= 4.630
SD
= 2.170
Gallup World View (2012): study MG 2013 15+ aged general public Madagascar, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.810
Gallup World View (2012): study MW 2012 15+ aged general public Malawi, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.270
SD
= 2.840
Gallup World View (2012): study MY 2012 15+ aged general public Malaysia, 2012 N = 998
Mean
= 5.910
SD
= 1.560
Gallup World View (2012): study ML 2012 15+ aged general public Mali, 2012 N = 999
Mean
= 4.310
SD
= 2.040
Gallup World View (2012): study MT 2012 15+ aged general public Malta, 2012 N = 995
Mean
= 5.960
SD
= 2.180
Gallup World View (2012): study MR 2012 /1 15+ aged general public Mauritania, 2012 N = 996
Mean
= 4.670
SD
= 1.350
Gallup World View (2012): study MX 2012 /1 15+ aged general public Mexico, 2012 N = 1977
Mean
= 7.320
SD
= 2.070
Gallup World View (2012): study MD 2012 15+ aged general public Moldova, 2012 N = 963
Mean
= 5.990
SD
= 1.900
Gallup World View (2012): study MN 2012 15+ aged general public Mongolia, 2012 N = 993
Mean
= 4.880
SD
= 1.570
Gallup World View (2012): study ME 2012 15+ aged general public Montenegro, 2012 N = 996
Mean
= 5.210
SD
= 2.300
Gallup World View (2012): study MZ 2011 15+ aged general public Mozambique, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.970
SD
= 2.110
Gallup World View (2012): study MM 2012 15+ aged general public Myanmar, 2012 N = 1016
Mean
= 4.430
SD
= 1.730
Gallup World View (2012): study NP 2012 /1 15+ aged general public Nepal, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.230
SD
= 1.770
Gallup World View (2012): study NL 2012 15+ aged general public Netherlands, 2012 N = 999
Mean
= 7.470
SD
= 1.350
Gallup World View (2012): study NZ 2013 15+ aged general public New Zealand, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.280
Gallup World View (2012): study NE 2012 15+ aged general public Niger, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.790
SD
= 1.310
Gallup World View (2012): study NG 2012 /1 15+ aged general public Nigeria, 2012 N = 1995
Mean
= 5.490
SD
= 1.730
Gallup World View (2012): study NO 2012 15+ aged general public Norway, 2012 N = 994
Mean
= 7.670
SD
= 1.740
Gallup World View (2012): study PK 2012 /1 15+ aged general public Pakistan, 2012 N = 3006
Mean
= 5.130
SD
= 2.170
Gallup World View (2012): study PS 2012 /1 15+ aged general public Palestina, 2012 N = 1994
Mean
= 4.640
SD
= 2.200
Gallup World View (2012): study PA 2012 15+ aged general public Panama 2012 N = 999
Mean
= 6.850
SD
= 2.300
Gallup World View (2012): study PY 2012 15+ aged general public Paraguay, 2012 N = 997
Mean
= 5.820
SD
= 1.700
Gallup World View (2012): study PE 2012 15+ aged general public Peru , 2012 N = 993
Mean
= 5.820
SD
= 2.090
Gallup World View (2012): study PH 2012 /1 15+ aged general public Philippines ,2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.000
SD
= 2.470
Gallup World View (2012): study PL 2012 15+ aged general public Poland, 2012 N = 986
Mean
= 5.870
SD
= 1.880
Gallup World View (2012): study PT 2012 15+ aged general public Portugal, 2012 N = 977
Mean
= 4.990
SD
= 2.490
Gallup World View (2012): study RO 2012 15+ aged general public Romania, 2012 N = 986
Mean
= 5.160
SD
= 2.440
Gallup World View (2012): study RU 2012 /1 15+ aged general public Russia, 2012 N = 2000
Mean
= 5.600
Gallup World View (2012): study RW 2012 15+ aged general public Rwanda , 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.330
SD
= 1.540
Gallup World View (2012): study SA 2012 /1 15+ aged general public Saudi Arabia, 2012 N = 2111
Mean
= 6.460
SD
= 2.220
Gallup World View (2012): study SN 2012 /1 15+ aged general public Senegal, 2012 N = 998
Mean
= 3.660
SD
= 1.700
Gallup World View (2012): study RS 2012 15+ aged general public Serbia, 2012 N = 1017
Mean
= 5.150
SD
= 2.450
Gallup World View (2012): study SL 2011 15+ aged general public Sierra Leone, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.500
Gallup World View (2012): study SG 2012 15+ aged general public Singapore, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.530
SD
= 1.510
Gallup World View (2012): study SI 2012 15+ aged general public Slovenia, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.060
Gallup World View (2012): study ZA 2012 /1 15+ aged general public South-Africa, 2012 N = 1998
Mean
= 5.130
SD
= 2.170
Gallup World View (2012): study ES 2012 /1 15+ aged general public Spain, 2012 N = 1999
Mean
= 6.290
SD
= 2.030
Gallup World View (2012): study LK 2012 /1 15+ aged general public Sri Lanka, 2012 N = 2001
Mean
= 4.220
SD
= 1.810
Gallup World View (2012): study SD 2012 15+ aged general public Sudan, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.550
SD
= 1.590
Gallup World View (2012): study SR 2012 15+ aged general public Surinam, 2012 N = 490
Mean
= 6.260
SD
= 1.940
Gallup World View (2012): study SE 2012 15+ aged general public Sweden, 2012 N = 997
Mean
= 7.560
SD
= 1.580
Gallup World View (2012): study CH 2012 15+ aged general public Switzerland, 2012 N = 997
Mean
= 7.770
SD
= 1.560
Gallup World View (2012): study SY 2012 /1 15+ aged general public Syria, 2012 N = 2000
Mean
= 3.160
SD
= 2.500
Gallup World View (2012): study TW 2012 15+ aged general public Taiwan, 2012 N = 995
Mean
= 6.120
SD
= 2.030
Gallup World View (2012): study TJ 2012 15+ aged general public Tajikistan, 2012 N = 995
Mean
= 4.490
SD
= 1.140
Gallup World View (2012): study TZ 2012 15+ aged general public Tanzania, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.000
SD
= 1.910
Gallup World View (2012): study TH 2012 /1 15+ aged general public Thailand, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.300
SD
= 1.760
Gallup World View (2012): study TG 2011 15+ aged general public Togo, 2011 N = 999
Mean
= 2.930
SD
= 1.950
Gallup World View (2012): study TN 2012 15+ aged general public Tunisia, 2012 N = 2029
Mean
= 4.460
SD
= 2.110
Gallup World View (2012): study TM 2012 15+ aged general public Turkmenistan, 2012 N = 993
Mean
= 5.460
SD
= 1.870
Gallup World View (2012): study UG 2012 15+ aged general public Uganda, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.300
SD
= 1.750
Gallup World View (2012): study UA 2012 15+ aged general public Ukraine, 2012 N = 970
Mean
= 5.030
SD
= 1.970
Gallup World View (2012): study AE 2012 15+ aged general public United Arab Emirates, 2012 N = 2010
Mean
= 7.210
SD
= 1.690
Gallup World View (2012): study GB 2012 15+ aged general public United Kingdom, 2012 N = 13298
Mean
= 6.880
SD
= 1.870
Gallup World View (2012): study UY 2012 15+ aged general public Uruguay, 2012 N = 994
Mean
= 6.440
SD
= 2.310
Gallup World View (2012): study UZ 2012 15+ aged general public Uzbekistan, 2012 N = 992
Mean
= 6.010
SD
= 2.020
Gallup World View (2012): study VE 2012 15+ aged general public Venezuela, 2012 N = 987
Mean
= 7.060
SD
= 2.320
Gallup World View (2012): study VN 2012 15+ aged general public Vietnam, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.500
Gallup World View (2012): study ZM 2012 15+ aged general public Zambia, 2012 N = 997
Mean
= 5.010
SD
= 2.200
Gallup World View (2012): study ZW 2013 15+ aged general public Zimbabwe, 2013 N = 994
Mean
= 4.700
Diener et al. (2012a): study ZZ World samples 2005 15+ aged general public, 135 nation followed at least 3 years, 2005-2011 N = 806526
Mean
= 5.440
SD
= 1.090
Easterlin et al. (2011): study ZZ 2005 15+ aged general public, 80 countries,2005-2008 N = 212000
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AF 2008 15+ aged general public, Afghanistan, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.720
SD
= 1.770
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AF 2009 15+ aged general public, Afghanistan, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.400
SD
= 1.720
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AF 2010 15+ aged general public, Afghanistan, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.760
SD
= 1.880
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AF 2011 15+ aged general public, Afghanistan, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.830
SD
= 1.790
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AF 2012 15+ aged general public, Afghanistan, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.780
SD
= 1.800
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AF 2013 15+ aged general public, Afghanistan, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.570
SD
= 1.220
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AF 2014 15+ aged general public, Afghanistan, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.130
SD
= 1.400
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AF 2015 15+ aged general public, Afghanistan, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.980
SD
= 2.160
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AF 2016 15+ aged general public, Afghanistan, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.220
SD
= 1.800
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AF 2017 15+ aged general public, Afghanistan, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 2.662
SD
= 1.454
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AF 2018 15+ aged general public, Afghanistan, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 2.694
SD
= 1.408
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AF 2019 15+ aged general public, Afghanistan, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 2.380
SD
= 1.410
Helliwell et al. (2021): study AL 2020 15+ aged general public, Albania 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.370
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AL 2007 15+ aged general public, Albania, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.630
SD
= 1.760
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AL 2009 15+ aged general public, Albania, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.490
SD
= 1.920
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AL 2010 15+ aged general public, Albania, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.270
SD
= 1.860
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AL 2011 15+ aged general public, Albania, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.870
SD
= 1.850
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AL 2012 15+ aged general public, Albania, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.510
SD
= 1.920
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AL 2013 15+ aged general public, Albania, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.550
SD
= 2.320
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AL 2014 15+ aged general public, Albania, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.810
SD
= 2.660
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AL 2015 15+ aged general public, Albania, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.610
SD
= 2.730
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AL 2016 15+ aged general public, Albania, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.510
SD
= 2.650
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AL 2017 15+ aged general public, Albania, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.640
SD
= 2.680
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AL 2018 15+ aged general public, Albania, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.000
SD
= 2.640
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AL 2019 15+ aged general public, Albania, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.000
SD
= 2.610
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DZ 2010 15+ aged general public, Algeria, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.460
SD
= 1.630
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DZ 2011 15+ aged general public, Algeria, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.320
SD
= 1.660
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DZ 2012 15+ aged general public, Algeria, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.600
SD
= 1.940
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DZ 2014 15+ aged general public, Algeria, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.350
SD
= 1.630
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DZ 2016 15+ aged general public, Algeria, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.340
SD
= 2.110
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DZ 2017 15+ aged general public, Algeria, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.250
SD
= 2.040
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DZ 2018 15+ aged general public, Algeria, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.040
SD
= 1.970
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DZ 2019 15+ aged general public, Algeria, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.740
SD
= 1.800
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AO 2011 15+ aged general public, Angola, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.590
SD
= 2.210
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AO 2012 15+ aged general public, Angola, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.360
SD
= 2.150
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AO 2013 15+ aged general public, Angola, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.940
SD
= 2.330
Helliwell et al. (2021): study AR 2020 15+ aged general public, Argentina 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.901
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AR 2006 15+ aged general public, Argentina, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.310
SD
= 1.980
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AR 2007 15+ aged general public, Argentina, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.070
SD
= 2.040
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AR 2008 15+ aged general public, Argentina, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.960
SD
= 2.150
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AR 2009 15+ aged general public, Argentina, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.420
SD
= 2.070
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AR 2010 15+ aged general public, Argentina, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.440
SD
= 2.110
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AR 2011 15+ aged general public, Argentina, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.780
SD
= 1.990
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AR 2012 15+ aged general public, Argentina, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.470
SD
= 2.100
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AR 2013 15+ aged general public, Argentina, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.580
SD
= 1.990
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AR 2014 15+ aged general public, Argentina, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.670
SD
= 2.130
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AR 2015 15+ aged general public, Argentina, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.700
SD
= 1.950
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AR 2016 15+ aged general public, Argentina, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.430
SD
= 2.130
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AR 2017 15+ aged general public, Argentina, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.040
SD
= 2.410
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AR 2018 15+ aged general public, Argentina, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.790
SD
= 2.470
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AR 2019 15+ aged general public, Argentina, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.090
SD
= 2.260
Averina, M. et al. (2005): study RU Archangelsk 1999 15+ aged general public, Arkhangelsk, Russia, 2000 N = 3705
Mean
= 5.550
SD
= 1.800
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AM 2006 15+ aged general public, Armenia, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.290
SD
= 1.990
