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Happiness Measures

Characteristics

Code:
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-c
Focus:
Contentment: Best-Worst possible life (C-BW)
Time frame:
currently (today, these days, presently) (c)
Mode:
1 question (sq)
Scale Type:
ladder scale (l)
Scale Range:
11

Description

Self report on single question:

Here is ladder representing the 'ladder of life'. Let's suppose the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you; and the bottom, the worst possible life for you. On which step of the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
10 best possible
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 worst possible life

This question was followed (not preceded) by items on life 5 years ago and 5 years from now.

List of Studies Using this Measure

Study Population N Mean
Standard Deviation
Pew Research Center (2002): study ZZ 2002 Adults, general public, 44 nations, 2002 N = 38263
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CZ 2012 15+ aged general public, Czech Republic, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.330
SD
= 2.030
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CY 2009 15+ aged general public, Cyprus, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.830
SD
= 2.030
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CY 2010 15+ aged general public, Cyprus, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.390
SD
= 2.210
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CY 2011 15+ aged general public, Cyprus, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.690
SD
= 2.200
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CY 2012 15+ aged general public, Cyprus, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.180
SD
= 2.210
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CY 2013 15+ aged general public, Cyprus, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.440
SD
= 2.630
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CY 2014 15+ aged general public, Cyprus, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.630
SD
= 2.480
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CY 2015 15+ aged general public, Cyprus, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.440
SD
= 2.400
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CY 2016 15+ aged general public, Cyprus, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.790
SD
= 2.420
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CY 2019 15+ aged general public, Cyprus, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.140
SD
= 2.110
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CZ 2005 15+ aged general public, Czech Republic, 2005 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.440
SD
= 2.060
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CZ 2007 15+ aged general public, Czech Republic, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.500
SD
= 1.990
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CZ 2010 15+ aged general public, Czech Republic, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.250
SD
= 1.880
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CZ 2011 15+ aged general public, Czech Republic, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.330
SD
= 1.930
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CZ 2013 15+ aged general public, Czech Republic, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.700
SD
= 2.000
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CU 2006 15+ aged general public, Cuba, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.420
SD
= 2.130
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CZ 2014 15+ aged general public, Czech Republic, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.480
SD
= 2.030
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CZ 2015 15+ aged general public, Czech Republic, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.610
SD
= 1.800
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CZ 2016 15+ aged general public, Czech Republic, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.740
SD
= 1.680
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DK 2005 15+ aged general public, Denmark, 2005 N = 1000
Mean
= 8.020
SD
= 1.340
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DK 2007 15+ aged general public, Denmark, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.830
SD
= 1.500
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DK 2008 15+ aged general public, Denmark, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.970
SD
= 1.410
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DK 2009 15+ aged general public, Denmark, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.680
SD
= 1.580
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DK 2010 15+ aged general public, Denmark, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.770
SD
= 1.520
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DK 2011 15+ aged general public, Denmark, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.790
SD
= 1.500
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DK 2012 15+ aged general public, Denmark, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.520
SD
= 1.700
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DK 2013 15+ aged general public, Denmark, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.590
SD
= 1.720
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DK 2014 15+ aged general public, Denmark, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.510
SD
= 1.670
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DK 2015 15+ aged general public, Denmark, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.510
SD
= 1.620
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CY 2006 15+ aged general public, Cyprus, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.240
SD
= 2.030
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HR 2019 15+ aged general public, Croatia, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.630
SD
= 1.710
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DK 2019 15+ aged general public, Denmark, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.690
SD
= 1.470
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CR 2011 15+ aged general public, Costa Rica, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.230
SD
= 2.200
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CG 2019 15+ aged general public, Congo (Brazzaville), 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.210
SD
= 3.380
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CD 2009 15+ aged general public, Congo (Kinshasa), 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.980
SD
= 1.700
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CD 2011 15+ aged general public, Congo (Kinshasa), 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.520
SD
= 1.590
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CD 2012 15+ aged general public, Congo (Kinshasa), 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.640
SD
= 1.280
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CD 2013 15+ aged general public, Congo (Kinshasa), 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.500
SD
= 1.710
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CD 2014 15+ aged general public, Congo (Kinshasa), 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.410
SD
= 1.570
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CD 2015 15+ aged general public, Congo (Kinshasa), 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.900
SD
= 1.780
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CD 2016 15+ aged general public, Congo (Kinshasa), 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.520
SD
= 1.630
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CR 2006 15+ aged general public, Costa Rica, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.080
SD
= 2.090
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CR 2007 15+ aged general public, Costa Rica, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.430
SD
= 2.170
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CR 2008 15+ aged general public, Costa Rica, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.850
SD
= 1.980
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CR 2009 15+ aged general public, Costa Rica, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.610
SD
= 1.930
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CR 2010 15+ aged general public, Costa Rica, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.270
SD
= 1.940
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CR 2012 15+ aged general public, Costa Rica, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.270
SD
= 2.140
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HR 2016 15+ aged general public, Croatia, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.420
SD
= 1.930
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CR 2013 15+ aged general public, Costa Rica, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.160
SD
= 2.030
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CR 2014 15+ aged general public, Costa Rica, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.250
SD
= 2.190
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CR 2015 15+ aged general public, Costa Rica, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.850
SD
= 2.260
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CR 2016 15+ aged general public, Costa Rica, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.140
SD
= 2.140
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CR 2019 15+ aged general public, Costa Rica, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.000
SD
= 2.150
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HR 2007 15+ aged general public, Croatia, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.820
SD
= 2.120
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HR 2009 15+ aged general public, Croatia, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.430
SD
= 1.940
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HR 2010 15+ aged general public, Croatia, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.600
SD
= 1.990
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HR 2011 15+ aged general public, Croatia, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.390
SD
= 2.010
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HR 2012 15+ aged general public, Croatia, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.030
SD
= 2.060
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HR 2013 15+ aged general public, Croatia, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.890
SD
= 1.990
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HR 2014 15+ aged general public, Croatia, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.380
SD
= 1.940
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HR 2015 15+ aged general public, Croatia, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.210
SD
= 1.790
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DK 2016 15+ aged general public, Denmark, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.560
SD
= 1.610
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DJ 2008 15+ aged general public, Djibouti, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.010
SD
= 1.500
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CG 2015 15+ aged general public, Congo (Brazzaville), 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.690
SD
= 2.950
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SV 2014 15+ aged general public, El Salvador, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.860
SD
= 2.580
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EG 2013 15+ aged general public, Egypt, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.560
SD
= 2.750
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EG 2014 15+ aged general public, Egypt, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.890
SD
= 2.210
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EG 2015 15+ aged general public, Egypt, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.760
SD
= 2.180
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EG 2016 15+ aged general public, Egypt, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.560
SD
= 2.060
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EG 2019 15+ aged general public, Egypt, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.330
SD
= 1.930
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SV 2006 15+ aged general public, El Salvador, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.700
SD
= 2.190
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SV 2007 15+ aged general public, El Salvador, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.300
SD
= 2.190
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SV 2008 15+ aged general public, El Salvador, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.190
SD
= 2.120
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SV 2009 15+ aged general public, El Salvador, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.840
SD
= 1.930
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SV 2010 15+ aged general public, El Salvador, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.740
SD
= 2.160
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SV 2011 15+ aged general public, El Salvador, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.740
SD
= 2.580
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SV 2012 15+ aged general public, El Salvador, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.930
SD
= 2.340
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SV 2013 15+ aged general public, El Salvador, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.330
SD
= 2.260
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SV 2015 15+ aged general public, El Salvador, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.020
SD
= 2.580
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EG 2011 15+ aged general public, Egypt, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.170
SD
= 2.060
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SV 2016 15+ aged general public, El Salvador, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.140
SD
= 2.600
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SV 2019 15+ aged general public, El Salvador, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.450
SD
= 2.740
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EE 2006 15+ aged general public, Estonia, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.370
SD
= 1.700
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EE 2007 15+ aged general public, Estonia, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.330
SD
= 1.700
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EE 2008 15+ aged general public, Estonia, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.450
SD
= 1.650
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EE 2009 15+ aged general public, Estonia, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.140
SD
= 1.900
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EE 2011 15+ aged general public, Estonia, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.490
SD
= 1.950
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EE 2012 15+ aged general public, Estonia, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.360
SD
= 1.960
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EE 2013 15+ aged general public, Estonia, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.370
SD
= 1.830
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EE 2014 15+ aged general public, Estonia, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.560
SD
= 1.860
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EE 2015 15+ aged general public, Estonia, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.630
SD
= 1.890
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EE 2016 15+ aged general public, Estonia, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.650
SD
= 1.750
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EE 2019 15+ aged general public, Estonia, 2019 N = 0
Mean
= 6.030
SD
= 1.840
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EG 2012 15+ aged general public, Egypt, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.200
SD
= 2.050
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EG 2010 15+ aged general public, Egypt, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.670
SD
= 2.110
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DJ 2009 15+ aged general public, Djibouti, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.910
SD
= 1.380
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DO 2019 15+ aged general public, Dominican Republic, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.000
SD
= 3.220
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DJ 2010 15+ aged general public, Djibouti, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.010
SD
= 2.150
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DJ 2011 15+ aged general public, Djibouti, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.370
SD
= 2.380
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DO 2006 15+ aged general public, Dominican Republic, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.090
