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Happiness Measures

Characteristics

Code:
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-c
Focus:
Contentment: Best-Worst possible life (C-BW)
Time frame:
currently (today, these days, presently) (c)
Mode:
1 question (sq)
Scale Type:
ladder scale (l)
Scale Range:
11

Description

Self report on single question:

Here is ladder representing the 'ladder of life'. Let's suppose the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you; and the bottom, the worst possible life for you. On which step of the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
10 best possible
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 worst possible life

This question was followed (not preceded) by items on life 5 years ago and 5 years from now.

List of Studies Using this Measure

Study Population N Mean
Standard Deviation
Pew Research Center (2002): study ZZ 2002 Adults, general public, 44 nations, 2002 N = 38263
Goff et al. (2016): study US 2008 18+ aged, general public, USA, 2008-2011 N = 1400000
Hendriks et al. (2018): study ZZ Various nation sets 2009 Migrants, Multiple nations, 2009-2016 N = 36000
Graham & Nikolova (2018): study ZZ Latin America 2009 Emigrants, Latin America, Multiple nations, 2009-2016 N = 180000
Flavin & Shufeldt (2017): study US 2010 18+ aged, general public, in 41 states of the USA, 2010-13 N = 10000
Steptoe et al. (2014): study ZZ Various nation sets 2006 15+ aged, general public, 96 nations, 2006-2010 N = 288044
Michalos & Hatch (2020): study ZZ 2007 18+ aged, general public, 105 nations, 2018 N = 105
Diego-Rosell et al. (2018): study ZZ 2011 15+ aged, general public, 153 nations, 2011-2013 N = 370635
Diener et al. (2018): study ZZ 2005 15+ aged, general public, 160 nations, 2005-2015 N = 1468274
Easterlin et al. (2011): study ZZ 2005 15+ aged general public, 80 countries,2005-2008 N = 212000
Delhey & Kroll (2012): study ZZ OECD member states 2008 18+ aged, general public, OECD member states, 2008 N = 340000
Stevenson & Wolfers (2008): study ZZ World samples 2006 Adults, general public, 131 nations, 2006 N = 131000
Graham & Nikolova (2013a): study ZZ South Sahara Africa 2011 15+ aged general public . Sub Sahran Africa 2011 N = 23674
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study LR 2013 15+ aged, general public, Liberia, 2013 N = 1000
Dijkstra et al. (2020): study ZZ 2017 15+ aged, general public, 117 nations and territories, 2017 - 2019 N = 360000
Sachs (2016): study ZZ 2015 15+ aged, general public, 119 nations, 2015-2016 N = 199000
Brulé & Veenhoven (2014a): study ZZ Developed nations 1997 Adolescents, 22 developed countries, 1997-2006 N = 102300
Brulé & Veenhoven (2012): study ZZ Europe 2000 Adults, 6 European nations, 2000-2009 N = 55000
Campbell & Porquet (2014): study ZZ EU 27 2010 18+ aged, general public, 27 EU nations, 2010 N = 26723
Ott (2010): study ZZ 2006 /1 18+ aged, general public, Multiple nations, 2006 N = 1300000
Helliwell et al. (2014): study US 2004 18+ aged general public, urban areas, USA, 2008-2011 N = 952433
Ott (2010): study ZZ 2006 15+ aged, general public, Multiple nations, 2006 N = 127000
Myers & Diener (2018): study ZZ adults, general, multiple nations, years unknown N = 0
Cardenas et al. (2009): study ZZ Latin America 1995 Adults, Latin America, Multiple nations, 1995 - 2007 N = 20000
Deaton (2008): study ZZ 2006 15+ aged, general public, 132 countries, 2006 N = 132000
Ng et al. (2009): study ZZ World samples 2005 15+ aged, general public, 121 nations, 2005-2006 N = 125077
Diener et al. (2010a): study ZZ 2005 15+ aged, general public, 132 nations, 2005-2006 N = 136839
Berg (2010): study ZZ 2000 Adults, general public, 119 countries, 2000-2006 N = 119
Joshanloo (2018a): study ZZ World samples 2006 15+ aged, 94 nations, 2006-2007 N = 97739
Kilpatrick & Cantril (1960): study ZZ East-West pairs 1958 /1 Students, USA and India, 1958 N = 1160
Ott (2011): study ZZ 2006 18+ aged, general public, 130 nations, 2006 N = 130000
Pelham & Nyiri (2009): study ZZ 2006 15+ aged, general public, 114 nations, 2006-2008 N = 114000
Deaton & Arora (2009): study US 2008 18+ aged, general public, USA, 2008 N = 454065
Witters & Agrawal (2021): study US 2020 18+ aged, general public, United States, spring 2020 N = 3000
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AF 2019 15+ aged general public, Afghanistan, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 2.380
SD
= 1.410
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AF 2017 15+ aged general public, Afghanistan, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 2.662
SD
= 1.454
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CF 2016 15+ aged general public, Central African Republic, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 2.690
SD
= 2.250
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ZW 2019 15+ aged general public, Zimbabwe, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 2.690
SD
= 2.650
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SY 2013 15+ aged general public, Syria, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 2.690
SD
= 2.350
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AF 2018 15+ aged general public, Afghanistan, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 2.694
SD
= 1.408
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study SY 2013 15+ aged, general public, Syria, 2013 N = 1022
Mean
= 2.700
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study CF 2016 15+ aged, general public, Central African Republic, 2016 N = 991
Mean
= 2.700
Helliwell et al. (2020): study LR 2015 15+ aged general public, Liberia, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 2.700
SD
= 2.760
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study LR 2015 15+ aged, general public, Liberia, 2015 N = 981
Mean
= 2.700
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study TG 2008 15+ aged, general public, Togo, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 2.800
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study TG 2014 15+ aged, general public, Togo, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 2.800
Gallup (2009a): study TG 2008 /1 15+ aged, general public, Togo, 2011 N = 974
Mean
= 2.800
SD
= 1.730
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TG 2008 15+ aged general public, Togo, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 2.810
SD
= 1.740
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SS 2017 15+ aged general public, South Sudan, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 2.820
SD
= 2.740
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TG 2014 15+ aged general public, Togo, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 2.840
SD
= 1.820
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SS 2016 15+ aged general public, South Sudan, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 2.890
SD
= 2.910
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study BI 2014 15+ aged, general public, Burundi, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 2.900
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study SS 2016 15+ aged, general public, South Sudan, 2016 N = 985
Mean
= 2.900
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study TG 2011 15+ aged, general public, Togo, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 2.900
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study TZ 2016 15+ aged, general public, Tanzania, 2016 N = 998
Mean
= 2.900
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TZ 2016 15+ aged general public, Tanzania, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 2.900
SD
= 2.510
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BI 2014 15+ aged general public, Burundi, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 2.900
SD
= 2.220
Gallup World View (2012): study TG 2011 15+ aged general public Togo, 2011 N = 999
Mean
= 2.930
SD
= 1.950
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TG 2011 15+ aged general public, Togo, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 2.940
SD
= 1.960
Helliwell et al. (2020): study YE 2015 15+ aged general public, Yemen, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 2.980
SD
= 2.190
Gallup (2008a): study SL 2008 15+ aged, general public, Sierra Leone, 2008 N = 999
Mean
= 2.990
SD
= 1.680
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SL 2008 15+ aged general public, Sierra Leone, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.000
SD
= 1.690
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study YE 2015 15+ aged, general public, Yemen, 2015 N = 992
Mean
= 3.000
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study SL 2008 15+ aged, general public, Sierra Leone, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.000
Helliwell et al. (2020): study YE 2018 15+ aged general public, Yemen, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.060
SD
= 2.400
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study AF 2014 /1 15+ aged, general public, Afghanistan, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.100
Helliwell et al. (2020): study RW 2017 15+ aged general public, Rwanda, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.110
SD
= 2.130
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AF 2014 15+ aged general public, Afghanistan, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.130
SD
= 1.400
Gallup World View (2012): study SY 2012 /1 15+ aged general public Syria, 2012 N = 2000
Mean
= 3.160
SD
= 2.500
Helliwell et al. (2021): study ZW 2020 15+ aged general public, Zimbabwe 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.160
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SY 2012 15+ aged general public, Syria, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.160
SD
= 2.510
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ZW 2008 15+ aged general public, Zimbabwe, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.170
SD
= 1.690
Gallup (2008a): study ZW 2008 15+ aged, general public, Zimbabwe, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.170
SD
= 1.680
Gallup World View (2012): study BJ 2012 15+ aged general public Benin, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.190
SD
= 1.640
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BJ 2012 15+ aged general public, Benin, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.190
SD
= 1.640
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study ZW 2008 15+ aged, general public, Zimbabwe, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.200
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TG 2006 15+ aged general public, Togo, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.200
SD
= 1.730
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study BJ 2012 15+ aged, general public, Benin, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.200
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study TG 2006 15+ aged, general public, Togo, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.200
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study TZ 2010 15+ aged, general public, Tanzania, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.200
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study SY 2012 15+ aged, general public, Syria, 2012 N = 2043
Mean
= 3.200
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TZ 2010 15+ aged general public, Tanzania, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.230
SD
= 1.800
Gallup (2008a): study TG 2006 15+ aged, general public, Togo, 2006 N = 999
Mean
= 3.240
SD
= 1.730
Helliwell et al. (2020): study YE 2017 15+ aged general public, Yemen, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.250
SD
= 2.180
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IN 2019 15+ aged general public, India, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.250
SD
= 2.960
Helliwell et al. (2020): study RW 2019 15+ aged general public, Rwanda, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.270
SD
= 2.610
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ZW 2007 15+ aged general public, Zimbabwe, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.280
SD
= 1.930
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study RW 2012 15+ aged, general public, Rwanda, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.300
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study ZW 2007 15+ aged, general public, Zimbabwe, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.300
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study BJ 2014 15+ aged, general public, Benin, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.300
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study BJ 2006 15+ aged, general public, Benin, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.300
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study BF 2013 15+ aged, general public, Burkina Faso, 2013 N = 1008
Mean
= 3.300
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study RW 2016 15+ aged, general public, Rwanda, 2016 N = 995
Mean
= 3.300
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ZM 2019 15+ aged general public, Zambia, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.310
SD
= 2.860
Gallup World View (2012): study BF 2013 15+ aged general public Burkina Faso, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.320
Gallup (2008a): study BJ 2006 15+ aged, general public, Benin, 2006 N = 998
Mean
= 3.320
SD
= 1.520
Gallup World View (2012): study RW 2012 15+ aged general public Rwanda , 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.330
SD
= 1.540
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BF 2013 15+ aged general public, Burkina Faso, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.330
SD
= 1.680
Helliwell et al. (2020): study RW 2016 15+ aged general public, Rwanda, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.330
SD
= 1.900
Helliwell et al. (2020): study RW 2012 15+ aged general public, Rwanda, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.330
SD
= 1.540
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BJ 2006 15+ aged general public, Benin, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.330
SD
= 1.520
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MW 2018 15+ aged general public, Malawi, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.330
SD
= 3.130
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TZ 2017 15+ aged general public, Tanzania, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.350
SD
= 2.680
Helliwell et al. (2020): study LR 2016 15+ aged general public, Liberia, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.350
SD
= 2.630
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BJ 2014 15+ aged general public, Benin, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.350
SD
= 1.690
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HT 2016 15+ aged general public, Haiti, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.350
SD
= 2.190
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study GN 2014 15+ aged, general public, Guinea, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.400
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study HT 2016 15+ aged, general public, Haiti, 2016 N = 501
Mean
= 3.400
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study TZ 2009 15+ aged, general public, Tanzania, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.400
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study TD 2006 15+ aged, general public, Chad, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.400
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study LR 2016 15+ aged, general public, Liberia, 2016 N = 963
Mean
= 3.400
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GN 2014 15+ aged general public, Guinea, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.410
SD
= 1.780
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TZ 2009 15+ aged general public, Tanzania, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.410
SD
= 1.810
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MW 2017 15+ aged general public, Malawi, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.420
SD
= 2.760
Gallup (2008a): study TD 2006 15+ aged, general public, Chad, 2006 N = 961
Mean
= 3.430
SD
= 1.700
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TD 2006 15+ aged general public, Chad, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.430
SD
= 1.710
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TZ 2018 15+ aged general public, Tanzania, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.450
SD
= 2.670
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SL 2019 15+ aged general public, Sierra Leone, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.450
SD
= 2.610
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BW 2018 15+ aged general public, Botswana, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.460
SD
= 2.640