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AM 2008 15+ aged general public, Armenia, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.650
SD
= 1.950
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AM 2009 15+ aged general public, Armenia, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.180
SD
= 2.180
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AM 2010 15+ aged general public, Armenia, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.370
SD
= 2.090
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AM 2011 15+ aged general public, Armenia, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.260
SD
= 1.950
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AM 2012 15+ aged general public, Armenia, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.320
SD
= 2.260
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AM 2013 15+ aged general public, Armenia, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.280
SD
= 2.130
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AM 2014 15+ aged general public, Armenia, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.450
SD
= 2.140
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AM 2015 15+ aged general public, Armenia, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.350
SD
= 2.240
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AM 2016 15+ aged general public, Armenia, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.330
SD
= 2.130
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AM 2017 15+ aged general public, Armenia, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.290
SD
= 2.330
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AM 2018 15+ aged general public, Armenia, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.060
SD
= 2.100
Helliwell et al. (2021): study AU 2020 15+ aged general public, Australia 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.137
Graham & Nikolova (2013a): study ZZ Australia and New Zealand 2010 15+ aged general public, Australia and New Zealand, 2010- 2012 N = 6000
Mean
= 7.390
SD
= 1.750
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AU 2005 15+ aged general public, Australia, 2005 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.340
SD
= 1.530
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AU 2007 15+ aged general public, Australia, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.290
SD
= 1.760
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AU 2008 15+ aged general public, Australia, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.250
SD
= 1.690
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AU 2010 15+ aged general public, Australia, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.450
SD
= 1.740
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AU 2011 15+ aged general public, Australia, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.410
SD
= 1.780
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AU 2012 15+ aged general public, Australia, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.200
SD
= 1.760
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AU 2013 15+ aged general public, Australia, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.360
SD
= 1.740
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AU 2014 15+ aged general public, Australia, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.290
SD
= 1.800
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AU 2015 15+ aged general public, Australia, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.310
SD
= 1.690
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AU 2016 15+ aged general public, Australia, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.250
SD
= 1.700
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AU 2017 15+ aged general public, Australia, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.260
SD
= 1.750
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AU 2018 15+ aged general public, Australia, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.180
SD
= 1.750
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AU 2019 15+ aged general public, Australia, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.230
SD
= 1.700
Helliwell et al. (2021): study AT 2020 15+ aged general public, Austria 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.213
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AT 2006 15+ aged general public, Austria, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.120
SD
= 1.760
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AT 2008 15+ aged general public, Austria, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.180
SD
= 1.690
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AT 2010 15+ aged general public, Austria, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.300
SD
= 1.750
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AT 2011 15+ aged general public, Austria, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.470
SD
= 1.850
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AT 2012 15+ aged general public, Austria, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.400
SD
= 1.720
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AT 2013 15+ aged general public, Austria, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.500
SD
= 1.860
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AT 2014 15+ aged general public, Austria, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.950
SD
= 1.840
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AT 2015 15+ aged general public, Austria, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.080
SD
= 1.760
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AT 2016 15+ aged general public, Austria, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.050
SD
= 1.700
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AT 2017 15+ aged general public, Austria, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.290
SD
= 1.560
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AT 2018 15+ aged general public, Austria, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.400
SD
= 1.550
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AT 2019 15+ aged general public, Austria, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.200
SD
= 1.550
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AZ 2006 15+ aged general public, Azerbaijan, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.730
SD
= 1.560
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AZ 2007 15+ aged general public, Azerbaijan, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.570
SD
= 1.610
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AZ 2008 15+ aged general public, Azerbaijan, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.820
SD
= 1.890
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AZ 2009 15+ aged general public, Azerbaijan, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.570
SD
= 1.890
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AZ 2010 15+ aged general public, Azerbaijan, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.220
SD
= 1.890
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AZ 2011 15+ aged general public, Azerbaijan, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.680
SD
= 1.880
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AZ 2012 15+ aged general public, Azerbaijan, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.910
SD
= 1.890
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AZ 2013 15+ aged general public, Azerbaijan, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.480
SD
= 1.440
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AZ 2014 15+ aged general public, Azerbaijan, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.250
SD
= 1.470
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AZ 2015 15+ aged general public, Azerbaijan, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.150
SD
= 1.700
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AZ 2016 15+ aged general public, Azerbaijan, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.300
SD
= 1.610
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AZ 2017 15+ aged general public, Azerbaijan, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.150
SD
= 1.670
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AZ 2018 15+ aged general public, Azerbaijan, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.170
SD
= 1.860
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AZ 2019 15+ aged general public, Azerbaijan, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.170
SD
= 1.350
Helliwell et al. (2021): study BH 2020 15+ aged general public, Bahrain 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.173
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BH 2009 15+ aged general public, Bahrain, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.700
SD
= 2.370
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BH 2010 15+ aged general public, Bahrain, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.940
SD
= 1.580
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BH 2011 15+ aged general public, Bahrain, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.820
SD
= 1.810
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BH 2012 15+ aged general public, Bahrain, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.030
SD
= 1.900
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BH 2013 15+ aged general public, Bahrain, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.690
SD
= 1.810
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BH 2014 15+ aged general public, Bahrain, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.170
SD
= 2.420
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BH 2015 15+ aged general public, Bahrain, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.010
SD
= 2.180
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BH 2016 15+ aged general public, Bahrain, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.170
SD
= 2.260
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BH 2017 15+ aged general public, Bahrain, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.230
SD
= 2.220
Helliwell et al. (2021): study BD 2020 15+ aged general public, Bangladesh 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.280
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BD 2006 15+ aged general public, Bangladesh, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.320
SD
= 1.760
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BD 2007 15+ aged general public, Bangladesh, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.610
SD
= 1.800
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BD 2008 15+ aged general public, Bangladesh, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.050
SD
= 1.760
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BD 2009 15+ aged general public, Bangladesh, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.080
SD
= 1.690
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BD 2010 15+ aged general public, Bangladesh, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.860
SD
= 1.930
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BD 2011 15+ aged general public, Bangladesh, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.990
SD
= 1.860
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BD 2012 15+ aged general public, Bangladesh, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.720
SD
= 1.930
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BD 2013 15+ aged general public, Bangladesh, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.660
SD
= 2.030
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BD 2014 15+ aged general public, Bangladesh, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.640
SD
= 1.900
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BD 2015 15+ aged general public, Bangladesh, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.630
SD
= 2.160
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BD 2016 15+ aged general public, Bangladesh, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.560
SD
= 1.980
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BD 2017 15+ aged general public, Bangladesh, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.310
SD
= 1.870
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BD 2018 15+ aged general public, Bangladesh, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.500
SD
= 2.160
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BD 2019 15+ aged general public, Bangladesh, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.110
SD
= 2.880
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BY 2006 15+ aged general public, Belarus, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.660
SD
= 1.770
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BY 2007 15+ aged general public, Belarus, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.620
SD
= 1.790
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BY 2008 15+ aged general public, Belarus, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.460
SD
= 1.800
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BY 2009 15+ aged general public, Belarus, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.560
SD
= 1.940
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BY 2010 15+ aged general public, Belarus, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.530
SD
= 1.850
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BY 2011 15+ aged general public, Belarus, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.230
SD
= 5.230
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BY 2012 15+ aged general public, Belarus, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.750
SD
= 2.040
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BY 2013 15+ aged general public, Belarus, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.880
SD
= 1.780
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BY 2014 15+ aged general public, Belarus, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.810
SD
= 1.880
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BY 2015 15+ aged general public, Belarus, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.720
SD
= 2.000
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BY 2016 15+ aged general public, Belarus, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.180
SD
= 1.780
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BY 2017 15+ aged general public, Belarus, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.550
SD
= 1.660
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BY 2018 15+ aged general public, Belarus, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.230
SD
= 1.690
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BY 2019 15+ aged general public, Belarus, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.820
SD
= 1.920
Helliwell et al. (2021): study BE 2020 15+ aged general public, Belgium 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.839
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BE 2005 15+ aged general public, Belgium, 2005 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.260
SD
= 1.500
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BE 2007 15+ aged general public, Belgium, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.220
SD
= 1.470
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BE 2008 15+ aged general public, Belgium, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.120
SD
= 1.530
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BE 2010 15+ aged general public, Belgium, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.850
SD
= 1.600
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BE 2011 15+ aged general public, Belgium, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.110
SD
= 1.630
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BE 2012 15+ aged general public, Belgium, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.940