SD
= 3.070
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DO 2007 15+ aged general public, Dominican Rebublic, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.080
SD
= 2.850
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DO 2008 15+ aged general public, Dominican Republic, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.840
SD
= 3.100
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DO 2009 15+ aged general public, Dominican Republic, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.430
SD
= 3.130
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DO 2010 15+ aged general public, Dominican Republic, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.740
SD
= 3.220
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DO 2011 15+ aged general public, Domican Republic, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.400
SD
= 3.000
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DO 2012 15+ aged general public, Dominican Republic, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.750
SD
= 2.740
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DO 2013 15+ aged general public, Dominican Republic, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.020
SD
= 2.800
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DO 2014 15+ aged general public, Dominican Republic, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.390
SD
= 2.990
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DO 2015 15+ aged general public, Dominican Republic, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.060
SD
= 2.930
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DO 2016 15+ aged general public, Dominican Republic, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.240
SD
= 3.110
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EC 2006 15+ aged general public, Ecuador, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.020
SD
= 2.370
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EG 2009 15+ aged general public, Egypt, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.070
SD
= 1.850
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EC 2007 15+ aged general public, Ecuador, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.000
SD
= 2.100
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EC 2008 15+ aged general public, Ecuador, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.300
SD
= 2.120
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EC 2009 15+ aged general public, Ecuador, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.020
SD
= 2.230
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EC 2010 15+ aged general public, Ecuador, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.840
SD
= 1.950
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EC 2011 15+ aged general public, Ecuador, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.800
SD
= 2.300
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EC 2012 15+ aged general public, Ecuador, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.960
SD
= 2.130
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EC 2013 15+ aged general public, Ecuador, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.020
SD
= 2.190
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EC 2014 15+ aged general public, Ecuador, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.950
SD
= 2.220
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EC 2015 15+ aged general public, Ecuador, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.960
SD
= 2.470
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EC 2016 15+ aged general public, Ecuador, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.120
SD
= 2.430
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EC 2019 15+ aged general public, Ecuador, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.810
SD
= 2.490
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EG 2005 15+ aged general public, Egypt, 2005 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.170
SD
= 2.660
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EG 2007 15+ aged general public, Egypt, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.540
SD
= 2.600
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EG 2008 15+ aged general public, Egypt, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.630
SD
= 2.380
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CG 2016 15+ aged general public, Congo (Brazzaville), 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.120
SD
= 2.680
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CG 2014 15+ aged general public, Congo (Brazzaville), 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.060
SD
= 2.440
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ET 2013 15+ aged general public, Ethiopia, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.440
SD
= 1.770
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CM 2010 15+ aged general public, Cameroon, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.550
SD
= 1.600
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KH 2009 15+ aged general public, Cambodia, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.110
SD
= 1.310
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KH 2010 15+ aged general public, Cambodia, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.140
SD
= 1.480
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KH 2011 15+ aged general public, Cambodia, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.160
SD
= 1.330
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KH 2012 15+ aged general public, Cambodia, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.900
SD
= 1.700
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KH 2013 15+ aged general public, Cambodia, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.670
SD
= 2.040
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KH 2014 15+ aged general public, Cambodia, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.880
SD
= 2.570
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KH 2015 15+ aged general public, Cambodia, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.160
SD
= 2.490
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KH 2016 15+ aged general public, Cambodia, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.460
SD
= 2.560
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KH 2019 15+ aged general public, Cambodia, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.000
SD
= 2.830
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CM 2006 15+ aged general public, Cameroon, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.850
SD
= 1.860
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CM 2007 15+ aged general public, Cameroon, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.350
SD
= 1.640
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CM 2008 15+ aged general public, Cameroon, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.290
SD
= 1.770
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CM 2009 15+ aged general public, Cameroon, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.740
SD
= 1.860
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CM 2011 15+ aged general public, Cameroon, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.430
SD
= 1.940
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KH 2007 15+ aged general public, Cambodia, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.160
SD
= 1.240
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CM 2012 15+ aged general public, Cameroon, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.240
SD
= 2.240
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CM 2013 15+ aged general public, Cameroon, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.270
SD
= 2.060
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CM 2014 15+ aged general public, Cameroon, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.240
SD
= 2.110
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CM 2015 15+ aged general public, Cameroon, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.040
SD
= 2.520
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CM 2016 15+ aged general public, Cameroon, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.820
SD
= 2.360
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CM 2019 15+ aged general public, Cameroon, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.940
SD
= 2.740
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CA 2005 15+ aged general public, Canada, 2005 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.420
SD
= 1.640
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CA 2007 15+ aged general public, Canada, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.480
SD
= 1.820
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CA 2008 15+ aged general public, Canada, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.490
SD
= 1.620
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CA 2009 15+ aged general public, Canada, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.490
SD
= 1.610
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CA 2010 15+ aged general public, Canada, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.650
SD
= 1.750
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CA 2011 15+ aged general public, Canada, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.430
SD
= 1.820
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CA 2012 15+ aged general public, Canada, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.420
SD
= 1.770
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KH 2008 15+ aged general public, Cambodia, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.460
SD
= 1.430
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KH 2006 15+ aged general public, Cambodia, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.570
SD
= 1.680
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CA 2014 15+ aged general public, Canada, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.300
SD
= 1.760
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BG 2016 15+ aged general public, Bulgaria, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.840
SD
= 1.920
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BR 2012 15+ aged general public, Brazil, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.660
SD
= 2.400
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BR 2013 15+ aged general public, Brazil, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.140
SD
= 2.190
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BR 2014 15+ aged general public, Brazil, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.980
SD
= 2.110
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BR 2015 15+ aged general public, Brazil, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.550
SD
= 2.260
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BR 2016 15+ aged general public, Brazil, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.370
SD
= 2.520
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BR 2019 15+ aged general public, Brazil, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.450
SD
= 2.490
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BG 2007 15+ aged general public, Bulgaria, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.840
SD
= 1.950
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BG 2010 15+ aged general public, Bulgaria, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.910
SD
= 1.970
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BG 2011 15+ aged general public, Bulgaria, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.880
SD
= 1.990
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BG 2012 15+ aged general public, Bulgaria, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.220
SD
= 2.170
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BG 2013 15+ aged general public, Bulgaria, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.990
SD
= 2.120
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BG 2014 15+ aged general public, Bulgaria, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.440
SD
= 2.000
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BG 2015 15+ aged general public, Bulgaria, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.870
SD
= 2.200
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BG 2019 15+ aged general public, Bulgaria, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.110
SD
= 2.050
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BI 2014 15+ aged general public, Burundi, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 2.900
SD
= 2.220
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BF 2006 15+ aged general public, Burkina Faso, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.800
SD
= 1.570
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BF 2007 15+ aged general public, Burkina Faso, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.020
SD
= 1.280
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BF 2008 15+ aged general public, Burkina Faso, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.850
SD
= 1.420
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BF 2010 15+ aged general public, Burkina Faso, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.040
SD
= 1.400
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BF 2011 15+ aged general public, Burkina Faso, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.790
SD
= 1.610
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BF 2012 15+ aged general public, Burkina Faso, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.960
SD
= 1.760
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BF 2013 15+ aged general public, Burkina Faso, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.330
SD
= 1.680
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BF 2014 15+ aged general public, Burkina Faso, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.480
SD
= 2.150
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BF 2015 15+ aged general public, Burkina Faso, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.420
SD
= 2.010
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BF 2016 15+ aged general public, Burkina Faso, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.210
SD
= 1.970
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BF 2019 15+ aged general public, Burkina Faso, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.740
SD
= 2.850
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BI 2008 15+ aged general public, Burundi, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.560
SD
= 1.540
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BI 2009 15+ aged general public, Burundi, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.790
SD
= 1.500
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BI 2011 15+ aged general public, Burundi, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.710
SD
= 1.750
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CA 2013 15+ aged general public, Canada, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.590
SD
= 1.660
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CA 2015 15+ aged general public, Canada, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.410
SD
= 1.610
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CG 2013 15+ aged general public, Congo (Brazzaville), 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.950
SD
= 2.910
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CO 2011 15+ aged general public, Colombia, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.460
SD
= 2.370
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CN 2010 15+ aged general public, China, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.650
SD
= 1.880
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CN 2011 15+ aged general public, China, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.040
SD
= 1.880
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CN 2012 15+ aged general public, China, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.090
SD
= 2.080
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CN 2013 15+ aged general public, China, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.240
SD
= 1.880
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CN 2014 15+ aged general public, China, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.200
SD
= 1.780
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CN 2015 15+ aged general public, China, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.300
SD
= 2.070
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CN 2016 15+ aged general public, China, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.320
SD
= 2.000
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CN 2019 15+ aged general public, China, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.140
SD
= 2.250
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CO 2006 15+ aged general public, Colombia, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.020
SD
= 2.400
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CO 2007 15+ aged general public, Colombia, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.140