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TD 2014 15+ aged general public, Chad, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.460
SD
= 1.610
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SY 2015 15+ aged general public, Syria, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.460
SD
= 2.810
Helliwell et al. (2020): study RW 2013 15+ aged general public, Rwanda, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.470
SD
= 1.550
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BW 2019 15+ aged general public, Botswana, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.470
SD
= 2.610
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TZ 2014 15+ aged general public, Tanzania, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.480
SD
= 2.830
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KM 2009 15+ aged general public, Comoros, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.480
SD
= 1.470
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BJ 2013 15+ aged general public, Benin, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.480
SD
= 1.590
Helliwell et al. (2020): study RW 2015 15+ aged general public, Rwanda, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.480
SD
= 1.720
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MW 2016 15+ aged general public, Malawi, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.480
SD
= 2.230
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CF 2017 15+ aged general public, Central African Republic, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.480
SD
= 2.810
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BF 2014 15+ aged general public, Burkina Faso, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.480
SD
= 2.150
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study BW 2011 15+ aged, general public, Botswana, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.500
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study BF 2014 15+ aged, general public, Burkina Faso, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.500
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study TD 2013 15+ aged, general public, Chad, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.500
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BW 2017 15+ aged general public, Botswana, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.500
SD
= 2.670
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study TD 2014 15+ aged, general public, Chad, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.500
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study SY 2014 15+ aged, general public, Syria, 2014 N = 963
Mean
= 3.500
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study RW 2013 15+ aged, general public, Rwanda, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.500
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study TZ 2014 15+ aged, general public, Tanzania, 2014 N = 1008
Mean
= 3.500
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study SY 2014 /1 15+ aged, general public, Syria, 2014 N = 1002
Mean
= 3.500
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study KM 2009 /1 15+ aged, general public, Comoros, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.500
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BW 2016 15+ aged general public, Botswana, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.500
SD
= 2.690
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study KM 2010 /1 15+ aged, general public, Comoros, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.500
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study GN 2015 /1 15+ aged, general public, Guinea, 2015 N = 500
Mean
= 3.500
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study SY 2015 15+ aged, general public, Syria, 2015 N = 963
Mean
= 3.500
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study BW 2016 15+ aged, general public, Botswana, 2016 N = 968
Mean
= 3.500
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GN 2015 15+ aged general public, Guinea, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.500
SD
= 1.860
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study BJ 2013 15+ aged, general public, Benin, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.500
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study RW 2015 15+ aged, general public, Rwanda, 2015 N = 998
Mean
= 3.500
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study MW 2016 15+ aged, general public, Malawi, 2016 N = 998
Mean
= 3.500
Helliwell et al. (2020): study LS 2019 15+ aged general public, Lesotho, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.510
SD
= 3.060
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TD 2013 15+ aged general public, Chad, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.510
SD
= 1.640
Gallup World View (2012): study BW 2011 /1 15+ aged, general public, Botswana, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.510
SD
= 1.960
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BW 2011 15+ aged general public, Botswana, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.520
SD
= 1.960
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MG 2012 15+ aged general public, Madagascar, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.550
SD
= 1.540
Gallup (2009a): study BW 2010 15+ aged, general public, Botswana, 2011 N = 998
Mean
= 3.550
SD
= 1.940
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BW 2010 15+ aged general public, Botswana, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.550
SD
= 1.940
Gallup (2009a): study CF 2010 15+ aged, general public, Central African Republic, 2011 N = 998
Mean
= 3.560
SD
= 1.500
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EG 2013 15+ aged general public, Egypt, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.560
SD
= 2.750
Gallup (2008a): study BI 2008 15+ aged, general public, Burundi, 2008 N = 998
Mean
= 3.560
SD
= 1.540
Gallup (2008a): study KH 2006 15+ aged, general public, Cambodia, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.560
SD
= 1.680
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BI 2008 15+ aged general public, Burundi, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.560
SD
= 1.540
Helliwell et al. (2020): study RW 2018 15+ aged general public, Rwanda, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.560
SD
= 2.330
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KH 2006 15+ aged general public, Cambodia, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.570
SD
= 1.680
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HT 2015 15+ aged general public, Haiti, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.570
SD
= 2.350
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CF 2010 15+ aged general public, Central African Republic, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.570
SD
= 1.500
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CI 2014 15+ aged general public, Ivory Coast, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.570
SD
= 1.600
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AF 2013 15+ aged general public, Afghanistan, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.570
SD
= 1.220
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MG 2015 15+ aged general public, Madagascar, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.590
SD
= 1.500
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SL 2007 15+ aged general public, Sierra Leone, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.590
SD
= 1.790
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study SL 2007 15+ aged, general public, Sierra Leone, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.600
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study KH 2006 15+ aged, general public, Cambodia, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.600
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study SL 2006 15+ aged, general public, Sierra Leone, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.600
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study BI 2008 15+ aged, general public, Burundi, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.600
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study CF 2010 /1 15+ aged, general public, Central African Republic, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.600
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study HT 2015 15+ aged, general public, Haiti, 2015 N = 503
Mean
= 3.600
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study SN 2013 15+ aged, general public, Senegal, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.600
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study BJ 2015 15+ aged, general public, Benin, 2015 N = 986
Mean
= 3.600
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study MG 2015 15+ aged, general public, Madagascar, 2015 N = 998
Mean
= 3.600
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study TD 2009 15+ aged, general public, Chad, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.600
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study CI 2014 15+ aged, general public, Côte d’Ivoire, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.600
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study RW 2014 15+ aged, general public, Rwanda, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.600
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study BG 2009 15+ aged, general public, Bulgaria, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.600
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study GN 2016 15+ aged, general public, Guinea, 2016 N = 997
Mean
= 3.600
Helliwell et al. (2020): study RW 2014 15+ aged general public, Rwanda, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.600
SD
= 1.570
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GN 2016 15+ aged general public, Guinea, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.600
SD
= 2.120
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study AF 2013 /1 15+ aged, general public, Afghanistan, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.600
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study MG 2012 15+ aged, general public, Madagascar, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.600
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study BW 2010 15+ aged, general public, Botswana, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.600
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study EG 2013 15+ aged, general public, Egypt, 2013 N = 1149
Mean
= 3.600
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HT 2018 15+ aged general public, Haiti, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.610
SD
= 3.080
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BJ 2015 15+ aged general public, Benin, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.620
SD
= 2.050
Gallup (2008a): study SL 2006 15+ aged, general public, Sierra Leone, 2006 N = 999
Mean
= 3.620
SD
= 1.810
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ZW 2018 15+ aged general public, Zimbabwe, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.620
SD
= 2.500
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SL 2006 15+ aged general public, Sierra Leone, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.630
SD
= 1.820
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ZW 2017 15+ aged general public, Zimbabwe, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.640
SD
= 2.660
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TD 2009 15+ aged general public, Chad, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.640
SD
= 1.300
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TZ 2019 15+ aged general public, Tanzania, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.640
SD
= 2.990
Gallup World View (2012): study GN 2012 15+ aged general public Guinea, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.650
SD
= 1.650
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GN 2012 15+ aged general public, Guinea, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.650
SD
= 1.660
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SN 2013 15+ aged general public, Senegal, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.650
SD
= 1.520
Gallup World View (2012): study SN 2012 /1 15+ aged general public Senegal, 2012 N = 998
Mean
= 3.660
SD
= 1.700
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MG 2016 15+ aged general public, Madagascar, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.660
SD
= 1.530
Gallup (2008a): study TZ 2006 15+ aged, general public, Tanzania, 2006 N = 959
Mean
= 3.660
SD
= 1.720
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TZ 2015 15+ aged general public, Tanzania, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.660
SD
= 2.210
Gallup (2008a): study BJ 2008 /1 15+ aged, general public, Benin, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.660
SD
= 1.720
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ZA 2013 15+ aged general public, South Africa, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.660
SD
= 1.960
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KH 2013 15+ aged general public, Cambodia, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.670
SD
= 2.040
Helliwell et al. (2020): study NE 2015 15+ aged general public, Niger, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.670
SD
= 1.940
Gallup (2008a): study GE 2006 15+ aged, general public, Georgia, 2006 N = 996
Mean
= 3.670
SD
= 1.920
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BJ 2008 15+ aged general public, Benin, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.670
SD
= 1.730
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SN 2012 15+ aged general public, Senegal, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.670
SD
= 1.700
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CF 2011 15+ aged general public, Central African Republic, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.680
SD
= 1.710
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MG 2014 15+ aged general public, Madagascar, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.680
SD
= 1.720
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ML 2013 15+ aged general public, Mali, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.680
SD
= 1.930
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GE 2006 15+ aged general public, Georgia, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.680
SD
= 1.930
Gallup World View (2012): study BI 2011 15+ aged general public Burundi, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.700
SD
= 1.740
Gallup World View (2012): study CF 2011 15+ aged, general public, Central African Republic, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.700
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study TZ 2015 15+ aged, general public, Tanzania, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.700
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study LR 2007 15+ aged, general public, Liberia, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.700
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study TD 2010 15+ aged, general public, Chad, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.700
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study NE 2015 15+ aged, general public, Niger, 2015 N = 997
Mean
= 3.700
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study GN 2012 15+ aged, general public, Guinea, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.700
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study KH 2013 15+ aged, general public, Cambodia, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.700
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study MG 2014 15+ aged, general public, Madagascar, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.700
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study NE 2006 15+ aged, general public, Niger, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.700
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study CI 2013 15+ aged, general public, Côte d’Ivoire, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.700
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study NE 2013 15+ aged, general public, Niger, 2013 N = 1008
Mean
= 3.700
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study AF 2008 /1 15+ aged, general public, Afghanistan, 2008 N = 1010
Mean
= 3.700
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study GE 2006 15+ aged, general public, Georgia, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.700
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study CF 2011 /1 15+ aged, general public, Central African Republic, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.700
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study ML 2013 15+ aged, general public, Mali, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.700