SD
= 1.830
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BE 2013 15+ aged general public, Belgium, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.100
SD
= 1.500
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BE 2014 15+ aged general public, Belgium, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.860
SD
= 1.680
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BE 2015 15+ aged general public, Belgium, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.900
SD
= 1.510
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BE 2016 15+ aged general public, Belgium, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.950
SD
= 1.500
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BE 2017 15+ aged general public, Belgium, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.930
SD
= 1.510
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BE 2018 15+ aged general public, Belgium, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.890
SD
= 1.550
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BE 2019 15+ aged general public, Belgium, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.770
SD
= 1.610
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BZ 2007 15+ aged general public, Belize, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.450
SD
= 2.040
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BZ 2014 15+ aged general public, Belize, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.960
SD
= 2.460
Helliwell et al. (2021): study BJ 2020 15+ aged general public, Benin 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.408
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BJ 2006 15+ aged general public, Benin, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.330
SD
= 1.520
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BJ 2008 15+ aged general public, Benin, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.670
SD
= 1.730
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BJ 2011 15+ aged general public, Benin, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.870
SD
= 1.690
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BJ 2012 15+ aged general public, Benin, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.190
SD
= 1.640
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BJ 2013 15+ aged general public, Benin, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.480
SD
= 1.590
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BJ 2014 15+ aged general public, Benin, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.350
SD
= 1.690
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BJ 2015 15+ aged general public, Benin, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.620
SD
= 2.050
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BJ 2016 15+ aged general public, Benin, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.010
SD
= 2.190
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BJ 2017 15+ aged general public, Benin, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.850
SD
= 3.000
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BJ 2018 15+ aged general public, Benin, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.820
SD
= 3.310
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BJ 2019 15+ aged general public, Benin, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.980
SD
= 3.300
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BT 2013 15+ aged general public, Bhutan, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.570
SD
= 1.280
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BT 2014 15+ aged general public, Bhutan, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.940
SD
= 0.990
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BT 2015 15+ aged general public, Bhutan, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.080
SD
= 1.470
Helliwell et al. (2021): study BO 2020 15+ aged general public, Bolivia 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.559
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BO 2006 15+ aged general public, Bolivia, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.370
SD
= 1.820
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BO 2007 15+ aged general public, Bolivia, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.630
SD
= 1.940
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BO 2008 15+ aged general public, Bolivia, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.300
SD
= 1.880
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BO 2009 15+ aged general public, Bolivia, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.090
SD
= 1.980
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BO 2010 15+ aged general public, Bolivia, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.780
SD
= 1.760
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BO 2011 15+ aged general public, Bolivia, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.780
SD
= 1.730
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BO 2012 15+ aged general public, Bolivia, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.020
SD
= 2.170
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BO 2013 15+ aged general public, Bolivia, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.770
SD
= 1.980
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BO 2014 15+ aged general public, Bolivia, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.860
SD
= 1.840
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BO 2015 15+ aged general public, Bolivia, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.830
SD
= 1.860
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BO 2016 15+ aged general public, Bolivia, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.770
SD
= 2.050
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BO 2017 15+ aged general public, Bolivia, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.650
SD
= 2.250
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BO 2018 15+ aged general public, Bolivia, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.920
SD
= 2.200
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BO 2019 15+ aged general public, Bolivia, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.670
SD
= 2.250
Helliwell et al. (2021): study BA 2020 15+ aged general public, Bosnia Herzegovina 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.516
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BA 2017 15+ aged general public, Bosnia Herzegovina, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.090
SD
= 2.280
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BA 2018 15+ aged general public, Bosnia Herzegovina, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.890
SD
= 1.990
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BA 2019 15+ aged general public, Bosnia Herzegovina, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.020
SD
= 2.260
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BA 2007 15+ aged general public, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.900
SD
= 2.290
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BA 2010 15+ aged general public, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.670
SD
= 1.970
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BA 2011 15+ aged general public, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.990
SD
= 2.050
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BA 2012 15+ aged general public, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.770
SD
= 2.410
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BA 2013 15+ aged general public, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.120
SD
= 2.220
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BA 2014 15+ aged general public, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.250
SD
= 2.240
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BA 2015 15+ aged general public, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.120
SD
= 2.430
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BA 2016 15+ aged general public, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.180
SD
= 2.220
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BA 2009 15+ aged general public, Bosnia and Herzegovnia, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.960
SD
= 2.110
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BW 2006 15+ aged general public, Botswana, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.740
SD
= 2.090
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BW 2008 15+ aged general public, Botswana, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.450
SD
= 2.400
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BW 2010 15+ aged general public, Botswana, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.550
SD
= 1.940
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BW 2011 15+ aged general public, Botswana, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.520
SD
= 1.960
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BW 2012 15+ aged general public, Botswana, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.840
SD
= 1.990
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BW 2013 15+ aged general public, Botswana, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.130
SD
= 2.120
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BW 2014 15+ aged general public, Botswana, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.030
SD
= 2.360
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BW 2015 15+ aged general public, Botswana, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.760
SD
= 2.290
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BW 2016 15+ aged general public, Botswana, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.500
SD
= 2.690
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BW 2017 15+ aged general public, Botswana, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.500
SD
= 2.670
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BW 2018 15+ aged general public, Botswana, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.460
SD
= 2.640
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BW 2019 15+ aged general public, Botswana, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.470
SD
= 2.610
Helliwell et al. (2021): study BR 2020 15+ aged general public, Brazil 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.110
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BR 2005 15+ aged general public, Brazil, 2005 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.640
SD
= 2.440
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BR 2007 15+ aged general public, Brazil, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.320
SD
= 2.250
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BR 2008 15+ aged general public, Brazil, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.690
SD
= 2.270
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BR 2009 15+ aged general public, Brazil, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.000
SD
= 2.240
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BR 2010 15+ aged general public, Brazil, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.840
SD
= 2.260
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BR 2011 15+ aged general public, Brazil, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.040
SD
= 2.040
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BR 2012 15+ aged general public, Brazil, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.660
SD
= 2.400
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BR 2013 15+ aged general public, Brazil, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.140
SD
= 2.190
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BR 2014 15+ aged general public, Brazil, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.980
SD
= 2.110
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BR 2015 15+ aged general public, Brazil, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.550
SD
= 2.260
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BR 2016 15+ aged general public, Brazil, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.370
SD
= 2.520
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BR 2017 15+ aged general public, Brazil, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.330
SD
= 2.530
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BR 2018 15+ aged general public, Brazil, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.190
SD
= 2.640
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BR 2019 15+ aged general public, Brazil, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.450
SD
= 2.490
Helliwell et al. (2021): study BG 2020 15+ aged general public, Bulgaria 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.598
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BG 2007 15+ aged general public, Bulgaria, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.840
SD
= 1.950
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BG 2010 15+ aged general public, Bulgaria, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.910
SD
= 1.970
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BG 2011 15+ aged general public, Bulgaria, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.880
SD
= 1.990
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BG 2012 15+ aged general public, Bulgaria, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.220
SD
= 2.170
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BG 2013 15+ aged general public, Bulgaria, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.990
SD
= 2.120
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BG 2014 15+ aged general public, Bulgaria, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.440
SD
= 2.000
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BG 2015 15+ aged general public, Bulgaria, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.870
SD
= 2.200
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BG 2016 15+ aged general public, Bulgaria, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.840
SD
= 1.920
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BG 2017 15+ aged general public, Bulgaria, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.100
SD
= 1.850
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BG 2018 15+ aged general public, Bulgaria, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.100
SD
= 2.040
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BG 2019 15+ aged general public, Bulgaria, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.110
SD
= 2.050
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BF 2006 15+ aged general public, Burkina Faso, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.800
SD
= 1.570
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BF 2007 15+ aged general public, Burkina Faso, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.020
SD
= 1.280
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BF 2008 15+ aged general public, Burkina Faso, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.850
SD
= 1.420
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BF 2010 15+ aged general public, Burkina Faso, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.040
SD
= 1.400
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BF 2011 15+ aged general public, Burkina Faso, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.790
SD
= 1.610
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BF 2012 15+ aged general public, Burkina Faso, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.960
SD
= 1.760
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BF 2013 15+ aged general public, Burkina Faso, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.330
SD
= 1.680
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BF 2014 15+ aged general public, Burkina Faso, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.480
SD
= 2.150