SD
= 2.450
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CO 2008 15+ aged general public, Colombia, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.170
SD
= 2.400
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CO 2009 15+ aged general public, Colombia, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.270
SD
= 2.470
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CO 2010 15+ aged general public, Colombia, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.410
SD
= 2.560
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CO 2012 15+ aged general public, Colombia, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.370
SD
= 2.530
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CN 2008 15+ aged general public, China, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.850
SD
= 1.800
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CO 2013 15+ aged general public, Colombia, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.610
SD
= 2.400
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CO 2014 15+ aged general public, Colombia, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.450
SD
= 2.300
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CO 2015 15+ aged general public, Colombia, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.390
SD
= 2.250
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CO 2016 15+ aged general public, Colombia, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.230
SD
= 2.570
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CO 2019 15+ aged general public, Colombia, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.350
SD
= 2.700
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KM 2009 15+ aged general public, Comoros, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.480
SD
= 1.470
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KM 2010 15+ aged general public, Comoros, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.810
SD
= 1.660
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KM 2011 15+ aged general public, Comoros, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.840
SD
= 1.350
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KM 2012 15+ aged general public, Comoros, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.960
SD
= 1.390
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KM 2019 15+ aged general public, Comoros, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.610
SD
= 3.230
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CG 2008 15+ aged general public, Congo (Brazzaville), 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.820
SD
= 2.000
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CG 2011 15+ aged general public, Congo (Brazzaville), 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.510
SD
= 1.960
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CG 2012 15+ aged general public, Congo (Brazzaville), 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.920
SD
= 2.120
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CN 2009 15+ aged general public, China, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.450
SD
= 1.830
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CN 2007 15+ aged general public, China, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.860
SD
= 1.780
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CA 2016 15+ aged general public, Canada, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.240
SD
= 1.780
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TD 2014 15+ aged general public, Chad, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.460
SD
= 1.610
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CA 2019 15+ aged general public, Canada, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.110
SD
= 1.780
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CF 2007 15+ aged general public, Central African Republic, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.160
SD
= 1.660
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CF 2010 15+ aged general public, Central African Republic, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.570
SD
= 1.500
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CF 2011 15+ aged general public, Central African Republic, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.680
SD
= 1.710
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CF 2016 15+ aged general public, Central African Republic, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 2.690
SD
= 2.250
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TD 2006 15+ aged general public, Chad, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.430
SD
= 1.710
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TD 2007 15+ aged general public, Chad, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.140
SD
= 1.570
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TD 2008 15+ aged general public, Chad, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.630
SD
= 1.350
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TD 2009 15+ aged general public, Chad, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.640
SD
= 1.300
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TD 2010 15+ aged general public, Chad, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.740
SD
= 1.340
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TD 2011 15+ aged general public, Chad, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.390
SD
= 1.740
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TD 2012 15+ aged general public, Chad, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.030
SD
= 1.580
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TD 2013 15+ aged general public, Chad, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.510
SD
= 1.640
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TD 2015 15+ aged general public, Chad, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.320
SD
= 2.340
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CN 2006 15+ aged general public, China, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.560
SD
= 1.970
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TD 2016 15+ aged general public, Chad, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.030
SD
= 2.440
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TD 2019 15+ aged general public, Chad, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.250
SD
= 3.140
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CL 2006 15+ aged general public, Chile, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.060
SD
= 2.210
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CL 2007 15+ aged general public, Chile, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.700
SD
= 2.170
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CL 2008 15+ aged general public, Chile, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.790
SD
= 2.390
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CL 2009 15+ aged general public, Chile, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.490
SD
= 2.210
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CL 2010 15+ aged general public, Chile, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.640
SD
= 2.180
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CL 2011 15+ aged general public, Chile, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.530
SD
= 2.070
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CL 2012 15+ aged general public, Chile, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.600
SD
= 2.120
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CL 2013 15+ aged general public, Chile, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.740
SD
= 2.100
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CL 2014 15+ aged general public, Chile, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.840
SD
= 2.060
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CL 2015 15+ aged general public, Chile, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.530
SD
= 1.940
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CL 2016 15+ aged general public, Chile, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.580
SD
= 1.990
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CL 2019 15+ aged general public, Chile, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.940
SD
= 2.120
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ET 2012 15+ aged general public, Ethiopia, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.560
SD
= 1.860
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ET 2014 15+ aged general public, Ethiopia, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.510
SD
= 2.050
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BR 2010 15+ aged general public, Brazil, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.840
SD
= 2.260
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IR 2012 15+ aged general public, Iran, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.610
SD
= 2.500
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ID 2009 15+ aged general public, Indonesia, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.470
SD
= 1.720
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ID 2010 15+ aged general public, Indonesia, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.460
SD
= 1.600
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ID 2011 15+ aged general public, Indonesia, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.170
SD
= 1.440
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ID 2012 15+ aged general public, Indonesia, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.370
SD
= 1.600
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ID 2013 15+ aged general public, Indonesia, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.290
SD
= 1.640
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ID 2014 15+ aged general public, Indonesia, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.600
SD
= 1.620
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ID 2015 15+ aged general public, Indonesia, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.040
SD
= 2.070
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ID 2016 15+ aged general public, Indonesia, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.140
SD
= 2.550
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ID 2019 15+ aged general public, Indonesia, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.350
SD
= 2.650
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IR 2005 15+ aged general public, Iran, 2005 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.310
SD
= 2.000
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IR 2007 15+ aged general public, Iran, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.340
SD
= 2.240
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IR 2008 15+ aged general public, Iran, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.130
SD
= 2.050
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IR 2011 15+ aged general public, Iran, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.770
SD
= 2.450
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IR 2013 15+ aged general public, Iran, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.140
SD
= 2.530
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ID 2007 15+ aged general public, Indonesia, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.100
SD
= 1.490
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IR 2014 15+ aged general public, Iran, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.680
SD
= 2.660
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IR 2015 15+ aged general public, Iran, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.750
SD
= 2.520
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IR 2016 15+ aged general public, Iran, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.650
SD
= 2.540
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IR 2019 15+ aged general public, Iran, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.010
SD
= 2.550
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IQ 2008 15+ aged general public, Iraq, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.590
SD
= 1.730
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IQ 2009 15+ aged general public, Iraq, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.780
SD
= 1.710
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IQ 2010 15+ aged general public, Iraq, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.070
SD
= 1.710
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IQ 2011 15+ aged general public, Iraq, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.730
SD
= 1.750
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IQ 2012 15+ aged general public, Iraq, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.660
SD
= 1.970
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IQ 2013 15+ aged general public, Iraq, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.730
SD
= 3.010
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IQ 2014 15+ aged general public, Iraq, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.540
SD
= 2.980
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IQ 2015 15+ aged general public, Iraq, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.490
SD
= 3.020
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IQ 2016 15+ aged general public, Iraq, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.410
SD
= 2.950
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ID 2008 15+ aged general public, Indonesia, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.820
SD
= 1.580
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ID 2006 15+ aged general public, Indonesia, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.950
SD
= 1.710
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IE 2006 15+ aged general public, Ireland, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.140
SD
= 1.820
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IS 2012 15+ aged general public, Iceland, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.590
SD
= 1.570
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HU 2005 15+ aged general public, Hungary, 2005 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.190
SD
= 2.070
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HU 2007 15+ aged general public, Hungary, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.950
SD
= 2.080
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HU 2009 15+ aged general public, Hungary, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.890
SD
= 2.090
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HU 2010 15+ aged general public, Hungary, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.730
SD
= 1.970
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HU 2011 15+ aged general public, Hungary, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.920
SD
= 2.090
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HU 2012 15+ aged general public, Hungary, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.680
SD
= 2.090
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HU 2013 15+ aged general public, Hungary, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.910
SD
= 2.270
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HU 2014 15+ aged general public, Hungary, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.180
SD
= 1.880
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HU 2015 15+ aged general public, Hungary, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.340
SD
= 1.880
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HU 2016 15+ aged general public, Hungary, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.450
SD
= 1.850
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HU 2018 15+ aged general public, Hungary, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.940
SD
= 1.790
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HU 2019 15+ aged general public, Hungary, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.000
SD
= 2.000
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IS 2008 15+ aged general public, Iceland, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.890
SD
= 1.950
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IS 2013 15+ aged general public, Iceland, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.500
SD
= 1.570
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IN 2019 15+ aged general public, India, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.250
SD
= 2.960
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IS 2015 15+ aged general public, Iceland, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.500
SD
= 1.690
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IS 2016 15+ aged general public, Iceland, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.510
SD
= 1.570
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IS 2019 15+ aged general public, Iceland, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.530
SD
= 1.550
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IN 2006 15+ aged general public, India, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.350
SD
= 1.950