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study GE 2007 15+ aged, general public, Georgia, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.700
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study BI 2011 15+ aged, general public, Burundi, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.700
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study ZW 2015 /2 15+ aged, general public, Zimbabwe, 2015 N = 996
Mean
= 3.700
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study ZA 2013 15+ aged, general public, South Africa, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.700
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study SN 2012 15+ aged, general public, Senegal, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.700
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study UG 2006 15+ aged, general public, Uganda, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.700
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study UG 2013 15+ aged, general public, Uganda, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.700
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ZW 2015 15+ aged general public, Zimbabwe, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.700
SD
= 2.200
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study ZW 2016 15+ aged, general public, Zimbabwe, 2016 N = 982
Mean
= 3.700
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study YE 2011 15+ aged, general public, Yemen, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.700
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study BJ 2008 15+ aged, general public, Benin, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.700
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study MG 2016 15+ aged, general public, Madagascar, 2016 N = 999
Mean
= 3.700
Helliwell et al. (2020): study LR 2007 15+ aged general public, Liberia, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.700
SD
= 1.740
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GE 2007 15+ aged general public, Georgia, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.710
SD
= 1.820
Helliwell et al. (2020): study UG 2013 15+ aged general public, Uganda, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.710
SD
= 1.890
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BI 2011 15+ aged general public, Burundi, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.710
SD
= 1.750
Helliwell et al. (2020): study NE 2013 15+ aged general public, Niger, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.720
SD
= 1.720
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AF 2008 15+ aged general public, Afghanistan, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.720
SD
= 1.770
Helliwell et al. (2020): study UG 2006 15+ aged general public, Uganda, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.730
SD
= 1.820
Gallup (2008a): study UG 2006 15+ aged, general public, Uganda, 2006 N = 995
Mean
= 3.730
SD
= 1.820
Helliwell et al. (2020): study NE 2006 15+ aged general public, Niger, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.740
SD
= 1.610
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CI 2013 15+ aged general public, Ivory Coast, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.740
SD
= 2.010
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TD 2010 15+ aged general public, Chad, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.740
SD
= 1.340
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ZW 2016 15+ aged general public, Zimbabwe, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.740
SD
= 2.780
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HT 2006 15+ aged general public, Haiti, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.750
SD
= 1.840
Gallup (2008a): study IQ 2006 15+ aged, general public, Iraq, 2006 N = 3444
Mean
= 3.750
SD
= 1.800
Helliwell et al. (2020): study YE 2011 15+ aged general public, Yemen, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.750
SD
= 2.310
Gallup (2008a): study HT 2006 /1 15+ aged, general public, Haiti, 2006 N = 499
Mean
= 3.750
SD
= 1.840
Pew Research Center (2002): study BG 2002 18+ aged, general public, Bulgaria, 2002 N = 514
Mean
= 3.752
SD
= 1.984
Gallup (2009a): study ML 2010 15+ aged, general public, Mali, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.760
SD
= 1.530
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ML 2010 15+ aged general public, Mali, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.760
SD
= 1.540
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BW 2015 15+ aged general public, Botswana, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.760
SD
= 2.290
Latin American Public Opinion Project (2010): study HT 2010 18+ aged, general public, Haiti, 2010 N = 503
Mean
= 3.760
SD
= 1.550
Helliwell et al. (2020): study UG 2014 15+ aged general public, Uganda, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.770
SD
= 2.250
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TG 2015 15+ aged general public, Togo, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.770
SD
= 2.210
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HT 2010 15+ aged general public, Haiti, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.770
SD
= 1.560
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BI 2018 15+ aged general public, Burundi, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.780
SD
= 2.820
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AF 2012 15+ aged general public, Afghanistan, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.780
SD
= 1.800
Helliwell et al. (2021): study TZ 2020 15+ aged general public, Tanzania 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.786
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BI 2009 15+ aged general public, Burundi, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.790
SD
= 1.500
Gallup World View (2012): study NE 2012 15+ aged general public Niger, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.790
SD
= 1.310
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AO 2014 15+ aged general public,Angola, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.790
SD
= 2.200
Helliwell et al. (2020): study LS 2017 15+ aged general public, Lesotho, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.800
SD
= 2.840
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study GE 2009 15+ aged, general public, Georgia, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.800
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study UG 2014 15+ aged, general public, Uganda, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.800
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study AO 2014 /1 15+ aged, general public, Angola, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.800
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study MW 2006 15+ aged, general public, Malawi, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.800
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study MG 2013 15+ aged, general public, Madagascar, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.800
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study LS 2016 15+ aged, general public, Lesotho, 2016 N = 987
Mean
= 3.800
Gallup (2008a): study BF 2006 15+ aged, general public, Burkina Faso, 2006 N = 964
Mean
= 3.800
SD
= 1.560
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study GA 2013 15+ aged, general public, Gabon, 2013 N = 1008
Mean
= 3.800
Helliwell et al. (2020): study NE 2012 15+ aged general public, Niger, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.800
SD
= 1.310
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study AF 2012 /1 15+ aged, general public, Afghanistan, 2012 N = 2000
Mean
= 3.800
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study BG 2006 15+ aged, general public, Bulgaria, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.800
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GA 2013 15+ aged general public, Gabon, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.800
SD
= 1.870
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study ZW 2006 15+ aged, general public, Zimbabwe, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.800
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study SS 2014 /1 15+ aged, general public, South Sudan, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.800
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study KE 2013 15+ aged, general public, Kenya, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.800
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study HT 2006 /1 15+ aged, general public, Haiti, 2006 N = 505
Mean
= 3.800
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study HT 2010 15+ aged, general public, Haiti, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.800
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study YE 2016 15+ aged, general public, Yemen, 2016 N = 997
Mean
= 3.800
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study CG 2008 /1 15+ aged, general public, Congo (Brazzaville), 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.800
Gallup (2008a): study NE 2006 15+ aged, general public, Niger, 2006 N = 999
Mean
= 3.800
SD
= 1.610
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GE 2009 15+ aged general public, Georgia, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.800
SD
= 2.010
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study AF 2011 /1 15+ aged, general public, Afghanistan, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.800
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study BF 2006 15+ aged, general public, Burkina Faso, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.800
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study BI 2009 15+ aged, general public, Burundi, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.800
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study SN 2011 15+ aged, general public, Senegal, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.800
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study SS 2014 15+ aged, general public, South Sudan, 2014 N = 956
Mean
= 3.800
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study BW 2015 15+ aged, general public, Botswana, 2015 N = 998
Mean
= 3.800
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study NE 2012 15+ aged, general public, Niger, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.800
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study NP 2011 15+ aged, general public, Nepal, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.800
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BF 2006 15+ aged general public, Burkina Faso, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.800
SD
= 1.570
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study ML 2010 15+ aged, general public, Mali, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.800
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study BF 2008 15+ aged, general public, Burkina Faso, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.800
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study TG 2015 15+ aged, general public, Togo, 2015 N = 990
Mean
= 3.800
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KE 2013 15+ aged general public, Kenya, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.800
SD
= 1.650
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study KM 2011 15+ aged, general public, Comoros, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.800
Gallup (2009a): study CG 2011 /1 15+ aged, general public, Congo (Brazzaville), 2011 N = 997
Mean
= 3.810
SD
= 1.990
Helliwell et al. (2020): study NP 2011 15+ aged general public, Nepal, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.810
SD
= 1.630
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KM 2010 15+ aged general public, Comoros, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.810
SD
= 1.660
Gallup World View (2012): study MG 2013 15+ aged general public Madagascar, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.810
Helliwell et al. (2020): study LS 2016 15+ aged general public, Lesotho, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.810
SD
= 3.100
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IN 2018 15+ aged general public, India, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.820
SD
= 2.210
Gallup (2008a): study MW 2006 15+ aged, general public, Malawi, 2006 N = 999
Mean
= 3.820
SD
= 2.080
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MG 2013 15+ aged general public, Madagascar, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.820
SD
= 1.680
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CG 2008 15+ aged general public, Congo (Brazzaville), 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.820
SD
= 2.000
Gallup (2008a): study ZW 2006 15+ aged, general public, Zimbabwe, 2006 N = 994
Mean
= 3.820
SD
= 2.010
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HT 2017 15+ aged general public, Haiti, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.820
SD
= 2.160
Gallup (2008a): study ET 2006 15+ aged, general public, Ethiopia, 2006 N = 969
Mean
= 3.830
SD
= 1.750
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SS 2014 15+ aged general public, South Sudan, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.830
SD
= 3.040
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SN 2011 15+ aged general public, Senegal, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.830
SD
= 1.710
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MW 2006 15+ aged general public, Malawi, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.830
SD
= 2.090
Helliwell et al. (2020): study YE 2016 15+ aged general public, Yemen, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.830
SD
= 2.110
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AF 2011 15+ aged general public, Afghanistan, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.830
SD
= 1.790
Gallup World View (2012): study AF 2011 15+ aged, general public, Afghanistan, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.830
SD
= 1.780
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ZW 2006 15+ aged general public, Zimbabwe, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.830
SD
= 2.010
Pew Research Center (2002): study TZ 2002 18+ aged, general public, Tanzania, 2002 N = 720
Mean
= 3.833
SD
= 1.961
Gallup (2008a): study BG 2006 15+ aged, general public, Bulgaria, 2006 N = 964
Mean
= 3.840
SD
= 1.940
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BG 2007 15+ aged general public, Bulgaria, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.840
SD
= 1.950
Gallup (2008a): study BF 2008 15+ aged, general public, Burkina Faso, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.840
SD
= 1.410
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KM 2011 15+ aged general public, Comoros, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.840
SD
= 1.350
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BF 2008 15+ aged general public, Burkina Faso, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.850
SD
= 1.420
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CM 2006 15+ aged general public, Cameroon, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.850
SD
= 1.860
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TZ 2013 15+ aged general public, Tanzania, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.850
SD
= 1.870
Gallup (2008a): study CM 2006 15+ aged, general public, Cameroon, 2006 N = 999
Mean
= 3.850
SD
= 1.850
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HT 2008 15+ aged general public, Haiti, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.850
SD
= 1.870
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GH 2014 15+ aged general public, Ghana, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.860
SD
= 2.440
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MW 2019 15+ aged general public, Malawi, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.870
SD
= 3.670
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MW 2015 15+ aged general public, Malawi, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.870
SD
= 2.540
Gallup World View (2012): study BG 2011 /1 15+ aged, general public, Bulgaria, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.870
SD
= 1.990
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BJ 2011 15+ aged general public, Benin, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.870
SD
= 1.690
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BG 2011 15+ aged general public, Bulgaria, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.880
SD
= 1.990
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KH 2014 15+ aged general public, Cambodia, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.880
SD
= 2.570
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TG 2016 15+ aged general public, Togo, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.880