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BF 2015 15+ aged general public, Burkina Faso, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.420
SD
= 2.010
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BF 2016 15+ aged general public, Burkina Faso, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.210
SD
= 1.970
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BF 2017 15+ aged general public, Burkina Faso, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.650
SD
= 2.200
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BF 2018 15+ aged general public, Burkina Faso, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.930
SD
= 2.650
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BF 2019 15+ aged general public, Burkina Faso, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.740
SD
= 2.850
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BI 2008 15+ aged general public, Burundi, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.560
SD
= 1.540
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BI 2009 15+ aged general public, Burundi, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.790
SD
= 1.500
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BI 2011 15+ aged general public, Burundi, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.710
SD
= 1.750
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BI 2014 15+ aged general public, Burundi, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 2.900
SD
= 2.220
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BI 2018 15+ aged general public, Burundi, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.780
SD
= 2.820
Helliwell et al. (2021): study KH 2020 15+ aged general public, Cambodia 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.377
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KH 2006 15+ aged general public, Cambodia, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.570
SD
= 1.680
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KH 2007 15+ aged general public, Cambodia, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.160
SD
= 1.240
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KH 2008 15+ aged general public, Cambodia, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.460
SD
= 1.430
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KH 2009 15+ aged general public, Cambodia, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.110
SD
= 1.310
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KH 2010 15+ aged general public, Cambodia, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.140
SD
= 1.480
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KH 2011 15+ aged general public, Cambodia, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.160
SD
= 1.330
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KH 2012 15+ aged general public, Cambodia, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.900
SD
= 1.700
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KH 2013 15+ aged general public, Cambodia, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.670
SD
= 2.040
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KH 2014 15+ aged general public, Cambodia, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.880
SD
= 2.570
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KH 2015 15+ aged general public, Cambodia, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.160
SD
= 2.490
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KH 2016 15+ aged general public, Cambodia, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.460
SD
= 2.560
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KH 2017 15+ aged general public, Cambodia, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.590
SD
= 2.730
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KH 2018 15+ aged general public, Cambodia, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.120
SD
= 2.910
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KH 2019 15+ aged general public, Cambodia, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.000
SD
= 2.830
Helliwell et al. (2021): study CM 2020 15+ aged general public, Cameroon 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.241
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CM 2006 15+ aged general public, Cameroon, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.850
SD
= 1.860
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CM 2007 15+ aged general public, Cameroon, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.350
SD
= 1.640
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CM 2008 15+ aged general public, Cameroon, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.290
SD
= 1.770
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CM 2009 15+ aged general public, Cameroon, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.740
SD
= 1.860
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CM 2010 15+ aged general public, Cameroon, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.550
SD
= 1.600
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CM 2011 15+ aged general public, Cameroon, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.430
SD
= 1.940
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CM 2012 15+ aged general public, Cameroon, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.240
SD
= 2.240
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CM 2013 15+ aged general public, Cameroon, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.270
SD
= 2.060
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CM 2014 15+ aged general public, Cameroon, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.240
SD
= 2.110
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CM 2015 15+ aged general public, Cameroon, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.040
SD
= 2.520
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CM 2016 15+ aged general public, Cameroon, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.820
SD
= 2.360
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CM 2017 15+ aged general public, Cameroon, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.070
SD
= 2.820
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CM 2018 15+ aged general public, Cameroon, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.250
SD
= 2.920
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CM 2019 15+ aged general public, Cameroon, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.940
SD
= 2.740
Helliwell et al. (2021): study CA 2020 15+ aged general public, Canada 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.025
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CA 2005 15+ aged general public, Canada, 2005 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.420
SD
= 1.640
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CA 2007 15+ aged general public, Canada, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.480
SD
= 1.820
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CA 2008 15+ aged general public, Canada, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.490
SD
= 1.620
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CA 2009 15+ aged general public, Canada, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.490
SD
= 1.610
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CA 2010 15+ aged general public, Canada, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.650
SD
= 1.750
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CA 2011 15+ aged general public, Canada, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.430
SD
= 1.820
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CA 2012 15+ aged general public, Canada, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.420
SD
= 1.770
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CA 2013 15+ aged general public, Canada, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.590
SD
= 1.660
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CA 2014 15+ aged general public, Canada, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.300
SD
= 1.760
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CA 2015 15+ aged general public, Canada, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.410
SD
= 1.610
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CA 2016 15+ aged general public, Canada, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.240
SD
= 1.780
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CA 2017 15+ aged general public, Canada, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.410
SD
= 1.600
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CA 2018 15+ aged general public, Canada, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.180
SD
= 1.760
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CA 2019 15+ aged general public, Canada, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.110
SD
= 1.780
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CF 2007 15+ aged general public, Central African Republic, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.160
SD
= 1.660
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CF 2010 15+ aged general public, Central African Republic, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.570
SD
= 1.500
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CF 2011 15+ aged general public, Central African Republic, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.680
SD
= 1.710
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CF 2016 15+ aged general public, Central African Republic, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 2.690
SD
= 2.250
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CF 2017 15+ aged general public, Central African Republic, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.480
SD
= 2.810
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TD 2006 15+ aged general public, Chad, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.430
SD
= 1.710
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TD 2007 15+ aged general public, Chad, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.140
SD
= 1.570
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TD 2008 15+ aged general public, Chad, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.630
SD
= 1.350
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TD 2009 15+ aged general public, Chad, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.640
SD
= 1.300
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TD 2010 15+ aged general public, Chad, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.740
SD
= 1.340
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TD 2011 15+ aged general public, Chad, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.390
SD
= 1.740
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TD 2012 15+ aged general public, Chad, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.030
SD
= 1.580
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TD 2013 15+ aged general public, Chad, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.510
SD
= 1.640
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TD 2014 15+ aged general public, Chad, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.460
SD
= 1.610
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TD 2015 15+ aged general public, Chad, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.320
SD
= 2.340
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TD 2016 15+ aged general public, Chad, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.030
SD
= 2.440
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TD 2017 15+ aged general public, Chad, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.560
SD
= 2.880
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TD 2018 15+ aged general public, Chad, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.490
SD
= 3.110
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TD 2019 15+ aged general public, Chad, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.250
SD
= 3.140
Helliwell et al. (2021): study CL 2020 15+ aged general public, Chile 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.151
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CL 2006 15+ aged general public, Chile, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.060
SD
= 2.210
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CL 2007 15+ aged general public, Chile, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.700
SD
= 2.170
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CL 2008 15+ aged general public, Chile, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.790
SD
= 2.390
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CL 2009 15+ aged general public, Chile, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.490
SD
= 2.210
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CL 2010 15+ aged general public, Chile, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.640
SD
= 2.180
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CL 2011 15+ aged general public, Chile, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.530
SD
= 2.070
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CL 2012 15+ aged general public, Chile, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.600
SD
= 2.120
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CL 2013 15+ aged general public, Chile, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.740
SD
= 2.100
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CL 2014 15+ aged general public, Chile, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.840
SD
= 2.060
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CL 2015 15+ aged general public, Chile, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.530
SD
= 1.940
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CL 2016 15+ aged general public, Chile, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.580
SD
= 1.990
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CL 2017 15+ aged general public, Chile, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.320
SD
= 2.160
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CL 2018 15+ aged general public, Chile, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.440
SD
= 2.150
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CL 2019 15+ aged general public, Chile, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.940
SD
= 2.120
Helliwell et al. (2021): study CN 2020 15+ aged general public, China 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.771
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CN 2006 15+ aged general public, China, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.560
SD
= 1.970
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CN 2007 15+ aged general public, China, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.860
SD
= 1.780
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CN 2008 15+ aged general public, China, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.850
SD
= 1.800
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CN 2009 15+ aged general public, China, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.450
SD
= 1.830
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CN 2010 15+ aged general public, China, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.650
SD
= 1.880
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CN 2011 15+ aged general public, China, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.040
SD
= 1.880
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CN 2012 15+ aged general public, China, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.090
SD
= 2.080
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CN 2013 15+ aged general public, China, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.240
SD
= 1.880
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CN 2014 15+ aged general public, China, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.200
SD
= 1.780
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CN 2015 15+ aged general public, China, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.300