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IN 2007 15+ aged general public, India, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.030
SD
= 1.620
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IN 2008 15+ aged general public, India, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.150
SD
= 1.630
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IN 2009 15+ aged general public, India, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.520
SD
= 1.970
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IN 2010 15+ aged general public, India, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.990
SD
= 1.940
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IN 2011 15+ aged general public, India, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.630
SD
= 1.790
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IN 2012 15+ aged general public, India, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.720
SD
= 1.960
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IN 2013 15+ aged general public, India, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.430
SD
= 2.090
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IN 2014 15+ aged general public, India, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.420
SD
= 2.340
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IN 2015 15+ aged general public, India, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.340
SD
= 2.100
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IN 2016 15+ aged general public, India, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.180
SD
= 1.740
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IQ 2018 15+ aged general public, Iraq, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.100
SD
= 2.560
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IE 2008 15+ aged general public, Ireland, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.570
SD
= 1.510
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HK 2016 15+ aged general public, Hong Kong, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.500
SD
= 1.820
Helliwell et al. (2020): study JP 2015 15+ aged general public, Japan, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.880
SD
= 1.810
Helliwell et al. (2020): study JM 2011 15+ aged general public, Jamaica, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.370
SD
= 2.330
Helliwell et al. (2020): study JM 2013 15+ aged general public, Jamaica, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.710
SD
= 2.760
Helliwell et al. (2020): study JM 2014 15+ aged general public, Jamaica, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.310
SD
= 2.760
Helliwell et al. (2020): study JM 2017 15+ aged general public, Jamaica, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.890
SD
= 2.400
Helliwell et al. (2020): study JP 2005 15+ aged general public, Japan, 2005 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.520
SD
= 1.790
Helliwell et al. (2020): study JP 2007 15+ aged general public, Japan, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.240
SD
= 1.990
Helliwell et al. (2020): study JP 2008 15+ aged general public, Japan, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.910
SD
= 1.930
Helliwell et al. (2020): study JP 2009 15+ aged general public, Japan, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.840
SD
= 1.860
Helliwell et al. (2020): study JP 2010 15+ aged general public, Japan, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.060
SD
= 1.980
Helliwell et al. (2020): study JP 2011 15+ aged general public, Japan, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.260
SD
= 1.990
Helliwell et al. (2020): study JP 2012 15+ aged general public, Japan, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.970
SD
= 1.900
Helliwell et al. (2020): study JP 2013 15+ aged general public, Japan, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.960
SD
= 1.910
Helliwell et al. (2020): study JP 2014 15+ aged general public, Japan, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.920
SD
= 1.890
Helliwell et al. (2020): study JP 2016 15+ aged general public, Japan, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.950
SD
= 1.900
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CI 2009 15+ aged general public, Ivory Coast, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.200
SD
= 1.480
Helliwell et al. (2020): study JP 2019 15+ aged general public, Japan, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.910
SD
= 1.880
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CI 2013 15+ aged general public, Ivory Coast, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.740
SD
= 2.010
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CI 2014 15+ aged general public, Ivory Coast, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.570
SD
= 1.600
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CI 2015 15+ aged general public, Ivory Coast, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.450
SD
= 2.210
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CI 2016 15+ aged general public, Ivory Coast, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.540
SD
= 2.460
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CI 2019 15+ aged general public, Ivory Coast, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.390
SD
= 3.240
Helliwell et al. (2020): study JO 2005 15+ aged general public, Jordan, 2005 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.290
SD
= 2.010
Helliwell et al. (2020): study JO 2007 15+ aged general public, Jordan, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.600
SD
= 2.100
Helliwell et al. (2020): study JO 2008 15+ aged general public, Jordan, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.930
SD
= 2.430
Helliwell et al. (2020): study JO 2009 15+ aged general public, Jordan, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.000
SD
= 1.860
Helliwell et al. (2020): study JO 2010 15+ aged general public, Jordan, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.570
SD
= 2.230
Helliwell et al. (2020): study JO 2011 15+ aged general public, Jordan, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.540
SD
= 2.110
Helliwell et al. (2020): study JO 2012 15+ aged general public, Jordan, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.130
SD
= 2.100
Helliwell et al. (2020): study JM 2006 15+ aged general public, Jamaica, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.210
SD
= 1.920
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IT 2019 15+ aged general public, Italy, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.450
SD
= 1.700
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IE 2009 15+ aged general public, Ireland, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.050
SD
= 1.810
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IL 2011 15+ aged general public, Israel, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.430
SD
= 1.820
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IE 2010 15+ aged general public, Ireland, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.260
SD
= 1.910
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IE 2011 15+ aged general public, Ireland, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.010
SD
= 1.890
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IE 2012 15+ aged general public, Ireland, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.960
SD
= 1.870
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IE 2013 15+ aged general public, Ireland, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.760
SD
= 1.980
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IE 2014 15+ aged general public, Ireland, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.020
SD
= 1.670
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IE 2015 15+ aged general public, Ireland, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.830
SD
= 1.770
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IE 2016 15+ aged general public, Ireland, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.040
SD
= 1.840
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IE 2019 15+ aged general public, Ireland, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.250
SD
= 1.680
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IL 2006 15+ aged general public, Israel, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.170
SD
= 1.850
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IL 2007 15+ aged general public, Israel, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.840
SD
= 2.050
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IL 2008 15+ aged general public, Israel, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.260
SD
= 1.900
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IL 2009 15+ aged general public, Israel, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.350
SD
= 1.750
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IL 2010 15+ aged general public, Israel, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.360
SD
= 1.590
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IL 2012 15+ aged general public, Israel, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.110
SD
= 1.740
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IT 2016 15+ aged general public, Italy, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.950
SD
= 1.870
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IL 2013 15+ aged general public, Israel, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.320
SD
= 1.610
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IL 2014 15+ aged general public, Israel, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.400
SD
= 1.580
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IL 2015 15+ aged general public, Israel, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.080
SD
= 1.780
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IL 2016 15+ aged general public, Israel, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.160
SD
= 1.670
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IT 2005 15+ aged general public, Italy, 2005 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.850
SD
= 1.880
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IT 2007 15+ aged general public, Italy, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.570
SD
= 1.860
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IT 2008 15+ aged general public, Italy, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.780
SD
= 1.950
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IT 2009 15+ aged general public, Italy, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.330
SD
= 2.200
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IT 2010 15+ aged general public, Italy, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.350
SD
= 1.960
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IT 2011 15+ aged general public, Italy, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.060
SD
= 1.630
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IT 2012 15+ aged general public, Italy, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.840
SD
= 2.190
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IT 2013 15+ aged general public, Italy, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.010
SD
= 1.700
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IT 2014 15+ aged general public, Italy, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.030
SD
= 2.010
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IT 2015 15+ aged general public, Italy, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.850
SD
= 1.670
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HK 2019 15+ aged general public, Hong Kong, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.660
SD
= 1.800
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HK 2014 15+ aged general public, Hong Kong, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.460
SD
= 1.810
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ET 2015 15+ aged general public, Ethiopia, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.570
SD
= 1.870
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DE 2008 15+ aged general public, Germany, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.520
SD
= 1.770
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GE 2007 15+ aged general public, Georgia, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.710
SD
= 1.820
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GE 2008 15+ aged general public, Georgia, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.160
SD
= 1.900
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GE 2009 15+ aged general public, Georgia, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.800
SD
= 2.010
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GE 2010 15+ aged general public, Georgia, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.100
SD
= 1.870
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GE 2011 15+ aged general public, Georgia, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.200
SD
= 1.960
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GE 2012 15+ aged general public, Georgia, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.250
SD
= 1.960
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GE 2013 15+ aged general public, Georgia, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.350
SD
= 1.880
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GE 2014 15+ aged general public, Georgia, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.290
SD
= 2.050
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GE 2015 15+ aged general public, Georgia, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.120
SD
= 2.050
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GE 2016 15+ aged general public, Georgia, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.450
SD
= 1.960
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GE 2019 15+ aged general public, Georgia, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.890
SD
= 2.170
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DE 2005 15+ aged general public, Germany, 2005 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.620
SD
= 1.800
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DE 2007 15+ aged general public, Germany, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.420
SD
= 1.870
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DE 2009 15+ aged general public, Germany, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.640
SD
= 1.870
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GM 2019 15+ aged general public, Gambia, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.160
SD
= 3.450
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DE 2010 15+ aged general public, Germany, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.720
SD
= 1.860
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DE 2011 15+ aged general public, Germany, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.620
SD
= 1.850
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DE 2012 15+ aged general public, Germany, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.700
SD
= 1.830
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DE 2013 15+ aged general public, Germany, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.970
SD
= 1.820
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DE 2014 15+ aged general public, Germany, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.980
SD
= 1.660
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DE 2015 15+ aged general public, Germany, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.040
SD
= 1.650
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DE 2016 15+ aged general public, Germany, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.870
SD
= 1.780
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DE 2019 15+ aged general public, Germany, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.040
SD
= 1.770
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GH 2006 15+ aged general public, Ghana, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.540
SD
= 1.800
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GH 2007 15+ aged general public, Ghana, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.220
SD
= 1.950
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GH 2008 15+ aged general public, Ghana, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.970
SD
= 1.620
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GH 2009 15+ aged general public, Ghana, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.200
SD
= 1.890
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GH 2010 15+ aged general public, Ghana, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.610
SD
= 1.770
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GE 2006 15+ aged general public, Georgia, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.680
SD
= 1.930
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GA 2019 15+ aged general public, Gabon, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.910
SD
= 2.620
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GH 2012 15+ aged general public, Ghana, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.060
SD
= 2.140
Helliwell et al. (2020): study FR 2006 15+ aged general public, France, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.580