SD
= 2.550
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HT 2014 15+ aged general public, Haiti, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.890
SD
= 2.200
Gallup World View (2012): study KH 2012 15+ aged general public Cambodia, 2012 N = 996
Mean
= 3.890
SD
= 1.700
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study HT 2014 /2 15+ aged, general public, Haiti, 2014 N = 504
Mean
= 3.900
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study TZ 2013 15+ aged, general public, Tanzania, 2013 N = 1008
Mean
= 3.900
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study GN 2013 15+ aged, general public, Guinea, 2013 N = 1008
Mean
= 3.900
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study TG 2016 15+ aged, general public, Togo, 2016 N = 993
Mean
= 3.900
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study KH 2014 15+ aged, general public, Cambodia, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.900
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study AO 2013 /1 15+ aged, general public, Angola, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.900
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study CD 2015 15+ aged, general public, Congo (Kinshasa),, 2015 N = 996
Mean
= 3.900
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KH 2012 15+ aged general public, Cambodia, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.900
SD
= 1.700
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study BJ 2011 15+ aged, general public, Benin, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.900
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study MR 2015 15+ aged, general public, Mauritania, 2015 N = 998
Mean
= 3.900
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study BG 2011 15+ aged, general public, Bulgaria, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.900
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study KH 2012 15+ aged, general public, Cambodia, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.900
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study GA 2014 15+ aged, general public, Gabon, 2014 N = 1008
Mean
= 3.900
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study TZ 2006 15+ aged, general public, Tanzania, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.900
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study MW 2011 15+ aged, general public, Malawi, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.900
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study GH 2014 15+ aged, general public, Ghana, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.900
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CD 2015 15+ aged general public, Congo (Kinshasa), 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.900
SD
= 1.780
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study MW 2015 15+ aged, general public, Malawi, 2015 N = 994
Mean
= 3.900
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study HT 2014 15+ aged, general public, Haiti, 2014 N = 498
Mean
= 3.900
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study CM 2006 15+ aged, general public, Cameroon, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.900
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GN 2013 15+ aged general public, Guinea, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.900
SD
= 1.840
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study CG 2012 15+ aged, general public, Congo (Brazzaville), 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.910
SD
= 2.110
Gallup World View (2012): study CG 2012 15+ aged general publc Congo (Brazzaville), 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.910
SD
= 2.110
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BG 2010 15+ aged general public, Bulgaria, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.910
SD
= 1.970
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TZ 2006 15+ aged general public, Tanzania, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.920
SD
= 1.660
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GA 2014 15+ aged general public, Gabon, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.920
SD
= 1.920
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CG 2012 15+ aged general public, Congo (Brazzaville), 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.920
SD
= 2.120
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MR 2015 15+ aged general public, Mauritania, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.920
SD
= 1.520
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EG 2017 15+ aged general public, Egypt, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.930
SD
= 2.290
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ZM 2017 15+ aged general public, Zambia, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.930
SD
= 2.650
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AO 2013 15+ aged general public, Angola, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.940
SD
= 2.330
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CG 2013 15+ aged general public, Congo (Brazzaville), 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.950
SD
= 2.910
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MW 2011 15+ aged general public, Malawi, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.950
SD
= 2.510
Easterlin et al. (2012): study CN 2006 /2 18+ aged, general public, China, 2006 N = 3500
Mean
= 3.960
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BF 2012 15+ aged general public, Burkina Faso, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.960
SD
= 1.760
Helliwell et al. (2020): study UA 2015 15+ aged general public, Ukraine, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.960
SD
= 1.960
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KM 2012 15+ aged general public, Comoros, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.960
SD
= 1.390
Gallup (2008a): study MG 2006 15+ aged, general public, Madagascar, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.970
SD
= 1.430
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GA 2012 15+ aged general public, Gabon, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.970
SD
= 2.020
Gallup World View (2012): study GA 2012 15+ aged general public Gabon, 2012 N = 995
Mean
= 3.970
SD
= 2.010
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ML 2014 15+ aged general public, Mali, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.970
SD
= 1.850
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KM 2018 15+ aged general public, Comoros, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.970
SD
= 2.880
Helliwell et al. (2020): study YE 2014 15+ aged general public, Yemen, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.970
SD
= 2.440
Pew Research Center (2002): study UG 2002 18+ aged, general public, Uganda, 2002 N = 1008
Mean
= 3.977
SD
= 2.190
Helliwell et al. (2020): study LK 2010 15+ aged general public, Sri Lanka, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.980
SD
= 1.750
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MG 2006 15+ aged general public, Madagascar, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.980
SD
= 1.440
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AF 2015 15+ aged general public, Afghanistan, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.980
SD
= 2.160
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ML 2009 15+ aged general public, Mali, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.980
SD
= 1.620
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CD 2009 15+ aged general public, Congo (Kinshasa), 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.980
SD
= 1.700
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GH 2015 15+ aged general public, Ghana, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.990
SD
= 2.150
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BG 2013 15+ aged general public, Bulgaria, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.990
SD
= 2.120
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study BW 2014 15+ aged, general public, Botswana, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.000
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study BF 2010 15+ aged, general public, Burkina Faso, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.000
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study CD 2009 /1 15+ aged, general public, Congo (Kinshasa),, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.000
Gallup World View (2012): study KM 2012 15+ aged, general public, Comoros, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.000
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study BF 2012 15+ aged, general public, Burkina Faso, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.000
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study BG 2013 15+ aged, general public, Bulgaria, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.000
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study TD 2012 15+ aged, general public, Chad, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.000
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study KM 2012 15+ aged, general public, Comoros, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.000
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study CG 2013 15+ aged, general public, Congo (Brazzaville), 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.000
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study BF 2007 15+ aged, general public, Burkina Faso, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.000
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study GA 2012 15+ aged, general public, Gabon, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.000
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study UA 2016 15+ aged, general public, Ukraine, 2016 N = 990
Mean
= 4.000
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study LK 2010 15+ aged, general public, Sri Lanka, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.000
Helliwell et al. (2020): study UG 2017 15+ aged general public, Uganda, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.000
SD
= 2.670
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study ML 2006 15+ aged, general public, Mali, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.000
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study MW 2013 15+ aged, general public, Malawi, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.000
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study MG 2006 15+ aged, general public, Madagascar, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.000
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study GH 2015 15+ aged, general public, Ghana, 2015 N = 986
Mean
= 4.000
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study YE 2014 15+ aged, general public, Yemen, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.000
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study ML 2009 15+ aged, general public, Mali, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.000
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ZM 2007 15+ aged general public, Zambia, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.000
SD
= 1.790
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study ML 2014 /1 15+ aged, general public, Mali, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.000
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study ML 2016 15+ aged, general public, Mali, 2016 N = 962
Mean
= 4.000
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study KE 2008 15+ aged, general public, Kenya, 2008 N = 2000
Mean
= 4.000
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study VE 2016 15+ aged, general public, Venezuela, 2016 N = 995
Mean
= 4.000
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study ZM 2007 15+ aged, general public, Zambia, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.000
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study SY 2011 15+ aged, general public, Syria, 2011 N = 2041
Mean
= 4.000
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study RW 2009 15+ aged, general public, Rwanda, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.000
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study ML 2014 15+ aged, general public, Mali, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.000
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study GN 2011 15+ aged, general public, Guinea, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.000
Bikus (2015): study UA 2015 /1 15+ aged, general public, Ukraine, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.000
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study TD 2016 15+ aged, general public, Chad, 2016 N = 986
Mean
= 4.000
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study BJ 2016 15+ aged, general public, Benin, 2016 N = 955
Mean
= 4.000
Gallup World View (2012): study TZ 2012 15+ aged general public Tanzania, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.000
SD
= 1.910
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study TZ 2012 15+ aged, general public, Tanzania, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.000
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study UA 2015 15+ aged, general public, Ukraine, 2015 N = 967
Mean
= 4.000
Pew Research Center (2007): study UG 2007 18+ aged, general public, Uganda, 2007 N = 1122
Mean
= 4.005
SD
= 1.862
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EG 2018 15+ aged general public, Egypt, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.010
SD
= 2.020
Gallup (2008a): study KE 2008 15+ aged, general public, Kenya, 2008 N = 2192
Mean
= 4.010
SD
= 1.400
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ML 2006 15+ aged general public, Mali, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.010
SD
= 1.630
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TZ 2012 15+ aged general public, Tanzania, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.010
SD
= 1.920
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BJ 2016 15+ aged general public, Benin, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.010
SD
= 2.190
Gallup (2008a): study ML 2006 15+ aged, general public, Mali, 2006 N = 997
Mean
= 4.010
SD
= 1.610
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KE 2008 15+ aged general public, Kenya, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.020
SD
= 1.400
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BF 2007 15+ aged general public, Burkina Faso, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.020
SD
= 1.280
Helliwell et al. (2020): study LB 2019 15+ aged general public, Lebanon, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.020
SD
= 2.030
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TG 2018 15+ aged general public, Togo, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.020
SD
= 2.110
Gallup (2009a): study RW 2009 15+ aged, general public, Rwanda, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.020
SD
= 1.540
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ML 2016 15+ aged general public, Mali, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.020
SD
= 1.770
Helliwell et al. (2020): study UA 2016 15+ aged general public, Ukraine, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.030
SD
= 2.040
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TD 2012 15+ aged general public, Chad, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.030
SD
= 1.580
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TD 2016 15+ aged general public, Chad, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.030
SD
= 2.440
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BW 2014 15+ aged general public, Botswana, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.030
SD
= 2.360
Helliwell et al. (2020): study RW 2009 15+ aged general public, Rwanda, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.030
SD
= 1.550
Pew Research Center (2002): study AO 2002 18+ aged, general public, Angola, 2002 N = 780
Mean
= 4.036
SD
= 1.977
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SY 2011 15+ aged general public, Syria, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.040
SD
= 2.480
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BF 2010 15+ aged general public, Burkina Faso, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.040
SD
= 1.400
Helliwell et al. (2020): study VE 2016 15+ aged general public, Venezuela, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.040
SD
= 2.650
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MW 2013 15+ aged general public, Malawi, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.040
SD
= 2.630
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GN 2011 15+ aged general public, Guinea, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.040