SD
= 2.070
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CN 2016 15+ aged general public, China, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.320
SD
= 2.000
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CN 2017 15+ aged general public, China, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.100
SD
= 2.270
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CN 2018 15+ aged general public, China, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.130
SD
= 2.260
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CN 2019 15+ aged general public, China, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.140
SD
= 2.250
Helliwell et al. (2021): study CO 2020 15+ aged general public, Colombia 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.709
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CO 2006 15+ aged general public, Colombia, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.020
SD
= 2.400
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CO 2007 15+ aged general public, Colombia, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.140
SD
= 2.450
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CO 2008 15+ aged general public, Colombia, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.170
SD
= 2.400
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CO 2009 15+ aged general public, Colombia, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.270
SD
= 2.470
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CO 2010 15+ aged general public, Colombia, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.410
SD
= 2.560
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CO 2011 15+ aged general public, Colombia, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.460
SD
= 2.370
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CO 2012 15+ aged general public, Colombia, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.370
SD
= 2.530
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CO 2013 15+ aged general public, Colombia, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.610
SD
= 2.400
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CO 2014 15+ aged general public, Colombia, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.450
SD
= 2.300
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CO 2015 15+ aged general public, Colombia, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.390
SD
= 2.250
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CO 2016 15+ aged general public, Colombia, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.230
SD
= 2.570
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CO 2017 15+ aged general public, Colombia, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.160
SD
= 2.540
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CO 2018 15+ aged general public, Colombia, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.980
SD
= 2.680
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CO 2019 15+ aged general public, Colombia, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.350
SD
= 2.700
Graham & Nikolova (2013a): study ZZ Commonwealth of Independant States 2010 15+ aged general public, Commonwealth of Independant States, 2010- 2012 N = 100000
Mean
= 5.080
SD
= 1.200
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KM 2009 15+ aged general public, Comoros, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.480
SD
= 1.470
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KM 2010 15+ aged general public, Comoros, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.810
SD
= 1.660
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KM 2011 15+ aged general public, Comoros, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.840
SD
= 1.350
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KM 2012 15+ aged general public, Comoros, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.960
SD
= 1.390
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KM 2018 15+ aged general public, Comoros, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.970
SD
= 2.880
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KM 2019 15+ aged general public, Comoros, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.610
SD
= 3.230
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CG 2008 15+ aged general public, Congo (Brazzaville), 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.820
SD
= 2.000
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CG 2011 15+ aged general public, Congo (Brazzaville), 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.510
SD
= 1.960
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CG 2012 15+ aged general public, Congo (Brazzaville), 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.920
SD
= 2.120
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CG 2013 15+ aged general public, Congo (Brazzaville), 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.950
SD
= 2.910
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CG 2014 15+ aged general public, Congo (Brazzaville), 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.060
SD
= 2.440
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CG 2015 15+ aged general public, Congo (Brazzaville), 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.690
SD
= 2.950
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CG 2016 15+ aged general public, Congo (Brazzaville), 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.120
SD
= 2.680
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CG 2017 15+ aged general public, Congo (Brazzaville), 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.880
SD
= 2.910
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CG 2018 15+ aged general public, Congo (Brazzaville), 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.490
SD
= 3.350
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CG 2019 15+ aged general public, Congo (Brazzaville), 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.210
SD
= 3.380
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CD 2009 15+ aged general public, Congo (Kinshasa), 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.980
SD
= 1.700
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CD 2011 15+ aged general public, Congo (Kinshasa), 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.520
SD
= 1.590
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CD 2012 15+ aged general public, Congo (Kinshasa), 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.640
SD
= 1.280
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CD 2013 15+ aged general public, Congo (Kinshasa), 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.500
SD
= 1.710
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CD 2014 15+ aged general public, Congo (Kinshasa), 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.410
SD
= 1.570
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CD 2015 15+ aged general public, Congo (Kinshasa), 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.900
SD
= 1.780
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CD 2016 15+ aged general public, Congo (Kinshasa), 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.520
SD
= 1.630
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CD 2017 15+ aged general public, Congo (Kinshasa), 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.310
SD
= 2.640
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CR 2006 15+ aged general public, Costa Rica, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.080
SD
= 2.090
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CR 2007 15+ aged general public, Costa Rica, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.430
SD
= 2.170
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CR 2008 15+ aged general public, Costa Rica, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.850
SD
= 1.980
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CR 2009 15+ aged general public, Costa Rica, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.610
SD
= 1.930
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CR 2010 15+ aged general public, Costa Rica, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.270
SD
= 1.940
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CR 2011 15+ aged general public, Costa Rica, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.230
SD
= 2.200
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CR 2012 15+ aged general public, Costa Rica, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.270
SD
= 2.140
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CR 2013 15+ aged general public, Costa Rica, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.160
SD
= 2.030
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CR 2014 15+ aged general public, Costa Rica, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.250
SD
= 2.190
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CR 2015 15+ aged general public, Costa Rica, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.850
SD
= 2.260
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CR 2016 15+ aged general public, Costa Rica, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.140
SD
= 2.140
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CR 2017 15+ aged general public, Costa Rica, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.230
SD
= 2.080
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CR 2018 15+ aged general public, Costa Rica, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.140
SD
= 2.150
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CR 2019 15+ aged general public, Costa Rica, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.000
SD
= 2.150
Helliwell et al. (2021): study HR 2020 15+ aged general public, Croatia 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.508
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HR 2007 15+ aged general public, Croatia, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.820
SD
= 2.120
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HR 2009 15+ aged general public, Croatia, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.430
SD
= 1.940
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HR 2010 15+ aged general public, Croatia, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.600
SD
= 1.990
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HR 2011 15+ aged general public, Croatia, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.390
SD
= 2.010
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HR 2012 15+ aged general public, Croatia, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.030
SD
= 2.060
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HR 2013 15+ aged general public, Croatia, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.890
SD
= 1.990
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HR 2014 15+ aged general public, Croatia, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.380
SD
= 1.940
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HR 2015 15+ aged general public, Croatia, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.210
SD
= 1.790
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HR 2016 15+ aged general public, Croatia, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.420
SD
= 1.930
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HR 2017 15+ aged general public, Croatia, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.340
SD
= 1.570
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HR 2018 15+ aged general public, Croatia, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.540
SD
= 1.700
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HR 2019 15+ aged general public, Croatia, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.630
SD
= 1.710
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CU 2006 15+ aged general public, Cuba, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.420
SD
= 2.130
Helliwell et al. (2021): study CY 2020 15+ aged general public, Cyprus 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.260
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CY 2006 15+ aged general public, Cyprus, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.240
SD
= 2.030
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CY 2009 15+ aged general public, Cyprus, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.830
SD
= 2.030
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CY 2010 15+ aged general public, Cyprus, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.390
SD
= 2.210
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CY 2011 15+ aged general public, Cyprus, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.690
SD
= 2.200
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CY 2012 15+ aged general public, Cyprus, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.180
SD
= 2.210
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CY 2013 15+ aged general public, Cyprus, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.440
SD
= 2.630
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CY 2014 15+ aged general public, Cyprus, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.630
SD
= 2.480
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CY 2015 15+ aged general public, Cyprus, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.440
SD
= 2.400
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CY 2016 15+ aged general public, Cyprus, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.790
SD
= 2.420
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CY 2017 15+ aged general public, Cyprus, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.060
SD
= 2.370
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CY 2018 15+ aged general public, Cyprus, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.280
SD
= 2.130
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CY 2019 15+ aged general public, Cyprus, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.140
SD
= 2.110
Helliwell et al. (2020): study XY Cyprus-Turkish 2012 15+ aged general public, Cyprus-Turkish, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.460
SD
= 2.740
Helliwell et al. (2020): study XY Cyprus-Turkish 2013 15+ aged general public, Cyprus-Turkish, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.570
SD
= 2.460
Helliwell et al. (2020): study XY Cyprus-Turkish 2014 15+ aged general public, Cyprus-Turkish, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.790
SD
= 2.340
Helliwell et al. (2020): study XY Cyprus-Turkish 2015 15+ aged general public, Cyprus-Turkish, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.840
SD
= 2.220
Helliwell et al. (2020): study XY Cyprus-Turkish 2016 15+ aged general public, Cyprus-Turkish, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.830
SD
= 1.860
Helliwell et al. (2020): study XY Cyprus-Turkish 2018 15+ aged general public, Cyprus-Turkish, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.610
SD
= 1.810
Helliwell et al. (2020): study XY Cyprus-Turkish 2019 15+ aged general public, Cyprus-Turkish, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.470
SD
= 1.950
Helliwell et al. (2021): study CZ 2020 15+ aged general public, Czech Republic 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.897
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CZ 2005 15+ aged general public, Czech Republic, 2005 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.440
SD
= 2.060
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CZ 2007 15+ aged general public, Czech Republic, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.500
SD
= 1.990
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CZ 2010 15+ aged general public, Czech Republic, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.250
SD
= 1.880
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CZ 2011 15+ aged general public, Czech Republic, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.330
SD
= 1.930