SD
= 1.800
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ET 2016 15+ aged general public, Ethiopia, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.300
SD
= 1.810
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ET 2019 15+ aged general public, Ethiopia, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.100
SD
= 2.310
Helliwell et al. (2020): study FI 2006 15+ aged general public, Finland, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.670
SD
= 1.360
Helliwell et al. (2020): study FI 2008 15+ aged general public, Finland, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.670
SD
= 1.420
Helliwell et al. (2020): study FI 2010 15+ aged general public, Finland, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.390
SD
= 1.670
Helliwell et al. (2020): study FI 2011 15+ aged general public, Finland, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.350
SD
= 1.610
Helliwell et al. (2020): study FI 2012 15+ aged general public, Finland, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.420
SD
= 1.630
Helliwell et al. (2020): study FI 2013 15+ aged general public, Finland, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.440
SD
= 1.560
Helliwell et al. (2020): study FI 2014 15+ aged general public, Finland, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.380
SD
= 1.610
Helliwell et al. (2020): study FI 2015 15+ aged general public, Finland, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.450
SD
= 1.570
Helliwell et al. (2020): study FI 2016 15+ aged general public, Finland, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.660
SD
= 1.480
Helliwell et al. (2020): study FI 2019 15+ aged general public, Finland, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.780
SD
= 1.430
Helliwell et al. (2020): study FR 2005 15+ aged general public, France, 2005 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.090
SD
= 1.610
Helliwell et al. (2020): study FR 2008 15+ aged general public, France, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.010
SD
= 1.590
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GA 2016 15+ aged general public, Gabon, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.830
SD
= 2.210
Helliwell et al. (2020): study FR 2009 15+ aged general public, France, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.280
SD
= 1.970
Helliwell et al. (2020): study FR 2010 15+ aged general public, France, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.800
SD
= 1.760
Helliwell et al. (2020): study FR 2011 15+ aged general public, France, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.960
SD
= 1.680
Helliwell et al. (2020): study FR 2012 15+ aged general public, France, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.650
SD
= 1.790
Helliwell et al. (2020): study FR 2013 15+ aged general public, France, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.670
SD
= 1.920
Helliwell et al. (2020): study FR 2014 15+ aged general public, France, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.470
SD
= 1.850
Helliwell et al. (2020): study FR 2015 15+ aged general public, France, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.360
SD
= 1.850
Helliwell et al. (2020): study FR 2016 15+ aged general public, France, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.480
SD
= 1.800
Helliwell et al. (2020): study FR 2019 15+ aged general public, France, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.690
SD
= 1.680
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GA 2011 15+ aged general public, Gabon, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.260
SD
= 1.940
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GA 2012 15+ aged general public, Gabon, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.970
SD
= 2.020
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GA 2013 15+ aged general public, Gabon, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.800
SD
= 1.870
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GA 2014 15+ aged general public, Gabon, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.920
SD
= 1.920
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GA 2015 15+ aged general public, Gabon, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.660
SD
= 2.080
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GH 2011 15+ aged general public, Ghana, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.610
SD
= 2.600
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GH 2013 15+ aged general public, Ghana, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.970
SD
= 1.830
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HK 2012 15+ aged general public, Hong Kong, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.480
SD
= 1.940
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HN 2008 15+ aged general public, Honduras, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.420
SD
= 2.700
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GN 2019 15+ aged general public, Guinea, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.770
SD
= 3.210
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GY 2007 15+ aged general public, Guyana, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.990
SD
= 1.840
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HT 2006 15+ aged general public, Haiti, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.750
SD
= 1.840
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HT 2008 15+ aged general public, Haiti, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.850
SD
= 1.870
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HT 2010 15+ aged general public, Haiti, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.770
SD
= 1.560
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HT 2011 15+ aged general public, Haiti, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.840
SD
= 1.730
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HT 2012 15+ aged general public, Haiti, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.410
SD
= 1.780
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HT 2013 15+ aged general public, Haiti, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.620
SD
= 2.290
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HT 2014 15+ aged general public, Haiti, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.890
SD
= 2.200
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HT 2015 15+ aged general public, Haiti, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.570
SD
= 2.350
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HT 2016 15+ aged general public, Haiti, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.350
SD
= 2.190
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HN 2006 15+ aged general public, Honduras, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.400
SD
= 2.740
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HN 2007 15+ aged general public, Honduras, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.100
SD
= 2.640
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HN 2009 15+ aged general public, Honduras, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.030
SD
= 2.660
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GN 2015 15+ aged general public, Guinea, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.500
SD
= 1.860
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HN 2010 15+ aged general public, Honduras, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.870
SD
= 2.680
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HN 2011 15+ aged general public, Honduras, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.960
SD
= 2.670
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HN 2012 15+ aged general public, Honduras, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.600
SD
= 2.550
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HN 2013 15+ aged general public, Honduras, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.710
SD
= 2.880
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HN 2014 15+ aged general public, Honduras, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.060
SD
= 2.740
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HN 2015 15+ aged general public, Honduras, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.850
SD
= 3.070
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HN 2016 15+ aged general public, Honduras, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.650
SD
= 2.970
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HN 2019 15+ aged general public, Honduras, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.930
SD
= 3.150
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HK 2006 15+ aged general public, Hong Kong, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.510
SD
= 1.910
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HK 2008 15+ aged general public, Hong Kong, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.140
SD
= 1.850
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HK 2009 15+ aged general public, Hong Kong, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.400
SD
= 1.970
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HK 2010 15+ aged general public, Hong Kong, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.640
SD
= 1.750
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HK 2011 15+ aged general public, Hong Kong, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.470
SD
= 1.940
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GN 2016 15+ aged general public, Guinea, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.600
SD
= 2.120
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GN 2014 15+ aged general public, Guinea, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.410
SD
= 1.780
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GH 2014 15+ aged general public, Ghana, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.860
SD
= 2.440
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GR 2016 15+ aged general public, Greece, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.300
SD
= 2.320
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GH 2015 15+ aged general public, Ghana, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.990
SD
= 2.150
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GH 2016 15+ aged general public, Ghana, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.510
SD
= 2.740
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GH 2018 15+ aged general public, Ghana, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.000
SD
= 2.510
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GH 2019 15+ aged general public, Ghana, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.970
SD
= 2.550
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GR 2005 15+ aged general public, Greece, 2005 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.010
SD
= 2.450
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GR 2007 15+ aged general public, Greece, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.650
SD
= 1.960
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GR 2009 15+ aged general public, Greece, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.040
SD
= 1.980
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GR 2010 15+ aged general public, Greece, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.840
SD
= 2.280
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GR 2011 15+ aged general public, Greece, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.370
SD
= 2.210
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GR 2012 15+ aged general public, Greece, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.100
SD
= 2.490
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GR 2013 15+ aged general public, Greece, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.720
SD
= 2.280
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GR 2014 15+ aged general public, Greece, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.760
SD
= 2.410
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GR 2015 15+ aged general public, Greece, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.620
SD
= 2.210
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GR 2019 15+ aged general public, Greece, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.950
SD
= 2.050
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GN 2013 15+ aged general public, Guinea, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.900
SD
= 1.840
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GT 2006 15+ aged general public, Guatemala, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.900
SD
= 2.090
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GT 2007 15+ aged general public, Guatemala, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.330
SD
= 2.110
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GT 2008 15+ aged general public, Guatemala, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.410
SD
= 2.160
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GT 2009 15+ aged general public, Guatemala, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.450
SD
= 2.240
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GT 2010 15+ aged general public, Guatemala, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.290
SD
= 2.420
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GT 2011 15+ aged general public, Guatemala, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.740
SD
= 2.550
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GT 2012 15+ aged general public, Guatemala, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.860
SD
= 2.680
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GT 2013 15+ aged general public, Guatemala, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.980
SD
= 2.600
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GT 2014 15+ aged general public, Guatemala, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.540
SD
= 2.590
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GT 2015 15+ aged general public, Guatemala, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.460
SD
= 2.940
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GT 2016 15+ aged general public, Guatemala, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.360
SD
= 2.700
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GT 2019 15+ aged general public, Guatemala, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.260
SD
= 2.930
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GN 2011 15+ aged general public, Guinea, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.040
SD
= 1.740
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GN 2012 15+ aged general public, Guinea, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.650
SD
= 1.660
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BR 2011 15+ aged general public, Brazil, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.040
SD
= 2.040
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BR 2009 15+ aged general public, Brazil, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.000
SD
= 2.240
Helliwell et al. (2020): study JO 2014 15+ aged general public, Jordan, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.330
SD
= 2.650
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SV 2018 15+ aged general public, El Salvador, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.240
SD
= 2.660
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CY 2017 15+ aged general public, Cyprus, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.060
SD
= 2.370
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CY 2018 15+ aged general public, Cyprus, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.280
SD
= 2.130
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CZ 2017 15+ aged general public, Czech Republic, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.790
SD
= 1.700
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CZ 2018 15+ aged general public, Czech Republic, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.030
SD
= 1.670
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DK 2017 15+ aged general public, Denmark, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.590
SD
= 1.670
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DK 2018 15+ aged general public, Denmark, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.650
SD
= 1.650
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DO 2017 15+ aged general public, Dominican Republic, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.610
SD
= 3.240
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DO 2018 15+ aged general public, Dominican Republic, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.430
SD
= 3.400
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EC 2017 15+ aged general public, Ecuador, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.840
SD
= 2.690
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EC 2018 15+ aged general public, Ecuador, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.130
SD
= 2.490
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EG 2017 15+ aged general public, Egypt, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.930
SD
= 2.290