SD
= 1.740
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ZM 2018 15+ aged general public, Zambia, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.040
SD
= 2.780
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IN 2017 15+ aged general public, India, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.050
SD
= 1.660
Gallup (2008a): study AF 2006 15+ aged, general public, Afghanistan, 2006 N = 1187
Mean
= 4.050
SD
= 1.500
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CG 2014 15+ aged general public, Congo (Brazzaville), 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.060
SD
= 2.440
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ZW 2009 15+ aged general public, Zimbabwe, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.060
SD
= 2.020
Helliwell et al. (2020): study YE 2012 15+ aged general public, Yemen, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.060
SD
= 2.230
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MG 2018 15+ aged general public, Madagascar, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.070
SD
= 2.570
Gallup (2009a): study TZ 2011 15+ aged, general public, Tanzania, 2011 N = 999
Mean
= 4.070
SD
= 1.880
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SS 2015 15+ aged general public, South Sudan, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.070
SD
= 3.200
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TZ 2011 15+ aged general public, Tanzania, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.070
SD
= 1.880
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MG 2017 15+ aged general public, Madagascar, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.080
SD
= 2.330
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SL 2017 15+ aged general public, Sierra Leone, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.090
SD
= 2.600
Helliwell et al. (2021): study JO 2020 15+ aged general public, Jordan 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.094
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study TZ 2011 15+ aged, general public, Tanzania, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.100
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study NE 2010 15+ aged, general public, Niger, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.100
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ET 2019 15+ aged general public, Ethiopia, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.100
SD
= 2.310
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study SD 2014 /2 15+ aged, general public, Sudan, 2014 N = 989
Mean
= 4.100
Helliwell et al. (2020): study NE 2010 15+ aged general public, Niger, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.100
SD
= 1.250
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study SD 2014 /1 15+ aged, general public, Sudan, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.100
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GE 2010 15+ aged general public, Georgia, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.100
SD
= 1.870
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study CG 2016 15+ aged, general public, Congo (Brazzaville), 2016 N = 984
Mean
= 4.100
Helliwell et al. (2020): study RW 2011 15+ aged general public, Rwanda, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.100
SD
= 1.750
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study ML 2008 15+ aged, general public, Mali, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.100
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study CG 2014 15+ aged, general public, Congo (Brazzaville), 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.100
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study GE 2015 15+ aged, general public, Georgia, 2015 N = 996
Mean
= 4.100
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study TD 2007 /1 15+ aged, general public, Chad, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.100
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study ZW 2009 15+ aged, general public, Zimbabwe, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.100
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study YE 2012 15+ aged, general public, Yemen, 2012 N = 2000
Mean
= 4.100
Gallup (2009a): study NE 2010 15+ aged, general public, Niger, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.100
SD
= 1.240
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study SL 2010 15+ aged, general public, Sierra Leone, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.100
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study KH 2009 15+ aged, general public, Cambodia, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.100
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study KH 2010 15+ aged, general public, Cambodia, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.100
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study RW 2011 15+ aged, general public, Rwanda, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.100
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study MR 2007 15+ aged, general public, Mauritania, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.100
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study BW 2013 15+ aged, general public, Botswana, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.100
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study SD 2014 15+ aged, general public, Sudan, 2014 N = 989
Mean
= 4.100
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study GE 2010 15+ aged, general public, Georgia, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.100
Easterlin et al. (2012): study CN 1999 /2 18+ aged, general public, China, 1999 N = 3500
Mean
= 4.110
Gallup (2008a): study ML 2008 15+ aged, general public, Mali, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.110
SD
= 1.500
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KH 2009 15+ aged general public, Cambodia, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.110
SD
= 1.310
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ML 2008 15+ aged general public, Mali, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.110
SD
= 1.500
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GM 2017 15+ aged general public, Gambia, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.120
SD
= 2.480
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GE 2015 15+ aged general public, Georgia, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.120
SD
= 2.050
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CG 2016 15+ aged general public, Congo (Brazzaville), 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.120
SD
= 2.680
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TN 2017 15+ aged general public, Tunisia, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.120
SD
= 2.210
Helliwell et al. (2020): study LR 2018 15+ aged general public, Liberia, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.130
SD
= 3.720
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BW 2013 15+ aged general public, Botswana, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.130
SD
= 2.120
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SL 2010 15+ aged general public, Sierra Leone, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.130
SD
= 2.570
Gallup (2008a): study TD 2007 15+ aged, general public, Chad, 2007 N = 982
Mean
= 4.140
SD
= 1.560
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TD 2007 15+ aged general public, Chad, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.140
SD
= 1.570
Gallup (2008a): study MR 2007 /1 15+ aged, general public, Mauritania, 2007 N = 965
Mean
= 4.140
SD
= 1.890
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SD 2014 15+ aged general public, Sudan, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.140
SD
= 2.620
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KH 2010 15+ aged general public, Cambodia, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.140
SD
= 1.480
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MR 2019 15+ aged general public, Mauritania, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.150
SD
= 2.580
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MR 2007 15+ aged general public, Mauritania, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.150
SD
= 1.900
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MM 2017 15+ aged general public, Myanmar, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.150
SD
= 2.230
Helliwell et al. (2020): study PS 2007 15+ aged general public, Palestine, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.150
SD
= 2.370
Gallup (2008a): study AO 2006 15+ aged, general public, urban areas, Angola, 2006 N = 974
Mean
= 4.150
SD
= 1.860
Gallup (2008a): study GE 2008 15+ aged, general public, Georgia, 2008 N = 1077
Mean
= 4.150
SD
= 1.890
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KH 2011 15+ aged general public, Cambodia, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.160
SD
= 1.330
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KH 2015 15+ aged general public, Cambodia, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.160
SD
= 2.490
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KH 2007 15+ aged general public, Cambodia, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.160
SD
= 1.240
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CF 2007 15+ aged general public, Central African Republic, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.160
SD
= 1.660
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GE 2008 15+ aged general public, Georgia, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.160
SD
= 1.900
Gallup World View (2012): study KH 2011 15+ aged, general public, Cambodia, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.160
SD
= 1.330
Pew Research Center (2007): study TZ 2007 18+ aged, general public, Tanzania, 2007 N = 704
Mean
= 4.165
SD
= 1.920
Gallup (2009a): study EG 2011 15+ aged, general public, Egypt, 2011 N = 5255
Mean
= 4.170
SD
= 2.060
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EG 2011 15+ aged general public, Egypt, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.170
SD
= 2.060
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MM 2013 15+ aged general public, Myanmar, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.180
SD
= 1.740
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IN 2016 15+ aged general public, India, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.180
SD
= 1.740
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ET 2017 15+ aged general public, Ethiopia, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.180
SD
= 1.830
Helliwell et al. (2020): study NE 2014 15+ aged general public, Niger, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.180
SD
= 1.740
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ZW 2014 15+ aged general public, Zimbabwe, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.180
SD
= 2.080
Helliwell et al. (2020): study LK 2011 15+ aged general public, Sri Lanka, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.180
SD
= 1.840
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TG 2019 15+ aged general public, Togo, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.180
SD
= 3.030
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AM 2009 15+ aged general public, Armenia, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.180
SD
= 2.180
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MK 2010 15+ aged general public, North Macedonia, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.180
SD
= 2.170
Gallup (2009a): study LR 2010 15+ aged, general public, Liberia, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.190
SD
= 1.660
Gallup World View (2012): study CI 2009 15+ aged general public Côte d'Ivoire, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.190
SD
= 1.480
Helliwell et al. (2020): study UG 2010 15+ aged general public, Uganda, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.190
SD
= 1.860
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study NE 2008 15+ aged, general public, Niger, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.200
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study PS 2007 15+ aged, general public, Palestina, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.200
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study NE 2014 15+ aged, general public, Niger, 2014 N = 1008
Mean
= 4.200
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study BF 2016 15+ aged, general public, Burkina Faso, 2016 N = 967
Mean
= 4.200
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study NP 2012 15+ aged, general public, Nepal, 2012 N = 2000
Mean
= 4.200
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study MR 2013 15+ aged, general public, Mauritania, 2013 N = 1008
Mean
= 4.200
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study MR 2008 15+ aged, general public, Mauritania, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.200
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study IN 2016 15+ aged, general public, India, 2016 N = 2998
Mean
= 4.200
Helliwell et al. (2020): study LR 2010 15+ aged general public, Liberia, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.200
SD
= 1.660
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study NE 2016 15+ aged, general public, Niger, 2016 N = 986
Mean
= 4.200
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study AF 2016 15+ aged, general public, Afghanistan, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.200
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study MM 2015 15+ aged, general public, Myanmar, 2015 N = 1017
Mean
= 4.200
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study RW 2006 15+ aged, general public, Rwanda, 2006 N = 1504
Mean
= 4.200
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study ZW 2014 15+ aged, general public, Zimbabwe, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.200
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study YE 2013 15+ aged, general public, Yemen, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.200
Gallup (2008a): study CD 2007 15+ aged, general public, Congo (Kinshasa),, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.200
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study LK 2009 15+ aged, general public, Sri Lanka, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.200
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study MM 2013 15+ aged, general public, Myanmar, 2013 N = 1020
Mean
= 4.200
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MR 2013 15+ aged general public, Mauritania, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.200
SD
= 1.620
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study KH 2015 15+ aged, general public, Cambodia, 2015 N = 985
Mean
= 4.200
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study LK 2011 15+ aged, general public, Sri Lanka, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.200
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study LK 2012 15+ aged, general public, Sri Lanka, 2012 N = 2031
Mean
= 4.200
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study UG 2016 15+ aged, general public, Uganda, 2016 N = 992
Mean
= 4.200
Gallup World View (2012): study LR 2011 15+ aged general public Liberia, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.200
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study UG 2010 15+ aged, general public, Uganda, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.200
Helliwell et al. (2020): study YE 2019 15+ aged general public, Yemen, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.200
SD
= 2.580
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study AZ 2010 15+ aged, general public, Azerbaijan, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.200
Gallup World View (2012): study EG 2012 15+ aged general public Egypt, 2012 N = 4178
Mean
= 4.200
SD
= 2.040
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GH 2009 15+ aged general public, Ghana, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.200
SD
= 1.890
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study GE 2011 15+ aged, general public, Georgia, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.200
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GE 2011 15+ aged general public, Georgia, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.200
SD
= 1.960
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study GE 2008 15+ aged, general public, Georgia, 2008 N = 1080
Mean
= 4.200
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study EG 2012 15+ aged, general public, Egypt, 2012 N = 4186
Mean
= 4.200
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study EG 2011 15+ aged, general public, Egypt, 2011 N = 5296
Mean
= 4.200
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EG 2012 15+ aged general public, Egypt, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.200