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CZ 2012 15+ aged general public, Czech Republic, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.330
SD
= 2.030
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CZ 2013 15+ aged general public, Czech Republic, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.700
SD
= 2.000
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CZ 2014 15+ aged general public, Czech Republic, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.480
SD
= 2.030
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CZ 2015 15+ aged general public, Czech Republic, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.610
SD
= 1.800
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CZ 2016 15+ aged general public, Czech Republic, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.740
SD
= 1.680
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CZ 2017 15+ aged general public, Czech Republic, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.790
SD
= 1.700
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CZ 2018 15+ aged general public, Czech Republic, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.030
SD
= 1.670
Helliwell et al. (2021): study DK 2020 15+ aged general public, Denmark 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.515
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DK 2005 15+ aged general public, Denmark, 2005 N = 1000
Mean
= 8.020
SD
= 1.340
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DK 2007 15+ aged general public, Denmark, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.830
SD
= 1.500
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DK 2008 15+ aged general public, Denmark, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.970
SD
= 1.410
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DK 2009 15+ aged general public, Denmark, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.680
SD
= 1.580
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DK 2010 15+ aged general public, Denmark, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.770
SD
= 1.520
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DK 2011 15+ aged general public, Denmark, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.790
SD
= 1.500
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DK 2012 15+ aged general public, Denmark, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.520
SD
= 1.700
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DK 2013 15+ aged general public, Denmark, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.590
SD
= 1.720
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DK 2014 15+ aged general public, Denmark, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.510
SD
= 1.670
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DK 2015 15+ aged general public, Denmark, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.510
SD
= 1.620
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DK 2016 15+ aged general public, Denmark, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.560
SD
= 1.610
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DK 2017 15+ aged general public, Denmark, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.590
SD
= 1.670
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DK 2018 15+ aged general public, Denmark, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.650
SD
= 1.650
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DK 2019 15+ aged general public, Denmark, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.690
SD
= 1.470
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DJ 2008 15+ aged general public, Djibouti, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.010
SD
= 1.500
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DJ 2009 15+ aged general public, Djibouti, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.910
SD
= 1.380
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DJ 2010 15+ aged general public, Djibouti, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.010
SD
= 2.150
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DJ 2011 15+ aged general public, Djibouti, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.370
SD
= 2.380
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DO 2011 15+ aged general public, Domican Republic, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.400
SD
= 3.000
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DO 2007 15+ aged general public, Dominican Rebublic, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.080
SD
= 2.850
Helliwell et al. (2021): study DO 2020 15+ aged general public, Dominican Republic 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.168
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DO 2006 15+ aged general public, Dominican Republic, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.090
SD
= 3.070
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DO 2008 15+ aged general public, Dominican Republic, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.840
SD
= 3.100
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DO 2009 15+ aged general public, Dominican Republic, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.430
SD
= 3.130
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DO 2010 15+ aged general public, Dominican Republic, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.740
SD
= 3.220
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DO 2012 15+ aged general public, Dominican Republic, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.750
SD
= 2.740
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DO 2013 15+ aged general public, Dominican Republic, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.020
SD
= 2.800
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DO 2014 15+ aged general public, Dominican Republic, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.390
SD
= 2.990
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DO 2015 15+ aged general public, Dominican Republic, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.060
SD
= 2.930
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DO 2016 15+ aged general public, Dominican Republic, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.240
SD
= 3.110
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DO 2017 15+ aged general public, Dominican Republic, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.610
SD
= 3.240
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DO 2018 15+ aged general public, Dominican Republic, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.430
SD
= 3.400
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DO 2019 15+ aged general public, Dominican Republic, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.000
SD
= 3.220
Graham & Nikolova (2013a): study ZZ East Asia 2010 15+ aged general public, East Asian countries, 2010- 2012 N = 100000
Mean
= 5.380
SD
= 2.020
Helliwell et al. (2021): study EC 2020 15+ aged general public, Ecuador 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.354
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EC 2006 15+ aged general public, Ecuador, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.020
SD
= 2.370
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EC 2007 15+ aged general public, Ecuador, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.000
SD
= 2.100
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EC 2008 15+ aged general public, Ecuador, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.300
SD
= 2.120
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EC 2009 15+ aged general public, Ecuador, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.020
SD
= 2.230
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EC 2010 15+ aged general public, Ecuador, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.840
SD
= 1.950
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EC 2011 15+ aged general public, Ecuador, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.800
SD
= 2.300
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EC 2012 15+ aged general public, Ecuador, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.960
SD
= 2.130
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EC 2013 15+ aged general public, Ecuador, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.020
SD
= 2.190
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EC 2014 15+ aged general public, Ecuador, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.950
SD
= 2.220
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EC 2015 15+ aged general public, Ecuador, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.960
SD
= 2.470
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EC 2016 15+ aged general public, Ecuador, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.120
SD
= 2.430
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EC 2017 15+ aged general public, Ecuador, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.840
SD
= 2.690
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EC 2018 15+ aged general public, Ecuador, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.130
SD
= 2.490
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EC 2019 15+ aged general public, Ecuador, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.810
SD
= 2.490
Helliwell et al. (2021): study EG 2020 15+ aged general public, Egypt 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.472
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EG 2005 15+ aged general public, Egypt, 2005 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.170
SD
= 2.660
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EG 2007 15+ aged general public, Egypt, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.540
SD
= 2.600
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EG 2008 15+ aged general public, Egypt, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.630
SD
= 2.380
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EG 2009 15+ aged general public, Egypt, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.070
SD
= 1.850
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EG 2010 15+ aged general public, Egypt, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.670
SD
= 2.110
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EG 2011 15+ aged general public, Egypt, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.170
SD
= 2.060
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EG 2012 15+ aged general public, Egypt, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.200
SD
= 2.050
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EG 2013 15+ aged general public, Egypt, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.560
SD
= 2.750
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EG 2014 15+ aged general public, Egypt, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.890
SD
= 2.210
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EG 2015 15+ aged general public, Egypt, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.760
SD
= 2.180
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EG 2016 15+ aged general public, Egypt, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.560
SD
= 2.060
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EG 2017 15+ aged general public, Egypt, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.930
SD
= 2.290
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EG 2018 15+ aged general public, Egypt, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.010
SD
= 2.020
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EG 2019 15+ aged general public, Egypt, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.330
SD
= 1.930
Helliwell et al. (2021): study SV 2020 15+ aged general public, El Salvador 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.462
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SV 2006 15+ aged general public, El Salvador, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.700
SD
= 2.190
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SV 2007 15+ aged general public, El Salvador, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.300
SD
= 2.190
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SV 2008 15+ aged general public, El Salvador, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.190
SD
= 2.120
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SV 2009 15+ aged general public, El Salvador, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.840
SD
= 1.930
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SV 2010 15+ aged general public, El Salvador, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.740
SD
= 2.160
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SV 2011 15+ aged general public, El Salvador, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.740
SD
= 2.580
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SV 2012 15+ aged general public, El Salvador, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.930
SD
= 2.340
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SV 2013 15+ aged general public, El Salvador, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.330
SD
= 2.260
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SV 2014 15+ aged general public, El Salvador, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.860
SD
= 2.580
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SV 2015 15+ aged general public, El Salvador, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.020
SD
= 2.580
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SV 2016 15+ aged general public, El Salvador, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.140
SD
= 2.600
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SV 2017 15+ aged general public, El Salvador, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.340
SD
= 2.480
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SV 2018 15+ aged general public, El Salvador, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.240
SD
= 2.660
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SV 2019 15+ aged general public, El Salvador, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.450
SD
= 2.740
Helliwell et al. (2021): study EE 2020 15+ aged general public, Estonia 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.453
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EE 2006 15+ aged general public, Estonia, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.370
SD
= 1.700
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EE 2007 15+ aged general public, Estonia, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.330
SD
= 1.700
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EE 2008 15+ aged general public, Estonia, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.450
SD
= 1.650
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EE 2009 15+ aged general public, Estonia, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.140
SD
= 1.900
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EE 2011 15+ aged general public, Estonia, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.490
SD
= 1.950
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EE 2012 15+ aged general public, Estonia, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.360
SD
= 1.960
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EE 2013 15+ aged general public, Estonia, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.370
SD
= 1.830
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EE 2014 15+ aged general public, Estonia, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.560
SD
= 1.860
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EE 2015 15+ aged general public, Estonia, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.630
SD
= 1.890
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EE 2016 15+ aged general public, Estonia, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.650
SD
= 1.750
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EE 2017 15+ aged general public, Estonia, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.940