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EG 2018 15+ aged general public, Egypt, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.010
SD
= 2.020
Helliwell et al. (2020): study SV 2017 15+ aged general public, El Salvador, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.340
SD
= 2.480
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EE 2017 15+ aged general public, Estonia, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.940
SD
= 1.850
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HR 2017 15+ aged general public, Croatia, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.340
SD
= 1.570
Helliwell et al. (2020): study EE 2018 15+ aged general public, Estonia, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.090
SD
= 1.760
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ET 2017 15+ aged general public, Ethiopia, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.180
SD
= 1.830
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ET 2018 15+ aged general public, Ethiopia, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.380
SD
= 1.950
Helliwell et al. (2020): study FI 2017 15+ aged general public, Finland, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.790
SD
= 1.420
Helliwell et al. (2020): study FI 2018 15+ aged general public, Finland, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.860
SD
= 1.430
Helliwell et al. (2020): study FR 2017 15+ aged general public, France, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.640
SD
= 1.630
Helliwell et al. (2020): study FR 2018 15+ aged general public, France, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.670
SD
= 1.600
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GA 2017 15+ aged general public, Gabon, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.780
SD
= 2.460
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GA 2018 15+ aged general public, Gabon, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.780
SD
= 2.620
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GM 2017 15+ aged general public, Gambia, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.120
SD
= 2.480
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GM 2018 15+ aged general public, Gambia, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.920
SD
= 3.160
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GE 2017 15+ aged general public, Georgia, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.450
SD
= 1.780
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GE 2018 15+ aged general public, Georgia, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.660
SD
= 2.220
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HR 2018 15+ aged general public, Croatia, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.540
SD
= 1.700
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CR 2018 15+ aged general public, Costa Rica, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.140
SD
= 2.150
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DE 2018 15+ aged general public, Germany, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.120
SD
= 1.620
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CA 2017 15+ aged general public, Canada, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.410
SD
= 1.600
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BW 2017 15+ aged general public, Botswana, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.500
SD
= 2.670
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BW 2018 15+ aged general public, Botswana, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.460
SD
= 2.640
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BR 2017 15+ aged general public, Brazil, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.330
SD
= 2.530
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BR 2018 15+ aged general public, Brazil, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.190
SD
= 2.640
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BG 2017 15+ aged general public, Bulgaria, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.100
SD
= 1.850
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BG 2018 15+ aged general public, Bulgaria, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.100
SD
= 2.040
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BF 2017 15+ aged general public, Burkina Faso, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.650
SD
= 2.200
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BF 2018 15+ aged general public, Burkina Faso, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.930
SD
= 2.650
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BI 2018 15+ aged general public, Burundi, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.780
SD
= 2.820
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KH 2017 15+ aged general public, Cambodia, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.590
SD
= 2.730
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KH 2018 15+ aged general public, Cambodia, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.120
SD
= 2.910
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CM 2017 15+ aged general public, Cameroon, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.070
SD
= 2.820
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CM 2018 15+ aged general public, Cameroon, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.250
SD
= 2.920
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CA 2018 15+ aged general public, Canada, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.180
SD
= 1.760
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CR 2017 15+ aged general public, Costa Rica, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.230
SD
= 2.080
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CF 2017 15+ aged general public, Central African Republic, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.480
SD
= 2.810
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TD 2017 15+ aged general public, Chad, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.560
SD
= 2.880
Helliwell et al. (2020): study TD 2018 15+ aged general public, Chad, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.490
SD
= 3.110
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CL 2017 15+ aged general public, Chile, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.320
SD
= 2.160
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CL 2018 15+ aged general public, Chile, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.440
SD
= 2.150
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CN 2017 15+ aged general public, China, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.100
SD
= 2.270
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CN 2018 15+ aged general public, China, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.130
SD
= 2.260
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CO 2017 15+ aged general public, Colombia, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.160
SD
= 2.540
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CO 2018 15+ aged general public, Colombia, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.980
SD
= 2.680
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KM 2018 15+ aged general public, Comoros, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.970
SD
= 2.880
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CG 2017 15+ aged general public, Congo (Brazzaville), 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.880
SD
= 2.910
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CG 2018 15+ aged general public, Congo (Brazzaville), 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.490
SD
= 3.350
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CD 2017 15+ aged general public, Congo (Kinshasa), 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.310
SD
= 2.640
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DE 2017 15+ aged general public, Germany, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.070
SD
= 1.440
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GH 2017 15+ aged general public, Ghana, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.480
SD
= 2.550
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BA 2017 15+ aged general public, Bosnia Herzegovina, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.090
SD
= 2.280
Graham & Nikolova (2013a): study ZZ Commonwealth of Independant States 2010 15+ aged general public, Commonwealth of Independant States, 2010- 2012 N = 100000
Mean
= 5.080
SD
= 1.200
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KE 2017 15+ aged general public, Kenya, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.480
SD
= 2.530
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KE 2018 15+ aged general public, Kenya, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.660
SD
= 2.750
Graham & Nikolova (2013a): study ZZ 2010 15+ Aged General Public in 120 Nations 2010- 2012 N = 301516
Mean
= 5.450
SD
= 2.180
Graham & Nikolova (2013a): study ZZ South Sahara Africa 2011 15+ aged general public . Sub Sahran Africa 2011 N = 23674
Graham & Nikolova (2013a): study ZZ EU 27 2010 15+ aged general public, European Union 2010- 2012 N = 100000
Mean
= 6.170
SD
= 2.120
Graham & Nikolova (2013a): study ZZ North America 2010 15+ aged general public, North America, 2010- 2012 N = 10000
Mean
= 7.430
SD
= 1.870
Graham & Nikolova (2013a): study ZZ Latin America 2010 15+ aged general public , Latin American countries, 2010- 2012 N = 100000
Mean
= 6.220
SD
= 2.420
Graham & Nikolova (2013a): study ZZ South Sahara Africa 2010 15+ aged general public, Sub-Sahara African countries, 2010- 2012 N = 100000
Mean
= 4.470
SD
= 1.840
Graham & Nikolova (2013a): study ZZ Various nation sets 2010 /1 15+ aged general public. Middle East and North African nations 2010- 2012 N = 1000000
Mean
= 5.500
SD
= 2.160
Graham & Nikolova (2013a): study ZZ East Asia 2010 15+ aged general public, East Asian countries, 2010- 2012 N = 100000
Mean
= 5.380
SD
= 2.020
Graham & Nikolova (2013a): study ZZ South Asia 2010 15+ aged general public, South Asian countries, 2010- 2012 N = 100000
Mean
= 4.870
SD
= 2.020
Graham & Nikolova (2013a): study ZZ South East Asia 2010 15+ aged general public, South East Asian countries, 2010- 2012 N = 100000
Mean
= 5.440
SD
= 1.800
Graham & Nikolova (2013a): study ZZ Australia and New Zealand 2010 15+ aged general public, Australia and New Zealand, 2010- 2012 N = 6000
Mean
= 7.390
SD
= 1.750
Graham & Nikolova (2013a): study ZZ Various nation sets 2010 15+ aged general public, Eurppean nations, other than EU and Balkans, 2010- 2012 N = 10000
Mean
= 7.500
SD
= 1.670
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KZ 2017 15+ aged general public, Kazakhstan, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.880
SD
= 1.750
Moller & Roberts (2017): study ZA 2012 16+ aged general public, South Africa, 2012 N = 3000
Mean
= 5.430
Crabtree & Burchell (2018): study ZZ 2016 15+ aged, 142 nations, 2016 N = 142000
Mean
= 5.260
Helliwell et al. (2021): study FI 2020 15+ aged general public, Finland 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.889
Helliwell et al. (2021): study AL 2020 15+ aged general public, Albania 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.370
Helliwell et al. (2021): study AR 2020 15+ aged general public, Argentina 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.901
Helliwell et al. (2021): study AU 2020 15+ aged general public, Australia 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.137
Helliwell et al. (2021): study AT 2020 15+ aged general public, Austria 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.213
Helliwell et al. (2021): study BH 2020 15+ aged general public, Bahrain 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.173
Helliwell et al. (2021): study BD 2020 15+ aged general public, Bangladesh 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.280
Helliwell et al. (2021): study BE 2020 15+ aged general public, Belgium 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.839
Helliwell et al. (2021): study BJ 2020 15+ aged general public, Benin 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.408
Helliwell et al. (2021): study BO 2020 15+ aged general public, Bolivia 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.559
Helliwell et al. (2021): study BA 2020 15+ aged general public, Bosnia Herzegovina 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.516
Helliwell et al. (2020): study KZ 2018 15+ aged general public, Kazakhstan, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.010
SD
= 1.880
Helliwell et al. (2020): study JO 2018 15+ aged general public, Jordan, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.640
SD
= 2.760
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GR 2017 15+ aged general public, Greece, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.150
SD
= 2.410
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IN 2018 15+ aged general public, India, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.820
SD
= 2.210
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GR 2018 15+ aged general public, Greece, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.410
SD
= 2.080
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GT 2017 15+ aged general public, Guatemala, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.330
SD
= 2.860
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GT 2018 15+ aged general public, Guatemala, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.630
SD
= 2.840
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GN 2017 15+ aged general public, Guinea, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.870
SD
= 2.970
Helliwell et al. (2020): study GN 2018 15+ aged general public, Guinea, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.250
SD
= 3.300
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HT 2017 15+ aged general public, Haiti, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.820
SD
= 2.160
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HT 2018 15+ aged general public, Haiti, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.610
SD
= 3.080
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HN 2017 15+ aged general public, Honduras, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.020
SD
= 2.960
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HN 2018 15+ aged general public, Honduras, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.910
SD
= 3.130
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HK 2017 15+ aged general public, Hong Kong, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.360
SD
= 1.780
Helliwell et al. (2020): study HU 2017 15+ aged general public, Hungary, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.070
SD
= 1.790
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IS 2017 15+ aged general public, Iceland, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.480
SD
= 1.630
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IN 2017 15+ aged general public, India, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.050
SD
= 1.660
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ID 2017 15+ aged general public, Indonesia, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.100
SD
= 2.330
Helliwell et al. (2020): study JO 2017 15+ aged general public, Jordan, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.810
SD
= 2.520
Helliwell et al. (2020): study ID 2018 15+ aged general public, Indonesia, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.340
SD
= 2.530
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IR 2017 15+ aged general public, Iran, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.720
SD
= 2.500
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IR 2018 15+ aged general public, Iran, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.280
SD
= 2.380
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IQ 2017 15+ aged general public, Iraq, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.460
SD
= 2.900
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IE 2017 15+ aged general public, Ireland, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.060
SD
= 1.760
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IE 2018 15+ aged general public, Ireland, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.960
SD
= 1.860
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IL 2017 15+ aged general public, Israel, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.330
SD
= 1.520
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IL 2018 15+ aged general public, Israel, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.930
SD
= 1.730
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IT 2017 15+ aged general public, Italy, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.200
SD
= 1.930
Helliwell et al. (2020): study IT 2018 15+ aged general public, Italy, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.520
SD
= 1.520
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CI 2017 15+ aged general public, Ivory Coast, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.040
SD
= 2.610
Helliwell et al. (2020): study CI 2018 15+ aged general public, Ivory Coast, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.270
SD
= 3.080