SD
= 2.050
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study KE 2006 15+ aged, general public, Kenya, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.200
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study AM 2009 15+ aged, general public, Armenia, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.200
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CI 2009 15+ aged general public, Ivory Coast, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.200
SD
= 1.480
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study LR 2008 15+ aged, general public, Liberia, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.200
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study LR 2010 15+ aged, general public, Liberia, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.200
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study CM 2014 15+ aged, general public, Cameroon, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.200
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study CM 2012 15+ aged, general public, Cameroon, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.200
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study KH 2011 15+ aged, general public, Cambodia, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.200
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study KH 2007 /1 15+ aged, general public, Cambodia, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.200
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study BG 2012 15+ aged, general public, Bulgaria, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.200
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study MK 2010 15+ aged, general public, Macedonia, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.200
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study BG 2010 15+ aged, general public, Bulgaria, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.200
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study GH 2009 15+ aged, general public, Ghana, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.200
Gallup (2008a): study RW 2006 15+ aged, general public, Rwanda, 2006 N = 1502
Mean
= 4.210
SD
= 1.550
Helliwell et al. (2020): study LK 2009 15+ aged general public, Sri Lanka, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.210
SD
= 1.990
Helliwell et al. (2020): study RW 2006 15+ aged general public, Rwanda, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.210
SD
= 1.560
Helliwell et al. (2020): study LK 2019 15+ aged general public, Sri Lanka, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.210
SD
= 2.540
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BF 2016 15+ aged general public, Burkina Faso, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.210
SD
= 1.970
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SZ 2018 15+ aged general public, Swaziland, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.210
SD
= 2.430
Gallup World View (2012): study LK 2012 /1 15+ aged general public Sri Lanka, 2012 N = 2001
Mean
= 4.220
SD
= 1.810
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BG 2012 15+ aged general public, Bulgaria, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.220
SD
= 2.170
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KE 2006 15+ aged general public, Kenya, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.220
SD
= 1.750
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AF 2016 15+ aged general public, Afghanistan, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.220
SD
= 1.800
Gallup (2008a): study LR 2008 15+ aged, general public, Liberia, 2008 N = 998
Mean
= 4.220
SD
= 1.520
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AZ 2010 15+ aged general public, Azerbaijan, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.220
SD
= 1.890
Helliwell et al. (2020): study YE 2013 15+ aged general public, Yemen, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.220
SD
= 2.300
Helliwell et al. (2020): study LK 2012 15+ aged general public, Sri Lanka, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.220
SD
= 1.810
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MM 2015 15+ aged general public, Myanmar, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.220
SD
= 1.620
Helliwell et al. (2020): study LR 2008 15+ aged general public, Liberia, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.220
SD
= 1.530
Helliwell et al. (2021): study IN 2020 15+ aged general public, India 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.225
Gallup World View (2012): study NP 2012 /1 15+ aged general public Nepal, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.230
SD
= 1.770
Gallup (2008a): study NE 2008 15+ aged, general public, Niger, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.230
SD
= 1.380
Helliwell et al. (2020): study NP 2012 15+ aged general public, Nepal, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.230
SD
= 1.780
Helliwell et al. (2020): study NE 2016 15+ aged general public, Niger, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.230
SD
= 2.280
Helliwell et al. (2020): study UG 2016 15+ aged general public, Uganda, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.230
SD
= 3.100
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CM 2014 15+ aged general public, Cameroon, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.240
SD
= 2.110
Helliwell et al. (2020): study UG 2015 15+ aged general public, Uganda, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.240
SD
= 2.570
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CM 2012 15+ aged general public, Cameroon, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.240
SD
= 2.240
Helliwell et al. (2020): study NE 2008 15+ aged general public, Niger, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.240
SD
= 1.390
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TD 2019 15+ aged general public, Chad, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.250
SD
= 3.140
Gallup World View (2012): study GE 2012 15+ aged general public Georgia, 2012 N = 995
Mean
= 4.250
SD
= 1.950
Gallup (2009a): study KE 2010 15+ aged, general public, Kenya, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.250
SD
= 1.580
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GE 2012 15+ aged general public, Georgia, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.250
SD
= 1.960
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MR 2008 15+ aged general public, Mauritania, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.250
SD
= 1.610
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GA 2011 15+ aged general public, Gabon, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.260
SD
= 1.940
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AM 2011 15+ aged general public, Armenia, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.260
SD
= 1.950
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KE 2010 15+ aged general public, Kenya, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.260
SD
= 1.580
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TJ 2011 15+ aged general public, Tajikistan, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.260
SD
= 1.380
Gallup World View (2012): study AM 2011 /1 15+ aged, general public, Armenia, 2011 N = 984
Mean
= 4.260
SD
= 1.950
Gallup World View (2012): study MW 2012 15+ aged general public Malawi, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.270
SD
= 2.840
Helliwell et al. (2020): study NE 2009 15+ aged general public, Niger, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.270
SD
= 1.310
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CM 2013 15+ aged general public, Cameroon, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.270
SD
= 2.060
Helliwell et al. (2020): study LK 2014 15+ aged general public, Sri Lanka, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.270
SD
= 1.980
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KE 2009 15+ aged general public, Kenya, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.270
SD
= 1.700
Gallup World View (2012): study CM 2013 15+ aged general public Cameroon, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.270
Helliwell et al. (2020): study NE 2007 15+ aged general public, Niger, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.280
SD
= 1.550
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AM 2013 15+ aged general public, Armenia, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.280
SD
= 2.130
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MZ 2017 15+ aged general public, Mozambique, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.280
SD
= 2.990
Gallup (2008a): study AM 2006 15+ aged, general public, Armenia, 2006 N = 997
Mean
= 4.280
SD
= 1.980
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IR 2018 15+ aged general public, Iran, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.280
SD
= 2.380
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MW 2012 15+ aged general public, Malawi, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.280
SD
= 2.840
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AM 2006 15+ aged general public, Armenia, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.290
SD
= 1.990
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CM 2008 15+ aged general public, Cameroon, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.290
SD
= 1.770
Gallup (2008a): study GN 2007 15+ aged, general public, Guinea, 2007 N = 974
Mean
= 4.290
SD
= 1.480
Easterlin et al. (2012): study CN 2007 18+ aged, general public, China, 2007 N = 3500
Mean
= 4.290
Gallup (2008a): study CM 2008 15+ aged, general public, Cameroon, 2008 N = 997
Mean
= 4.290
SD
= 1.760
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AM 2017 15+ aged general public, Armenia, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.290
SD
= 2.330
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GE 2014 15+ aged general public, Georgia, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.290
SD
= 2.050
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study AM 2013 15+ aged, general public, Armenia, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.300
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study UA 2014 15+ aged, general public, Ukraine, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.300
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study SN 2009 15+ aged, general public, Senegal, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.300
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study NE 2007 15+ aged, general public, Niger, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.300
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study ZM 2014 /1 15+ aged, general public, Zambia, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.300
Gallup (2009a): study GA 2010 15+ aged, general public, Gabon, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.300
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study BD 2006 15+ aged, general public, Bangladesh, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.300
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study MW 2012 15+ aged, general public, Malawi, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.300
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study ML 2012 15+ aged, general public, Mali, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.300
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study UG 2012 15+ aged, general public, Uganda, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.300
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study NP 2010 15+ aged, general public, Nepal, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.300
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study CM 2007 15+ aged, general public, Cameroon, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.300
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study AM 2012 15+ aged, general public, Armenia, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.300
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study CM 2008 15+ aged, general public, Cameroon, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.300
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study ET 2016 15+ aged, general public, Ethiopia, 2016 N = 985
Mean
= 4.300
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study AM 2015 15+ aged, general public, Armenia, 2015 N = 990
Mean
= 4.300
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study SD 2011 15+ aged, general public, Sudan, 2011 N = 2000
Mean
= 4.300
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study CM 2013 15+ aged, general public, Cameroon, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.300
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study ZM 2016 15+ aged, general public, Zambia, 2016 N = 965
Mean
= 4.300
Helliwell et al. (2020): study UA 2014 15+ aged general public, Ukraine, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.300
SD
= 1.950
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study IN 2015 15+ aged, general public, India, 2015 N = 2990
Mean
= 4.300
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study AM 2006 15+ aged, general public, Armenia, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.300
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study AM 2011 15+ aged, general public, Armenia, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.300
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study TD 2015 15+ aged, general public, Chad, 2015 N = 995
Mean
= 4.300
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study NE 2009 15+ aged, general public, Niger, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.300
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study TZ 2007 15+ aged, general public, Tanzania, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.300
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study LK 2006 15+ aged, general public, Sri Lanka, 2006 N = 1033
Mean
= 4.300
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study LK 2014 15+ aged, general public, Sri Lanka, 2014 N = 1062
Mean
= 4.300
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study TJ 2011 15+ aged, general public, Tajikistan, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.300
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study ZM 2014 15+ aged, general public, Zambia, 2014 N = 999
Mean
= 4.300
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study KE 2010 15+ aged, general public, Kenya, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.300
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study KE 2009 15+ aged, general public, Kenya, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.300
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ET 2016 15+ aged general public, Ethiopia, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.300
SD
= 1.810
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study GA 2011 15+ aged, general public, Gabon, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.300
Gallup World View (2012): study UG 2012 15+ aged general public Uganda, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.300
SD
= 1.750
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study GE 2014 15+ aged, general public, Georgia, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.300
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study AM 2016 15+ aged, general public, Armenia, 2016 N = 991
Mean
= 4.300
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study GE 2013 15+ aged, general public, Georgia, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.300
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study GE 2012 15+ aged, general public, Georgia, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.300
Gallup World View (2012): study ML 2012 15+ aged general public Mali, 2012 N = 999
Mean
= 4.310
SD
= 2.040
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ML 2012 15+ aged general public, Mali, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.310
SD
= 2.040
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MR 2018 15+ aged general public, Mauritania, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.310
SD
= 2.120
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SL 2018 15+ aged general public, Sierra Leone, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.310
SD
= 3.050
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SD 2011 15+ aged general public, Sudan, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.310
SD
= 1.800
Gallup (2008a): study TZ 2007 15+ aged, general public, Tanzania, 2007 N = 994
Mean
= 4.310
SD
= 1.880
Gallup (2008a): study BD 2006 15+ aged, general public, Bangladesh, 2006 N = 1048
Mean
= 4.310
SD
= 1.760
Helliwell et al. (2020): study UA 2017 15+ aged general public, Ukraine, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.310
SD
= 2.260