SD
= 1.850
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EE 2018 15+ aged general public, Estonia, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.090
SD
= 1.760
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EE 2019 15+ aged general public, Estonia, 2019 N = 0
Mean
= 6.030
SD
= 1.840
Helliwell et al. (2021): study ET 2020 15+ aged general public, Ethiopia 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.549
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ET 2012 15+ aged general public, Ethiopia, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.560
SD
= 1.860
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ET 2013 15+ aged general public, Ethiopia, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.440
SD
= 1.770
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ET 2014 15+ aged general public, Ethiopia, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.510
SD
= 2.050
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ET 2015 15+ aged general public, Ethiopia, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.570
SD
= 1.870
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ET 2016 15+ aged general public, Ethiopia, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.300
SD
= 1.810
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ET 2017 15+ aged general public, Ethiopia, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.180
SD
= 1.830
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ET 2018 15+ aged general public, Ethiopia, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.380
SD
= 1.950
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ET 2019 15+ aged general public, Ethiopia, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.100
SD
= 2.310
Graham & Nikolova (2013a): study ZZ EU 27 2010 15+ aged general public, European Union 2010- 2012 N = 100000
Mean
= 6.170
SD
= 2.120
Graham & Nikolova (2013a): study ZZ Various nation sets 2010 15+ aged general public, Eurppean nations, other than EU and Balkans, 2010- 2012 N = 10000
Mean
= 7.500
SD
= 1.670
Helliwell et al. (2021): study FI 2020 15+ aged general public, Finland 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.889
Helliwell et al. (2020): study FI 2006 15+ aged general public, Finland, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.670
SD
= 1.360
Helliwell et al. (2020): study FI 2008 15+ aged general public, Finland, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.670
SD
= 1.420
Helliwell et al. (2020): study FI 2010 15+ aged general public, Finland, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.390
SD
= 1.670
Helliwell et al. (2020): study FI 2011 15+ aged general public, Finland, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.350
SD
= 1.610
Helliwell et al. (2020): study FI 2012 15+ aged general public, Finland, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.420
SD
= 1.630
Helliwell et al. (2020): study FI 2013 15+ aged general public, Finland, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.440
SD
= 1.560
Helliwell et al. (2020): study FI 2014 15+ aged general public, Finland, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.380
SD
= 1.610
Helliwell et al. (2020): study FI 2015 15+ aged general public, Finland, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.450
SD
= 1.570
Helliwell et al. (2020): study FI 2016 15+ aged general public, Finland, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.660
SD
= 1.480
Helliwell et al. (2020): study FI 2017 15+ aged general public, Finland, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.790
SD
= 1.420
Helliwell et al. (2020): study FI 2018 15+ aged general public, Finland, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.860
SD
= 1.430
Helliwell et al. (2020): study FI 2019 15+ aged general public, Finland, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.780
SD
= 1.430
Helliwell et al. (2021): study FR 2020 15+ aged general public, France 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.714
Helliwell et al. (2020): study FR 2005 15+ aged general public, France, 2005 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.090
SD
= 1.610
Helliwell et al. (2020): study FR 2006 15+ aged general public, France, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.580
SD
= 1.800
Helliwell et al. (2020): study FR 2008 15+ aged general public, France, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.010
SD
= 1.590
Helliwell et al. (2020): study FR 2009 15+ aged general public, France, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.280
SD
= 1.970
Helliwell et al. (2020): study FR 2010 15+ aged general public, France, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.800
SD
= 1.760
Helliwell et al. (2020): study FR 2011 15+ aged general public, France, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.960
SD
= 1.680
Helliwell et al. (2020): study FR 2012 15+ aged general public, France, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.650
SD
= 1.790
Helliwell et al. (2020): study FR 2013 15+ aged general public, France, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.670
SD
= 1.920
Helliwell et al. (2020): study FR 2014 15+ aged general public, France, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.470
SD
= 1.850
Helliwell et al. (2020): study FR 2015 15+ aged general public, France, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.360
SD
= 1.850
Helliwell et al. (2020): study FR 2016 15+ aged general public, France, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.480
SD
= 1.800
Helliwell et al. (2020): study FR 2017 15+ aged general public, France, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.640
SD
= 1.630
Helliwell et al. (2020): study FR 2018 15+ aged general public, France, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.670
SD
= 1.600
Helliwell et al. (2020): study FR 2019 15+ aged general public, France, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.690
SD
= 1.680
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GA 2011 15+ aged general public, Gabon, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.260
SD
= 1.940
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GA 2012 15+ aged general public, Gabon, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.970
SD
= 2.020
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GA 2013 15+ aged general public, Gabon, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.800
SD
= 1.870
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GA 2014 15+ aged general public, Gabon, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.920
SD
= 1.920
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GA 2015 15+ aged general public, Gabon, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.660
SD
= 2.080
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GA 2016 15+ aged general public, Gabon, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.830
SD
= 2.210
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GA 2017 15+ aged general public, Gabon, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.780
SD
= 2.460
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GA 2018 15+ aged general public, Gabon, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.780
SD
= 2.620
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GA 2019 15+ aged general public, Gabon, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.910
SD
= 2.620
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GM 2017 15+ aged general public, Gambia, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.120
SD
= 2.480
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GM 2018 15+ aged general public, Gambia, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.920
SD
= 3.160
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GM 2019 15+ aged general public, Gambia, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.160
SD
= 3.450
Helliwell et al. (2021): study GE 2020 15+ aged general public, Georgia 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.123
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GE 2006 15+ aged general public, Georgia, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.680
SD
= 1.930
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GE 2007 15+ aged general public, Georgia, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.710
SD
= 1.820
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GE 2008 15+ aged general public, Georgia, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.160
SD
= 1.900
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GE 2009 15+ aged general public, Georgia, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.800
SD
= 2.010
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GE 2010 15+ aged general public, Georgia, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.100
SD
= 1.870
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GE 2011 15+ aged general public, Georgia, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.200
SD
= 1.960
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GE 2012 15+ aged general public, Georgia, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.250
SD
= 1.960
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GE 2013 15+ aged general public, Georgia, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.350
SD
= 1.880
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GE 2014 15+ aged general public, Georgia, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.290
SD
= 2.050
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GE 2015 15+ aged general public, Georgia, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.120
SD
= 2.050
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GE 2016 15+ aged general public, Georgia, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.450
SD
= 1.960
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GE 2017 15+ aged general public, Georgia, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.450
SD
= 1.780
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GE 2018 15+ aged general public, Georgia, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.660
SD
= 2.220
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GE 2019 15+ aged general public, Georgia, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.890
SD
= 2.170
Helliwell et al. (2021): study DE 2020 15+ aged general public, Germany 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.312
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DE 2005 15+ aged general public, Germany, 2005 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.620
SD
= 1.800
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DE 2007 15+ aged general public, Germany, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.420
SD
= 1.870
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DE 2008 15+ aged general public, Germany, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.520
SD
= 1.770
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DE 2009 15+ aged general public, Germany, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.640
SD
= 1.870
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DE 2010 15+ aged general public, Germany, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.720
SD
= 1.860
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DE 2011 15+ aged general public, Germany, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.620
SD
= 1.850
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DE 2012 15+ aged general public, Germany, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.700
SD
= 1.830
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DE 2013 15+ aged general public, Germany, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.970
SD
= 1.820
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DE 2014 15+ aged general public, Germany, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.980
SD
= 1.660
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DE 2015 15+ aged general public, Germany, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.040
SD
= 1.650
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DE 2016 15+ aged general public, Germany, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.870
SD
= 1.780
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DE 2017 15+ aged general public, Germany, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.070
SD
= 1.440
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DE 2018 15+ aged general public, Germany, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.120
SD
= 1.620
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DE 2019 15+ aged general public, Germany, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.040
SD
= 1.770
Helliwell et al. (2021): study GH 2020 15+ aged general public, Ghana 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.319
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GH 2006 15+ aged general public, Ghana, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.540
SD
= 1.800
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GH 2007 15+ aged general public, Ghana, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.220
SD
= 1.950
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GH 2008 15+ aged general public, Ghana, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.970
SD
= 1.620
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GH 2009 15+ aged general public, Ghana, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.200
SD
= 1.890
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GH 2010 15+ aged general public, Ghana, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.610
SD
= 1.770
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GH 2011 15+ aged general public, Ghana, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.610
SD
= 2.600
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GH 2012 15+ aged general public, Ghana, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.060
SD
= 2.140
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GH 2013 15+ aged general public, Ghana, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.970
SD
= 1.830
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GH 2014 15+ aged general public, Ghana, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.860
SD
= 2.440
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GH 2015 15+ aged general public, Ghana, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.990
SD
= 2.150
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GH 2016 15+ aged general public, Ghana, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.510
SD
= 2.740
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GH 2017 15+ aged general public, Ghana, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.480
SD
= 2.550
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GH 2018 15+ aged general public, Ghana, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.000
SD
= 2.510
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GH 2019 15+ aged general public, Ghana, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.970
SD
= 2.550
Helliwell et al. (2021): study GR 2020 15+ aged general public, Greece 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.788
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GR 2005 15+ aged general public, Greece, 2005 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.010
SD
= 2.450
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GR 2007 15+ aged general public, Greece, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.650
SD
= 1.960
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GR 2009 15+ aged general public, Greece, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.040
SD
= 1.980
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GR 2010 15+ aged general public, Greece, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.840
SD
= 2.280
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GR 2011 15+ aged general public, Greece, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.370