Helliwell et al. (2020): study JP 2017 15+ aged general public, Japan, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.910
SD
= 1.950
Helliwell et al. (2020): study JP 2018 15+ aged general public, Japan, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.790
SD
= 1.920
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BA 2018 15+ aged general public, Bosnia Herzegovina, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.890
SD
= 1.990
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BO 2018 15+ aged general public, Bolivia, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.920
SD
= 2.200
Helliwell et al. (2021): study BG 2020 15+ aged general public, Bulgaria 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.598
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study TZ 2016 15+ aged, general public, Tanzania, 2016 N = 998
Mean
= 2.900
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study SL 2016 15+ aged, general public, Sierra Leone, 2016 N = 955
Mean
= 4.700
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study SG 2016 15+ aged, general public, Singapore, 2016 N = 998
Mean
= 6.000
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study SK 2016 15+ aged, general public, Slovakia, 2016 N = 998
Mean
= 6.000
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study SI 2016 15+ aged, general public, Slovenia, 2016 N = 997
Mean
= 5.900
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study SO 2016 15+ aged, general public, Somalia, 2016 N = 1185
Mean
= 4.700
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study ZA 2016 15+ aged, general public, South Africa, 2016 N = 995
Mean
= 4.800
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study KR 2016 15+ aged, general public, Republic of Korea, 2016 N = 987
Mean
= 6.000
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study SS 2016 15+ aged, general public, South Sudan, 2016 N = 985
Mean
= 2.900
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study ES 2016 15+ aged, general public, Spain, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.300
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study SE 2016 15+ aged, general public, Sweden, 2016 N = 986
Mean
= 7.400
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study CH 2016 15+ aged, general public, Switzerland, 2016 N = 999
Mean
= 7.500
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study TW 2016 15+ aged, general public, Taiwan, 2016 N = 990
Mean
= 6.500
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study TJ 2016 15+ aged, general public, Tajikistan, 2016 N = 995
Mean
= 5.100
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study TH 2016 15+ aged, general public, Thailand, 2016 N = 962
Mean
= 6.100
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study SN 2016 15+ aged, general public, Senegal, 2016 N = 984
Mean
= 4.600
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study TG 2016 15+ aged, general public, Togo, 2016 N = 993
Mean
= 3.900
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study TN 2016 15+ aged, general public, Tunisia, 2016 N = 993
Mean
= 4.500
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study TR 2016 15+ aged, general public, Turkey, 2016 N = 995
Mean
= 5.300
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study TM 2016 15+ aged, general public, Turkmenistan, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.900
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study UG 2016 15+ aged, general public, Uganda, 2016 N = 992
Mean
= 4.200
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study UA 2016 15+ aged, general public, Ukraine, 2016 N = 990
Mean
= 4.000
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study AE 2016 15+ aged, general public, United Arab Emirates, 2016 N = 1836
Mean
= 6.800
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study GB 2016 15+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 2016 N = 998
Mean
= 6.800
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study US 2016 15+ aged, general public, United States of America, 2016 N = 1026
Mean
= 6.800
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study UY 2016 15+ aged, general public, Uruguay N = 988
Mean
= 6.200
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study UZ 2016 15+ aged, general public, Uzbekistan N = 976
Mean
= 5.900
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study VE 2016 15+ aged, general public, Venezuela, 2016 N = 995
Mean
= 4.000
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study VN 2016 15+ aged, general public, Viet Nam, 2016 N = 1021
Mean
= 5.100
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study RS 2016 15+ aged, general public, Serbia, 2016 N = 999
Mean
= 5.800
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study SA 2016 15+ aged, general public, Saudi Arabia, 2016 N = 987
Mean
= 6.500
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study ZM 2016 15+ aged, general public, Zambia, 2016 N = 965
Mean
= 4.300
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study NL 2016 15+ aged, general public, Netherlands, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.500
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study LU 2016 15+ aged, general public, Luxembourg, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.000
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study MK 2016 15+ aged, general public, Macedonia, 2016 N = 1022
Mean
= 5.300
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study MG 2016 15+ aged, general public, Madagascar, 2016 N = 999
Mean
= 3.700
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study MW 2016 15+ aged, general public, Malawi, 2016 N = 998
Mean
= 3.500
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study ML 2016 15+ aged, general public, Mali, 2016 N = 962
Mean
= 4.000
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study MT 2016 15+ aged, general public, Malta, 2016 N = 1010
Mean
= 6.600
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study MR 2016 15+ aged, general public, Mauritania, 2016 N = 994
Mean
= 4.500
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study MX 2016 15+ aged, general public, Mexico, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.800
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study MD 2016 15+ aged, general public, Moldova, 2016 N = 988
Mean
= 5.600
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study MN 2016 15+ aged, general public, Mongolia, 2016 N = 992
Mean
= 5.100
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study ME 2016 15+ aged, general public, Montenegro, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.300
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study MM 2016 15+ aged, general public, Myanmar, 2016 N = 1017
Mean
= 4.600
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study NP 2016 15+ aged, general public, Nepal, 2016 N = 941
Mean
= 5.100
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study NZ 2016 15+ aged, general public, New Zealand, 2016 N = 1003
Mean
= 7.200
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study RW 2016 15+ aged, general public, Rwanda, 2016 N = 995
Mean
= 3.300
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study NI 2016 15+ aged, general public, Nicaragua, 2016 N = 942
Mean
= 6.000
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study NE 2016 15+ aged, general public, Niger, 2016 N = 986
Mean
= 4.200
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study NG 2016 15+ aged, general public, Nigeria, 2016 N = 975
Mean
= 5.200
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study NO 2016 15+ aged, general public, Norway, 2016 N = 1998
Mean
= 7.600
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study PK 2016 15+ aged, general public, Pakistan, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.500
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study PS 2016 15+ aged, general public, Palestinian Territories, 2016 N = 996
Mean
= 4.900
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study PA 2016 15+ aged, general public, Panama, 2016 N = 991
Mean
= 6.100
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study PY 2016 15+ aged, general public, Paraguay, 2016 N = 998
Mean
= 5.800
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study PE 2016 15+ aged, general public, Peru, 2016 N = 977
Mean
= 5.700
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study PH 2016 15+ aged, general public, Philippines, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.400
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study PL 2016 15+ aged, general public, Poland, 2016 N = 980
Mean
= 6.200
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study PT 2016 15+ aged, general public, Portugal, 2016 N = 1004
Mean
= 5.400
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study RO 2016 15+ aged, general public, Romania, 2016 N = 993
Mean
= 6.000
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study RU 2016 15+ aged, general public, Russia, 2016 N = 1940
Mean
= 5.900
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study YE 2016 15+ aged, general public, Yemen, 2016 N = 997
Mean
= 3.800
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study ZW 2016 15+ aged, general public, Zimbabwe, 2016 N = 982
Mean
= 3.700
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BO 2017 15+ aged general public, Bolivia, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.650
SD
= 2.250
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AU 2017 15+ aged general public, Australia, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.260
SD
= 1.750
Ivlevs et al. (2019): study ZZ World samples 2009 Intimates left behind after migration, Multiple nations, 2009 - 2011 N = 142468
Mean
= 5.500
SD
= 2.210
Myers & Diener (2018): study ZZ adults, general, multiple nations, years unknown N = 0
Vandersluis et al. (2016): study NL 2011 Transgender women who underwent secondary intestinal vaginoplasty between 1970-2000, Netherlands, 201? N = 9
Mean
= 7.900
SD
= 0.700
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AF 2017 15+ aged general public, Afghanistan, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 2.662
SD
= 1.454
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AF 2018 15+ aged general public, Afghanistan, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 2.694
SD
= 1.408
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AL 2017 15+ aged general public, Albania, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.640
SD
= 2.680
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AL 2018 15+ aged general public, Albania, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.000
SD
= 2.640
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DZ 2017 15+ aged general public, Algeria, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.250
SD
= 2.040
Helliwell et al. (2020): study DZ 2018 15+ aged general public, Algeria, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.040
SD
= 1.970
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AR 2017 15+ aged general public, Argentina, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.040
SD
= 2.410
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AR 2018 15+ aged general public, Argentina, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.790
SD
= 2.470
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AM 2017 15+ aged general public, Armenia, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.290
SD
= 2.330
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AM 2018 15+ aged general public, Armenia, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.060
SD
= 2.100
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AU 2018 15+ aged general public, Australia, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.180
SD
= 1.750
Graham & Nikolova (2018): study ZZ Latin America 2009 Emigrants, Latin America, Multiple nations, 2009-2016 N = 180000
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AT 2017 15+ aged general public, Austria, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.290
SD
= 1.560
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AT 2018 15+ aged general public, Austria, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.400
SD
= 1.550
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AZ 2017 15+ aged general public, Azerbaijan, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.150
SD
= 1.670
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AZ 2018 15+ aged general public, Azerbaijan, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.170
SD
= 1.860
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BH 2017 15+ aged general public, Bahrain, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.230
SD
= 2.220
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BD 2017 15+ aged general public, Bangladesh, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.310
SD
= 1.870
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BD 2018 15+ aged general public, Bangladesh, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.500
SD
= 2.160
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BY 2017 15+ aged general public, Belarus, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.550
SD
= 1.660
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BY 2018 15+ aged general public, Belarus, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.230
SD
= 1.690
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BE 2017 15+ aged general public, Belgium, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.930
SD
= 1.510
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BE 2018 15+ aged general public, Belgium, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.890
SD
= 1.550
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BJ 2017 15+ aged general public, Benin, 2017 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.850
SD
= 3.000
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BJ 2018 15+ aged general public, Benin, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.820
SD
= 3.310
Hendriks et al. (2018): study ZZ Various nation sets 2009 Migrants, Multiple nations, 2009-2016 N = 36000
Cardenas et al. (2009): study ZZ Latin America 1995 Adults, Latin America, Multiple nations, 1995 - 2007 N = 20000
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study MU 2016 15+ aged, general public, Mauritius, 2016 N = 995
Mean
= 5.600
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study TW 2015 /1 15+ aged, general public, Taiwan, 2015 N = 996
Mean
= 6.500
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study AF 2016 15+ aged, general public, Afghanistan, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.200
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study AL 2016 15+ aged, general public, Albania, 2016 N = 982
Mean
= 4.500
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study DZ 2016 15+ aged, general public, Algeria, 2016 N = 998
Mean
= 5.300
Delhey & Kroll (2012): study ZZ OECD member states 2008 18+ aged, general public, OECD member states, 2008 N = 340000
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study MA 2015 15+ aged, general public, Morocco, 2015 N = 1050
Mean
= 5.200
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study SN 2006 /1 15+ aged, general public, Senegal, 2006 N = 998
Mean
= 4.400
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study SK 2012 /1 15+ aged, general public, Slovakia, 2012 N = 1004
Mean
= 5.900
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study SK 2006 /1 15+ aged, general public, Slovakia, 2006 N = 1008
Mean
= 5.300
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study LK 2015 /1 15+ aged, general public, Sri Lanka, 2015 N = 1052
Mean
= 4.600
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study SD 2012 /1 15+ aged, general public, Sudan, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.600
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study SD 2014 /2 15+ aged, general public, Sudan, 2014 N = 989
Mean
= 4.100
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study SY 2009 /1 15+ aged, general public, Syria, 2009 N = 2097
Mean
= 5.000
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study SY 2015 15+ aged, general public, Syria, 2015 N = 963
Mean
= 3.500
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study TJ 2015 /1 15+ aged, general public, Tajikistan, 2015 N = 999
Mean
= 5.100
Flavin & Shufeldt (2017): study US 2010 18+ aged, general public, in 41 states of the USA, 2010-13 N = 10000
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study ZW 2015 /2 15+ aged, general public, Zimbabwe, 2015 N = 996
Mean
= 3.700
Diener & Tay (2015): study ZZ 2005 /1 15+ aged, general public, 164 nations, 2005-2013 N = 1229431
Mean
= 5.400
Kasmaoui & Bourhaba (2017): study ZZ 2006 18+ aged, general public, 132 nations, 2006 N = 1320000
Mean
= 5.450
SD
= 1.100
Averina, M. et al. (2005): study RU Archangelsk 1999 15+ aged general public, Arkhangelsk, Russia, 2000 N = 3705
Mean
= 5.550
SD
= 1.800
Tay et al. (2017a): study US 2012 18+ aged employed collage graduates with Internet access, USA, 201? N = 2781
Mean
= 6.930
SD
= 1.530
Diener & Suh (2010): study KR 2010 15+ aged, general public, South Korea, 2010 N = 1100
Mean
= 5.300
Easterlin et al. (2011): study ZZ 2005 15+ aged general public, 80 countries,2005-2008 N = 212000