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CD 2017 15+ aged general public, Congo (Kinshasa), 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.310
SD
= 2.640
Helliwell et al. (2020): study UG 2012 15+ aged general public, Uganda, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.310
SD
= 1.750
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BD 2017 15+ aged general public, Bangladesh, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.310
SD
= 1.870
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TD 2015 15+ aged general public, Chad, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.320
SD
= 2.340
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TZ 2007 15+ aged general public, Tanzania, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.320
SD
= 1.860
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BD 2006 15+ aged general public, Bangladesh, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.320
SD
= 1.760
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TN 2019 15+ aged general public, Tunisia, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.320
SD
= 2.650
Helliwell et al. (2020): study UG 2018 15+ aged general public, Uganda, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.320
SD
= 3.030
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AM 2012 15+ aged general public, Armenia, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.320
SD
= 2.260
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AM 2016 15+ aged general public, Armenia, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.330
SD
= 2.130
Helliwell et al. (2020): study LK 2017 15+ aged general public, Sri Lanka, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.330
SD
= 2.230
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EG 2019 15+ aged general public, Egypt, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.330
SD
= 1.930
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MG 2019 15+ aged general public, Madagascar, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.340
SD
= 2.370
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SN 2009 15+ aged general public, Senegal, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.340
SD
= 1.420
Gallup (2009a): study NP 2010 15+ aged, general public, Nepal, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.340
SD
= 1.820
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IN 2015 15+ aged general public, India, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.340
SD
= 2.100
Gallup (2008a): study LK 2006 15+ aged, general public, Sri Lanka, 2006 N = 1029
Mean
= 4.340
SD
= 1.730
Helliwell et al. (2020): study LK 2006 15+ aged general public, Sri Lanka, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.340
SD
= 1.740
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GE 2013 15+ aged general public, Georgia, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.350
SD
= 1.880
Helliwell et al. (2020): study NP 2010 15+ aged general public, Nepal, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.350
SD
= 1.820
Helliwell et al. (2020): study YE 2010 15+ aged general public, Yemen, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.350
SD
= 2.240
Gallup (2009a): study YE 2010 15+ aged, general public, Yemen, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.350
SD
= 2.240
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ZM 2016 15+ aged general public, Zambia, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.350
SD
= 3.200
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CM 2007 15+ aged general public, Cameroon, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.350
SD
= 1.640
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ZM 2014 15+ aged general public, Zambia, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.350
SD
= 2.520
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AM 2015 15+ aged general public, Armenia, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.350
SD
= 2.240
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AO 2012 15+ aged general public, Angola, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.360
SD
= 2.150
Helliwell et al. (2020): study NG 2019 15+ aged general public, Nigeria, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.360
SD
= 2.730
Gallup (2008a): study RW 2008 15+ aged, general public, Rwanda, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.360
SD
= 1.540
Gallup World View (2012): study DJ 2011 15+ aged general public Djibouti, 2011 N = 986
Mean
= 4.360
SD
= 2.370
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KE 2015 15+ aged general public, Kenya, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.360
SD
= 2.100
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TG 2017 15+ aged general public, Togo, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.360
SD
= 2.490
Helliwell et al. (2020): study LK 2013 15+ aged general public, Sri Lanka, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.360
SD
= 1.850
Helliwell et al. (2020): study RW 2008 15+ aged general public, Rwanda, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.360
SD
= 1.540
Gallup (2009a): study ZZ South Sahara Africa 2011 15+ aged, general public, Sub-Sahara Africa, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.365
SD
= 1.808
Gallup (2008a): study CF 2007 15+ aged, general public, Central African Republic, 2007 N = 995
Mean
= 4.370
SD
= 1.800
Gallup (2009a): study SN 2010 15+ aged, general public, Senegal, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.370
SD
= 1.530
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SN 2010 15+ aged general public, Senegal, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.370
SD
= 1.530
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AM 2010 15+ aged general public, Armenia, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.370
SD
= 2.090
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DJ 2011 15+ aged general public, Djibouti, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.370
SD
= 2.380
Helliwell et al. (2021): study KH 2020 15+ aged general public, Cambodia 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.377
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MG 2011 15+ aged general public, Madagascar, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.380
SD
= 1.340
Gallup (2009a): study TJ 2010 15+ aged, general public, Tajikistan, 2011 N = 982
Mean
= 4.380
SD
= 1.280
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MA 2010 15+ aged general public, Morocco, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.380
SD
= 1.550
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ET 2018 15+ aged general public, Ethiopia, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.380
SD
= 1.950
Gallup (2008a): study BI 2006 15+ aged, general public, Burundi, 2006 N = 984
Mean
= 4.380
SD
= 1.400
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TZ 2008 15+ aged general public, Tanzania, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.380
SD
= 1.690
Gallup (2008a): study PS 2008 /1 15+ aged, general public, Palestina, 2008 N = 999
Mean
= 4.380
SD
= 2.520
Gallup (2009a): study MG 2011 15+ aged, general public, Madagascar, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.380
SD
= 1.340
Helliwell et al. (2020): study RS 2009 15+ aged general public, Serbia, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.380
SD
= 2.060
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TJ 2010 15+ aged general public, Tajikistan, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.380
SD
= 1.290
Helliwell et al. (2020): study PS 2008 15+ aged general public, Palestine, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.390
SD
= 2.530
Gallup World View (2012): study TD 2011 /1 15+ aged, general public, Chad, 2011 N = 996
Mean
= 4.390
SD
= 1.740
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SN 2014 15+ aged general public, Senegal, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.390
SD
= 1.370
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TD 2011 15+ aged general public, Chad, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.390
SD
= 1.740
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study RS 2009 15+ aged, general public, Serbia, 2009 N = 1008
Mean
= 4.400
Gallup (2009a): study ET 2010 15+ aged, general public, Ethiopia, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.400
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study SN 2010 15+ aged, general public, Senegal, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.400
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study SN 2014 15+ aged, general public, Senegal, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.400
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study KE 2011 15+ aged, general public, Kenya, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.400
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study SN 2006 15+ aged, general public, Senegal, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.400
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study PK 2008 15+ aged, general public, Pakistan, 2008 N = 2484
Mean
= 4.400
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study MK 2009 15+ aged, general public, Macedonia, 2009 N = 1008
Mean
= 4.400
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study ET 2013 15+ aged, general public, Ethiopia, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.400
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study TJ 2007 15+ aged, general public, Tajikistan, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.400
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study TZ 2008 15+ aged, general public, Tanzania, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.400
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study TJ 2010 15+ aged, general public, Tajikistan, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.400
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study MG 2011 15+ aged, general public, Madagascar, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.400
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SZ 2019 15+ aged general public, Swaziland, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.400
SD
= 2.780
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study KE 2016 15+ aged, general public, Kenya, 2016 N = 996
Mean
= 4.400
Gallup (2008a): study ET 2007 15+ aged, general public, Ethiopia, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.400
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study IQ 2016 15+ aged, general public, Iraq, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.400
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AF 2009 15+ aged general public, Afghanistan, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.400
SD
= 1.720
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study HT 2012 /1 15+ aged, general public, Haiti, 2012 N = 504
Mean
= 4.400
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study LK 2008 15+ aged, general public, Sri Lanka, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.400
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study IN 2014 15+ aged, general public, India, 2014 N = 3000
Mean
= 4.400
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study LK 2013 15+ aged, general public, Sri Lanka, 2013 N = 1030
Mean
= 4.400
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study GE 2016 15+ aged, general public, Georgia, 2016 N = 998
Mean
= 4.400
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study YE 2010 15+ aged, general public, Yemen, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.400
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study DJ 2011 15+ aged, general public, Djibouti, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.400
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study SD 2010 15+ aged, general public, Sudan, 2010 N = 912
Mean
= 4.400
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study MA 2010 15+ aged, general public, Morocco, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.400
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study MM 2012 15+ aged, general public, Myanmar, 2012 N = 1020
Mean
= 4.400
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study BF 2015 15+ aged, general public, Burkina Faso, 2015 N = 993
Mean
= 4.400
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study CM 2011 15+ aged, general public, Cameroon, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.400
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study SN 2006 /1 15+ aged, general public, Senegal, 2006 N = 998
Mean
= 4.400
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study NP 2008 15+ aged, general public, Nepal, 2008 N = 1003
Mean
= 4.400
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study CF 2007 /1 15+ aged, general public, Central African Republic, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.400
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study AM 2010 15+ aged, general public, Armenia, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.400
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study TD 2011 15+ aged, general public, Chad, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.400
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KE 2016 15+ aged general public, Kenya, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.400
SD
= 2.430
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study CI 2015 15+ aged, general public, Côte d’Ivoire, 2015 N = 990
Mean
= 4.400
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study KE 2015 15+ aged, general public, Kenya, 2015 N = 999
Mean
= 4.400
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study RW 2008 15+ aged, general public, Rwanda, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.400
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study BG 2014 15+ aged, general public, Bulgaria, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.400
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study AO 2012 /1 15+ aged, general public, Angola, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.400
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study AF 2009 /2 15+ aged, general public, Afghanistan, 2009 N = 2000
Mean
= 4.400
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study PS 2008 15+ aged, general public, Palestina, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.400
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study CD 2014 /1 15+ aged, general public, Congo (Kinshasa),, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.400
Helliwell et al. (2021): study BJ 2020 15+ aged general public, Benin 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.408
Gallup (2008a): study PK 2008 15+ aged, general public, Pakistan, 2008 N = 2461
Mean
= 4.410
SD
= 2.660
Gallup World View (2012): study HT 2012 15+ aged general public Haiti, 2012 N = 503
Mean
= 4.410
SD
= 1.780
Helliwell et al. (2020): study PK 2008 15+ aged general public, Pakistan, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.410
SD
= 2.670
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CD 2014 15+ aged general public, Congo (Kinshasa), 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.410
SD
= 1.570
Helliwell et al. (2020): study LK 2007 15+ aged general public, Sri Lanka, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.410
SD
= 1.750
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IQ 2016 15+ aged general public, Iraq, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.410
SD
= 2.950
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HT 2012 15+ aged general public, Haiti, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.410
SD
= 1.780
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MM 2018 15+ aged general public, Myanmar, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.410
SD
= 2.290
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KE 2011 15+ aged general public, Kenya, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.410
SD
= 1.740
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IN 2014 15+ aged general public, India, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.420
SD
= 2.340
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SN 2006 15+ aged general public, Senegal, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.420
SD
= 1.480
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ML 2018 15+ aged general public, Mali, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.420
SD
= 2.630
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BF 2015 15+ aged general public, Burkina Faso, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.420
SD
= 2.010
Helliwell et al. (2020): study LR 2017 15+ aged general public, Liberia, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.420
SD
= 3.390
Gallup World View (2012): study MM 2012 15+ aged general public Myanmar, 2012 N = 1016
Mean
= 4.430
SD
= 1.730