SD
= 2.210
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GR 2012 15+ aged general public, Greece, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.100
SD
= 2.490
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GR 2013 15+ aged general public, Greece, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.720
SD
= 2.280
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GR 2014 15+ aged general public, Greece, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.760
SD
= 2.410
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GR 2015 15+ aged general public, Greece, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.620
SD
= 2.210
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GR 2016 15+ aged general public, Greece, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.300
SD
= 2.320
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GR 2017 15+ aged general public, Greece, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.150
SD
= 2.410
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GR 2018 15+ aged general public, Greece, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.410
SD
= 2.080
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GR 2019 15+ aged general public, Greece, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.950
SD
= 2.050
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GT 2006 15+ aged general public, Guatemala, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.900
SD
= 2.090
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GT 2007 15+ aged general public, Guatemala, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.330
SD
= 2.110
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GT 2008 15+ aged general public, Guatemala, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.410
SD
= 2.160
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GT 2009 15+ aged general public, Guatemala, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.450
SD
= 2.240
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GT 2010 15+ aged general public, Guatemala, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.290
SD
= 2.420
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GT 2011 15+ aged general public, Guatemala, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.740
SD
= 2.550
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GT 2012 15+ aged general public, Guatemala, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.860
SD
= 2.680
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GT 2013 15+ aged general public, Guatemala, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.980
SD
= 2.600
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GT 2014 15+ aged general public, Guatemala, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.540
SD
= 2.590
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GT 2015 15+ aged general public, Guatemala, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.460
SD
= 2.940
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GT 2016 15+ aged general public, Guatemala, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.360
SD
= 2.700
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GT 2017 15+ aged general public, Guatemala, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.330
SD
= 2.860
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GT 2018 15+ aged general public, Guatemala, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.630
SD
= 2.840
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GT 2019 15+ aged general public, Guatemala, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.260
SD
= 2.930
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GN 2011 15+ aged general public, Guinea, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.040
SD
= 1.740
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GN 2012 15+ aged general public, Guinea, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.650
SD
= 1.660
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GN 2013 15+ aged general public, Guinea, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.900
SD
= 1.840
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GN 2014 15+ aged general public, Guinea, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.410
SD
= 1.780
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GN 2015 15+ aged general public, Guinea, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.500
SD
= 1.860
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GN 2016 15+ aged general public, Guinea, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.600
SD
= 2.120
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GN 2017 15+ aged general public, Guinea, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.870
SD
= 2.970
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GN 2018 15+ aged general public, Guinea, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.250
SD
= 3.300
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GN 2019 15+ aged general public, Guinea, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.770
SD
= 3.210
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GY 2007 15+ aged general public, Guyana, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.990
SD
= 1.840
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HT 2006 15+ aged general public, Haiti, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.750
SD
= 1.840
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HT 2008 15+ aged general public, Haiti, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.850
SD
= 1.870
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HT 2010 15+ aged general public, Haiti, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.770
SD
= 1.560
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HT 2011 15+ aged general public, Haiti, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.840
SD
= 1.730
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HT 2012 15+ aged general public, Haiti, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.410
SD
= 1.780
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HT 2013 15+ aged general public, Haiti, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.620
SD
= 2.290
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HT 2014 15+ aged general public, Haiti, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.890
SD
= 2.200
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HT 2015 15+ aged general public, Haiti, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.570
SD
= 2.350
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HT 2016 15+ aged general public, Haiti, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.350
SD
= 2.190
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HT 2017 15+ aged general public, Haiti, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.820
SD
= 2.160
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HT 2018 15+ aged general public, Haiti, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.610
SD
= 3.080
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HN 2006 15+ aged general public, Honduras, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.400
SD
= 2.740
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HN 2007 15+ aged general public, Honduras, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.100
SD
= 2.640
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HN 2008 15+ aged general public, Honduras, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.420
SD
= 2.700
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HN 2009 15+ aged general public, Honduras, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.030
SD
= 2.660
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HN 2010 15+ aged general public, Honduras, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.870
SD
= 2.680
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HN 2011 15+ aged general public, Honduras, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.960
SD
= 2.670
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HN 2012 15+ aged general public, Honduras, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.600
SD
= 2.550
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HN 2013 15+ aged general public, Honduras, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.710
SD
= 2.880
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HN 2014 15+ aged general public, Honduras, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.060
SD
= 2.740
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HN 2015 15+ aged general public, Honduras, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.850
SD
= 3.070
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HN 2016 15+ aged general public, Honduras, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.650
SD
= 2.970
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HN 2017 15+ aged general public, Honduras, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.020
SD
= 2.960
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HN 2018 15+ aged general public, Honduras, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.910
SD
= 3.130
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HN 2019 15+ aged general public, Honduras, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.930
SD
= 3.150
Helliwell et al. (2021): study HK 2020 15+ aged general public, Hong Kong 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.295
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HK 2006 15+ aged general public, Hong Kong, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.510
SD
= 1.910
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HK 2008 15+ aged general public, Hong Kong, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.140
SD
= 1.850
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HK 2009 15+ aged general public, Hong Kong, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.400
SD
= 1.970
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HK 2010 15+ aged general public, Hong Kong, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.640
SD
= 1.750
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HK 2011 15+ aged general public, Hong Kong, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.470
SD
= 1.940
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HK 2012 15+ aged general public, Hong Kong, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.480
SD
= 1.940
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HK 2014 15+ aged general public, Hong Kong, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.460
SD
= 1.810
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HK 2016 15+ aged general public, Hong Kong, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.500
SD
= 1.820
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HK 2017 15+ aged general public, Hong Kong, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.360
SD
= 1.780
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HK 2019 15+ aged general public, Hong Kong, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.660
SD
= 1.800
Helliwell et al. (2021): study HU 2020 15+ aged general public, Hungary 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.038
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HU 2005 15+ aged general public, Hungary, 2005 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.190
SD
= 2.070
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HU 2007 15+ aged general public, Hungary, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.950
SD
= 2.080
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HU 2009 15+ aged general public, Hungary, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.890
SD
= 2.090
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HU 2010 15+ aged general public, Hungary, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.730
SD
= 1.970
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HU 2011 15+ aged general public, Hungary, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.920
SD
= 2.090
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HU 2012 15+ aged general public, Hungary, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.680
SD
= 2.090
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HU 2013 15+ aged general public, Hungary, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.910
SD
= 2.270
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HU 2014 15+ aged general public, Hungary, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.180
SD
= 1.880
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HU 2015 15+ aged general public, Hungary, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.340
SD
= 1.880
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HU 2016 15+ aged general public, Hungary, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.450
SD
= 1.850
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HU 2017 15+ aged general public, Hungary, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.070
SD
= 1.790
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HU 2018 15+ aged general public, Hungary, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.940
SD
= 1.790
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HU 2019 15+ aged general public, Hungary, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.000
SD
= 2.000
Helliwell et al. (2021): study IS 2020 15+ aged general public, Iceland 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.575
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IS 2008 15+ aged general public, Iceland, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.890
SD
= 1.950
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IS 2012 15+ aged general public, Iceland, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.590
SD
= 1.570
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IS 2013 15+ aged general public, Iceland, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.500
SD
= 1.570
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IS 2015 15+ aged general public, Iceland, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.500
SD
= 1.690
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IS 2016 15+ aged general public, Iceland, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.510
SD
= 1.570
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IS 2017 15+ aged general public, Iceland, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.480
SD
= 1.630
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IS 2019 15+ aged general public, Iceland, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.530
SD
= 1.550
Helliwell et al. (2021): study IN 2020 15+ aged general public, India 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.225
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IN 2006 15+ aged general public, India, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.350
SD
= 1.950
Biswas-Diener et al. (2012): study IN 2006 15+ aged general public, India, 2006-2008 N = 10296
Mean
= 5.200
SD
= 1.770
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IN 2007 15+ aged general public, India, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.030
SD
= 1.620
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IN 2008 15+ aged general public, India, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.150
SD
= 1.630
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IN 2009 15+ aged general public, India, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.520
SD
= 1.970
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IN 2010 15+ aged general public, India, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.990
SD
= 1.940
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IN 2011 15+ aged general public, India, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.630
SD
= 1.790
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IN 2012 15+ aged general public, India, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.720
SD
= 1.960