Diener et al. (2018): study ZZ 2005 15+ aged, general public, 160 nations, 2005-2015 N = 1468274
Diego-Rosell et al. (2018): study ZZ 2011 15+ aged, general public, 153 nations, 2011-2013 N = 370635
Bikus (2015): study UA 2015 /1 15+ aged, general public, Ukraine, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.000
Helliwell et al. (2018): study ZZ World samples 2005 18+ aged, general public, 157 nations, followed 7 years, 2005-2012 N = 157
Mean
= 5.460
SD
= 1.110
Michalos & Hatch (2020): study ZZ 2007 18+ aged, general public, 105 nations, 2018 N = 105
Steptoe et al. (2014): study ZZ Various nation sets 2006 15+ aged, general public, 96 nations, 2006-2010 N = 288044
Tsurumi et al. (2018): study JP Tokyo 2014 20-83 aged, general public, Tokyo, Japan, 2014 N = 2758
Mean
= 6.190
SD
= 2.300
Helliwell et al. (2021): study BR 2020 15+ aged general public, Brazil 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.110
Helliwell et al. (2020): study AF 2008 15+ aged general public, Afghanistan, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.720
SD
= 1.770
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BR 2008 15+ aged general public, Brazil, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.690
SD
= 2.270
Helliwell et al. (2021): study NA 2020 15+ aged general public, Namibia 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.451
Helliwell et al. (2021): study KE 2020 15+ aged general public, Kenya 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.547
Helliwell et al. (2021): study KG 2020 15+ aged general public, Kyrgyzstan 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.250
Helliwell et al. (2021): study LA 2020 15+ aged general public, Laos 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.284
Helliwell et al. (2021): study LV 2020 15+ aged general public, Latvia 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.229
Helliwell et al. (2021): study LT 2020 15+ aged general public, Lithuania 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.391
Helliwell et al. (2021): study MT 2020 15+ aged general public, Malta 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.157
Helliwell et al. (2021): study MU 2020 15+ aged general public, Mauritius 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.015
Helliwell et al. (2021): study MX 2020 15+ aged general public, Mexico 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.964
Helliwell et al. (2021): study MD 2020 15+ aged general public, Moldova 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.812
Helliwell et al. (2021): study MN 2020 15+ aged general public, Mongolia 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.011
Helliwell et al. (2021): study ME 2020 15+ aged general public, Montenegro 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.722
Helliwell et al. (2021): study MA 2020 15+ aged general public, Morocco 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.803
Helliwell et al. (2021): study MM 2020 15+ aged general public, Myanmar 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.431
Helliwell et al. (2021): study NL 2020 15+ aged general public, Netherlands 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.504
Helliwell et al. (2021): study JO 2020 15+ aged general public, Jordan 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.094
Helliwell et al. (2021): study NZ 2020 15+ aged general public, New Zealand 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.257
Helliwell et al. (2021): study NG 2020 15+ aged general public, Nigeria 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.503
Helliwell et al. (2021): study MK 2020 15+ aged general public, North Macedonia 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.054
Helliwell et al. (2021): study NO 2020 15+ aged general public, Norway 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.290
Helliwell et al. (2021): study PH 2020 15+ aged general public, Philippines 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.080
Helliwell et al. (2021): study PL 2020 15+ aged general public, Poland 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.139
Helliwell et al. (2021): study PT 2020 15+ aged general public, Portugal 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.768
Helliwell et al. (2021): study RU 2020 15+ aged general public, Russia 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.495
Helliwell et al. (2021): study SA 2020 15+ aged general public, Saudi Arabia 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.560
Helliwell et al. (2021): study RS 2020 15+ aged general public, Serbia 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.042
Helliwell et al. (2021): study SK 2020 15+ aged general public, Slovakia 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.519
Helliwell et al. (2021): study SI 2020 15+ aged general public, Slovenia 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.462
Helliwell et al. (2021): study ZA 2020 15+ aged general public, South Africa 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.947
Helliwell et al. (2021): study KZ 2020 15+ aged general public, Kazakhstan 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.168
Helliwell et al. (2021): study JP 2020 15+ aged general public, Japan 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.118
Helliwell et al. (2021): study ES 2020 15+ aged general public, Spain 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.502
Helliwell et al. (2021): study EE 2020 15+ aged general public, Estonia 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.453
Helliwell et al. (2021): study CM 2020 15+ aged general public, Cameroon 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.241
Helliwell et al. (2021): study CA 2020 15+ aged general public, Canada 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.025
Helliwell et al. (2021): study CL 2020 15+ aged general public, Chile 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.151
Helliwell et al. (2021): study CN 2020 15+ aged general public, China 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.771
Helliwell et al. (2021): study CO 2020 15+ aged general public, Colombia 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.709
Helliwell et al. (2021): study HR 2020 15+ aged general public, Croatia 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.508
Helliwell et al. (2021): study CY 2020 15+ aged general public, Cyprus 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.260
Helliwell et al. (2021): study CZ 2020 15+ aged general public, Czech Republic 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.897
Helliwell et al. (2021): study DK 2020 15+ aged general public, Denmark 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.515
Helliwell et al. (2021): study DO 2020 15+ aged general public, Dominican Republic 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.168
Helliwell et al. (2021): study EC 2020 15+ aged general public, Ecuador 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.354
Helliwell et al. (2021): study EG 2020 15+ aged general public, Egypt 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.472
Helliwell et al. (2021): study SV 2020 15+ aged general public, El Salvador 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.462
Helliwell et al. (2021): study ET 2020 15+ aged general public, Ethiopia 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.549
Helliwell et al. (2021): study CI 2020 15+ aged general public, Ivory Coast 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.257
Helliwell et al. (2021): study FR 2020 15+ aged general public, France 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.714
Helliwell et al. (2021): study GE 2020 15+ aged general public, Georgia 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.123
Helliwell et al. (2021): study DE 2020 15+ aged general public, Germany 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.312
Helliwell et al. (2021): study GH 2020 15+ aged general public, Ghana 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.319
Helliwell et al. (2021): study GR 2020 15+ aged general public, Greece 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.788
Helliwell et al. (2021): study HK 2020 15+ aged general public, Hong Kong 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.295
Helliwell et al. (2021): study HU 2020 15+ aged general public, Hungary 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.038
Helliwell et al. (2021): study IS 2020 15+ aged general public, Iceland 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.575
Helliwell et al. (2021): study IN 2020 15+ aged general public, India 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.225
Helliwell et al. (2021): study IR 2020 15+ aged general public, Iran 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.865
Helliwell et al. (2021): study IQ 2020 15+ aged general public, Iraq 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.785
Helliwell et al. (2021): study IE 2020 15+ aged general public, Ireland 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.035
Helliwell et al. (2021): study IL 2020 15+ aged general public, Israel 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.195
Helliwell et al. (2021): study IT 2020 15+ aged general public, Italy 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.488
Helliwell et al. (2021): study KR 2020 15+ aged general public, South Korea 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.793
Helliwell et al. (2021): study SE 2020 15+ aged general public, Sweden 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.314
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BZ 2014 15+ aged general public, Belize, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.960
SD
= 2.460
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BA 2015 15+ aged general public, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.120
SD
= 2.430
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BO 2012 15+ aged general public, Bolivia, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.020
SD
= 2.170
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BO 2013 15+ aged general public, Bolivia, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.770
SD
= 1.980
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BO 2014 15+ aged general public, Bolivia, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.860
SD
= 1.840
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BO 2015 15+ aged general public, Bolivia, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.830
SD
= 1.860
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BO 2016 15+ aged general public, Bolivia, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.770
SD
= 2.050
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BO 2019 15+ aged general public, Bolivia, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.670
SD
= 2.250
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BA 2007 15+ aged general public, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.900
SD
= 2.290
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BA 2009 15+ aged general public, Bosnia and Herzegovnia, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.960
SD
= 2.110
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BA 2010 15+ aged general public, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.670
SD
= 1.970
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BA 2011 15+ aged general public, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.990
SD
= 2.050
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BA 2012 15+ aged general public, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.770
SD
= 2.410
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BA 2013 15+ aged general public, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.120
SD
= 2.220
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BA 2014 15+ aged general public, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.250
SD
= 2.240
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BA 2016 15+ aged general public, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.180
SD
= 2.220
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BO 2010 15+ aged general public, Bolivia, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.780
SD
= 1.760
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BA 2019 15+ aged general public, Bosnia Herzegovina, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.020
SD
= 2.260
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BW 2006 15+ aged general public, Botswana, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.740
SD
= 2.090
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BW 2008 15+ aged general public, Botswana, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.450
SD
= 2.400
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BW 2010 15+ aged general public, Botswana, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.550
SD
= 1.940
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BW 2011 15+ aged general public, Botswana, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.520
SD
= 1.960
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BW 2012 15+ aged general public, Botswana, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.840
SD
= 1.990
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BW 2013 15+ aged general public, Botswana, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.130
SD
= 2.120
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BW 2014 15+ aged general public, Botswana, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.030
SD
= 2.360
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BW 2015 15+ aged general public, Botswana, 2015 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.760
SD
= 2.290
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BW 2016 15+ aged general public, Botswana, 2016 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.500
SD
= 2.690
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BW 2019 15+ aged general public, Botswana, 2019 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.470
SD
= 2.610
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BR 2005 15+ aged general public, Brazil, 2005 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.640
SD
= 2.440
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BR 2007 15+ aged general public, Brazil, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.320
SD
= 2.250
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BO 2011 15+ aged general public, Bolivia, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.780
SD
= 1.730
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BO 2009 15+ aged general public, Bolivia, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.090
SD
= 1.980
Helliwell et al. (2021): study CH 2020 15+ aged general public, Switzerland 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.508
Helliwell et al. (2021): study ZM 2020 15+ aged general public, Zambia 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.838
Helliwell et al. (2021): study TW 2020 15+ aged general public, Taiwan 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.751
Helliwell et al. (2021): study TJ 2020 15+ aged general public, Tajikistan 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.373
Helliwell et al. (2021): study TZ 2020 15+ aged general public, Tanzania 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.786
Helliwell et al. (2021): study TH 2020 15+ aged general public, Thailand 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.885
Helliwell et al. (2021): study TN 2020 15+ aged general public, Tunisia 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.731
Helliwell et al. (2021): study TR 2020 15+ aged general public, Turkey 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.862
Helliwell et al. (2021): study UG 2020 15+ aged general public, Uganda 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.641
Helliwell et al. (2021): study UA 2020 15+ aged general public, Ukraine 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.270
Helliwell et al. (2021): study AE 2020 15+ aged general public, United Arab Emirates 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.458
Helliwell et al. (2021): study GB 2020 15+ aged general public, United Kingdom 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.798
Helliwell et al. (2021): study US 2020 15+ aged general public, United States 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.028
Helliwell et al. (2021): study UY 2020 15+ aged general public, Uruguay 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.310
Helliwell et al. (2021): study VE 2020 15+ aged general public, Venezuela 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.574
Helliwell et al. (2021): study ZW 2020 15+ aged general public, Zimbabwe 2020 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.160
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BO 2008 15+ aged general public, Bolivia, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.300
SD
= 1.880
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BJ 2006 15+ aged general public, Benin, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.330
SD
= 1.520
Helliwell et al. (2020): study BJ 2008 15+ aged general public, Benin, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.670
SD
= 1.730