Gallup (2008a): study LK 2008 15+ aged, general public, Sri Lanka, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.430
SD
= 1.760
Gallup (2009a): study SD 2010 15+ aged, general public, Sudan, 2011 N = 1807
Mean
= 4.430
SD
= 1.710
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CM 2011 15+ aged general public, Cameroon, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.430
SD
= 1.940
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IN 2013 15+ aged general public, India, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.430
SD
= 2.090
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TJ 2007 15+ aged general public, Tajikistan, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.430
SD
= 1.600
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MM 2019 15+ aged general public, Myanmar, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.430
SD
= 2.330
Helliwell et al. (2020): study LK 2008 15+ aged general public, Sri Lanka, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.430
SD
= 1.770
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MK 2009 15+ aged general public, North Macedonia, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.430
SD
= 1.990
Gallup (2008a): study TJ 2007 15+ aged, general public, Tajikistan, 2007 N = 996
Mean
= 4.430
SD
= 1.590
Helliwell et al. (2021): study MM 2020 15+ aged general public, Myanmar 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.431
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SD 2010 15+ aged general public, Sudan, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.440
SD
= 1.710
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BG 2014 15+ aged general public, Bulgaria, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.440
SD
= 2.000
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ET 2013 15+ aged general public, Ethiopia, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.440
SD
= 1.770
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MM 2012 15+ aged general public, Myanmar, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.440
SD
= 1.730
Helliwell et al. (2020): study NP 2008 15+ aged general public, Nepal, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.440
SD
= 1.530
Helliwell et al. (2020): study NA 2017 15+ aged general public, Namibia, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.440
SD
= 2.740
Helliwell et al. (2020): study LK 2018 15+ aged general public, Sri Lanka, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.440
SD
= 2.360
Helliwell et al. (2020): study NA 2019 15+ aged general public, Namibia, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.440
SD
= 2.910
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SD 2009 15+ aged general public, Sudan, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.450
SD
= 1.880
Helliwell et al. (2020): study JO 2019 15+ aged general public, Jordan, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.450
SD
= 2.940
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CI 2015 15+ aged general public, Ivory Coast, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.450
SD
= 2.210
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GE 2016 15+ aged general public, Georgia, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.450
SD
= 1.960
Easterlin et al. (2012): study CN 2009 18+ aged, general public, China, 2009 N = 4188
Mean
= 4.450
SD
= 1.820
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CN 2009 15+ aged general public, China, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.450
SD
= 1.830
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GE 2017 15+ aged general public, Georgia, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.450
SD
= 1.780
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AM 2014 15+ aged general public, Armenia, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.450
SD
= 2.140
Helliwell et al. (2021): study NA 2020 15+ aged general public, Namibia 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.451
Gallup (2009a): study SY 2010 15+ aged, general public, Syria, 2011 N = 2012
Mean
= 4.460
SD
= 2.150
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KH 2008 15+ aged general public, Cambodia, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.460
SD
= 1.430
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SY 2010 15+ aged general public, Syria, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.460
SD
= 2.150
Gallup (2008a): study NI 2006 15+ aged, general public, Nicaragua, 2006 N = 966
Mean
= 4.460
SD
= 2.710
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KH 2016 15+ aged general public, Cambodia, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.460
SD
= 2.560
Helliwell et al. (2020): study NI 2006 15+ aged general public, Nicaragua, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.460
SD
= 2.720
Helliwell et al. (2020): study UG 2007 15+ aged general public, Uganda, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.460
SD
= 1.600
Helliwell et al. (2020): study RS 2010 15+ aged general public, Serbia, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.460
SD
= 2.000
Gallup (2008a): study KH 2008 15+ aged, general public, Cambodia, 2008 N = 1016
Mean
= 4.460
SD
= 1.420
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IQ 2017 15+ aged general public, Iraq, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.460
SD
= 2.900
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TN 2012 15+ aged general public, Tunisia, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.460
SD
= 2.120
Gallup World View (2012): study TN 2012 15+ aged general public Tunisia, 2012 N = 2029
Mean
= 4.460
SD
= 2.110
Gallup (2008a): study AO 2006 /1 15+ aged, general public, Angola, 2006 N = 974
Mean
= 4.460
SD
= 1.780
Helliwell et al. (2020): study PS 2009 15+ aged general public, Palestine, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.470
SD
= 2.230
Graham & Nikolova (2013a): study ZZ South Sahara Africa 2010 15+ aged general public, Sub-Sahara African countries, 2010- 2012 N = 100000
Mean
= 4.470
SD
= 1.840
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MR 2016 15+ aged general public, Mauritania, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.470
SD
= 2.180
Helliwell et al. (2021): study EG 2020 15+ aged general public, Egypt 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.472
Pew Research Center (2007): study RU 2005 18+ aged, general public, Russia, 2005 N = 991
Mean
= 4.478
SD
= 2.144
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KE 2017 15+ aged general public, Kenya, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.480
SD
= 2.530
Helliwell et al. (2020): study PS 2019 15+ aged general public, Palestine, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.480
SD
= 2.570
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MR 2014 15+ aged general public, Mauritania, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.480
SD
= 1.770
Helliwell et al. (2020): study YE 2007 15+ aged general public, Yemen, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.480
SD
= 1.940
Pew Research Center (2002): study GH 2002 18+ aged, general public, Ghana, 2002 N = 702
Mean
= 4.482
SD
= 1.669
Pew Research Center (2002): study BD 2002 18+ aged, general public, Bangladesh, 2002 N = 689
Mean
= 4.486
SD
= 1.845
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MN 2008 15+ aged general public, Mongolia, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.490
SD
= 1.570
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TD 2018 15+ aged general public, Chad, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.490
SD
= 3.110
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MK 2007 15+ aged general public, North Macedonia, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.490
SD
= 2.200
Gallup World View (2012): study TJ 2012 15+ aged general public Tajikistan, 2012 N = 995
Mean
= 4.490
SD
= 1.140
Gallup (2008a): study MK 2006 15+ aged, general public, Macedonia, 2006 N = 1034
Mean
= 4.490
SD
= 2.200
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IQ 2015 15+ aged general public, Iraq, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.490
SD
= 3.020
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study CN 2009 /1 15+ aged, general public, China, 2009 N = 3833
Mean
= 4.500
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study IQ 2015 15+ aged, general public, Iraq, 2015 N = 977
Mean
= 4.500
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study CD 2011 15+ aged, general public, Congo (Kinshasa),, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.500
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study PS 2009 15+ aged, general public, Palestina, 2009 N = 1014
Mean
= 4.500
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study MR 2009 15+ aged, general public, Mauritania, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.500
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study TN 2012 15+ aged, general public, Tunisia, 2012 N = 2053
Mean
= 4.500
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BD 2018 15+ aged general public, Bangladesh, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.500
SD
= 2.160
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study CG 2011 15+ aged, general public, Congo (Brazzaville), 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.500
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SL 2014 15+ aged general public, Sierra Leone, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.500
SD
= 2.770
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study MR 2014 /1 15+ aged, general public, Mauritania, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.500
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study KE 2012 15+ aged, general public, Kenya, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.500
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study ET 2014 15+ aged, general public, Ethiopia, 2014 N = 1004
Mean
= 4.500
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study TN 2016 15+ aged, general public, Tunisia, 2016 N = 993
Mean
= 4.500
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SL 2011 15+ aged general public, Sierra Leone, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.500
SD
= 2.160
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study AM 2014 15+ aged, general public, Armenia, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.500
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study AL 2016 15+ aged, general public, Albania, 2016 N = 982
Mean
= 4.500
Easterlin et al. (2012): study CN 2004 /2 18+ aged, general public, China, 2004 N = 3500
Mean
= 4.500
Gallup World View (2012): study KE 2012 15+ aged, general public, Kenya, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.500
Gallup World View (2012): study IR 2011 15+ aged, general public, Iran, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.500
Gallup (2009a): study SL 2011 15+ aged, general public, Sierra Leone, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.500
SD
= 2.150
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study UG 2007 15+ aged, general public, Uganda, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.500
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study MK 2006 15+ aged, general public, Macedonia, 2006 N = 1042
Mean
= 4.500
Gallup (2008a): study MK 2007 15+ aged, general public, Macedonia, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.500
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study NI 2006 15+ aged, general public, Nicaragua, 2006 N = 1001
Mean
= 4.500
Gallup (2008a): study YE 2007 15+ aged, general public, Yemen, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.500
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study YE 2006 15+ aged, general public, Yemen, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.500
SD
= 1.900
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study MN 2008 15+ aged, general public, Mongolia, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.500
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study CD 2013 15+ aged, general public, Congo (Kinshasa),, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.500
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study KH 2008 15+ aged, general public, Cambodia, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.500
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CD 2013 15+ aged general public, Congo (Kinshasa), 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.500
SD
= 1.710
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study GH 2016 15+ aged, general public, Ghana, 2016 N = 981
Mean
= 4.500
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study IQ 2014 15+ aged, general public, Iraq, 2014 N = 1003
Mean
= 4.500
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study SL 2011 15+ aged, general public, Sierra Leone, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.500
Helliwell et al. (2020): study MR 2009 15+ aged general public, Mauritania, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.500
SD
= 1.580
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study RS 2010 15+ aged, general public, Serbia, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.500
Gallup World View (2012): study SL 2011 15+ aged general public Sierra Leone, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.500
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study CD 2016 15+ aged, general public, Congo (Kinshasa), 2016 N = 998
Mean
= 4.500
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study CI 2016 15+ aged, general public, Cote d'Ivoire, 2016 N = 972
Mean
= 4.500
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study MR 2016 15+ aged, general public, Mauritania, 2016 N = 994
Mean
= 4.500
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study GH 2006 15+ aged, general public, Ghana, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.500
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study MR 2014 15+ aged, general public, Mauritania, 2014 N = 996
Mean
= 4.500
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TJ 2012 15+ aged general public, Tajikistan, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.500
SD
= 1.150
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study SY 2010 15+ aged, general public, Syria, 2010 N = 1029
Mean
= 4.500
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study KH 2016 15+ aged, general public, Cambodia, 2016 N = 974
Mean
= 4.500
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study IN 2009 15+ aged, general public, India, 2009 N = 3010
Mean
= 4.500
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study TJ 2012 15+ aged, general public, Tajikistan, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.500
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study SL 2014 15+ aged, general public, Sierra Leone, 2014 N = 1008
Mean
= 4.500
Gallup (2009a): study CD 2009 15+ aged, general public, Congo (Kinshasa),, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.500
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study SL 2013 15+ aged, general public, Sierra Leone, 2013 N = 1008
Mean
= 4.500
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study SD 2009 15+ aged, general public, Sudan, 2009 N = 944
Mean
= 4.500
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ZA 2017 15+ aged general public, South Africa, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.510
SD
= 2.420
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AL 2016 15+ aged general public, Albania, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.510
SD
= 2.650
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GH 2016 15+ aged general public, Ghana, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.510
SD
= 2.740
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ET 2014 15+ aged general public, Ethiopia, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.510
SD
= 2.050
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CG 2011 15+ aged general public, Congo (Brazzaville), 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.510
SD
= 1.960
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SL 2013 15+ aged general public, Sierra Leone, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.510
SD
= 2.690
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CD 2016 15+ aged general public, Congo (Kinshasa), 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.520
SD
= 1.630
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IN 2009 15+ aged general public, India, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.520
SD
= 1.970
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TN 2016 15+ aged general public, Tunisia, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.520
SD
= 2.130
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CD 2011 15+ aged general public, Congo (Kinshasa), 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.520
SD
= 1.590