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Happiness Measures

Characteristics

Code:
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-c
Focus:
Contentment: Best-Worst possible life (C-BW)
Time frame:
currently (today, these days, presently) (c)
Mode:
1 question (sq)
Scale Type:
ladder scale (l)
Scale Range:
11

Description

Selfreport on single question:

Here is ladder representing the 'ladder of life'. Let's suppose the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you; and the bottom, the worst possible life for you. On which step of the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
10 best possible
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 worst possible life

This question was followed (not preceded) by items on life 5 years ago and 5 years from now.

List of Studies Using this Measure

Study Population N Statistics Pew Research Center (2002): study ZZ 2002 Adults, general public, 44 nations, 2002 N = 38263
Oliver et al. (1996): study ZZ Western nations 1993 Chronic mental patients, UK, USA, 1993-1994 N = 1430
Mean
= 5.600
SD
= 2.700
Kilpatrick & Cantril (1960): study US 1955 Adults, general public, USA, 195? N = 100
Mean
= 6.560
Kilpatrick & Cantril (1960): study ZZ East-West pairs 1958 /1 Students, USA and India, 1958 N = 1160
Deaton (2008): study ZZ 2006 15+ aged, general public, 132 countries, 2006 N = 132000
Pelham & Nyiri (2009): study ZZ 2006 15+ aged, general public, 114 nations, 2006-2008 N = 114000
Deaton & Arora (2009): study US 2008 18+ aged, general public, USA, 2008 N = 454065
Taylor (2008): study US 2008 /1 18+ aged, general public, USA,2008 N = 2413
Mean
= 6.500
Diener et al. (2010a): study ZZ 2005 15+ aged, general public, 132 nations, 2005-2006 N = 136839
Ott (2011): study ZZ 2006 18+ aged, general public, 130 nations, 2006 N = 130000
Ng et al. (2009): study ZZ World samples 2005 15+ aged, general public, 121 nations, 2005-2006 N = 125077
Berg (2010): study ZZ 2000 Adults, general public, 119 countries, 2000-2006 N = 119
Pew Research Center (2002): study AO 2002 18+ aged, general public, Angola, 2002 N = 780
Mean
= 4.036
SD
= 1.977
Pew Research Center (2002): study AR 2002 18+ aged, general public, Argentina, 2002 N = 814
Mean
= 5.991
SD
= 2.404
Pew Research Center (2002): study BD 2002 18+ aged, general public, Bangladesh, 2002 N = 689
Mean
= 4.486
SD
= 1.845
Pew Research Center (2002): study BO 2002 18+ aged, general public, Bolivia, 2002 N = 782
Mean
= 5.474
SD
= 2.110
Pew Research Center (2002): study BR 2002 18+ aged, general public, Brazil, 2002 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.114
SD
= 2.366
Pew Research Center (2002): study GB 2002 18+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 2002 N = 501
Mean
= 6.358
SD
= 1.969
Pew Research Center (2002): study BG 2002 18+ aged, general public, Bulgaria, 2002 N = 514
Mean
= 3.752
SD
= 1.984
Pew Research Center (2002): study CA 2002 18+ aged, general public, Canada, 2002 N = 500
Mean
= 7.003
SD
= 1.721
Pew Research Center (2002): study CN 2002 18+ aged, general public, China, 2002 N = 3000
Mean
= 5.265
SD
= 1.980
Pew Research Center (2002): study CZ 2002 18+ aged, general public, Czech Republic, 2002 N = 500
Mean
= 5.958
SD
= 1.696
Pew Research Center (2002): study EG 2002 18+ aged, general public, Egypt, 2002 N = 1013
Mean
= 6.332
SD
= 1.755
Pew Research Center (2002): study FR 2002 18+ aged, general public, France, 2002 N = 507
Mean
= 6.495
SD
= 1.560
Pew Research Center (2002): study DE 2002 18+ aged, general public, Germany, 2002 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.264
SD
= 1.867
Pew Research Center (2002): study GH 2002 18+ aged, general public, Ghana, 2002 N = 702
Mean
= 4.482
SD
= 1.669
Pew Research Center (2002): study GT 2002 18+ aged, general public, Guatemala, 2002 N = 500
Mean
= 7.333
SD
= 1.908
Pew Research Center (2002): study HN 2002 18+ aged, general public, Honduras, 2002 N = 506
Mean
= 6.828
SD
= 2.124
Pew Research Center (2002): study IN 2002 18+ aged, general public, India, 2002 N = 2189
Mean
= 4.840
SD
= 1.984
Pew Research Center (2002): study ID 2002 18+ aged, general public, Indonesia, 2002 N = 1017
Mean
= 5.712
SD
= 1.563
Pew Research Center (2002): study IT 2002 18+ aged, general public, Italy, 2002 N = 508
Mean
= 6.503
SD
= 1.780
Pew Research Center (2002): study CI 2002 18+ aged, general public, Cote d Ivoire, 2002 N = 708
Mean
= 5.425
SD
= 1.935
Pew Research Center (2002): study JP 2002 18+ aged, general public, Japan, 2002 N = 702
Mean
= 5.880
SD
= 1.831
Pew Research Center (2002): study JO 2002 18+ aged, general public, Jordan, 2002 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.360
SD
= 2.361
Pew Research Center (2002): study KE 2002 18+ aged, general public, Kenya, 2002 N = 658
Mean
= 4.862
SD
= 1.900
Pew Research Center (2002): study LB 2002 18+ aged, general public, Lebanon, 2002 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.994
SD
= 2.007
Pew Research Center (2002): study ML 2002 18+ aged, general public, Mali, 2002 N = 697
Mean
= 4.554
SD
= 1.500
Pew Research Center (2002): study MX 2002 18+ aged, general public, Mexico, 2002 N = 996
Mean
= 6.807
SD
= 2.045
Pew Research Center (2002): study NG 2002 18+ aged, general public, Nigeria, 2002 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.842
SD
= 1.714
Pew Research Center (2002): study PK 2002 18+ aged, general public, Pakistan, 2002 N = 2032
Mean
= 5.241
SD
= 2.329
Pew Research Center (2002): study PE 2002 18+ aged, general public, Peru, 2002 N = 711
Mean
= 5.734
SD
= 2.396
Pew Research Center (2002): study PL 2002 18+ aged, general public, Poland, 2002 N = 500
Mean
= 5.399
SD
= 1.927
Pew Research Center (2002): study RU 2002 18+ aged, general public, Russia, 2002 N = 1002
Mean
= 4.688
SD
= 2.044
RUSSET panel study (2005): study SN 2002 18+ aged, general public, Senegal, 2002 N = 710
Mean
= 5.344
SD
= 1.846
Pew Research Center (2002): study SK 2002 18+ aged, general public, Slovakia, 2002 N = 500
Mean
= 5.411
SD
= 1.916
Pew Research Center (2002): study ZA 2002 18+ aged, general public, South Africa, 2002 N = 700
Mean
= 5.236
SD
= 2.566
Pew Research Center (2002): study KR 2002 18+ aged, general public, Korea,(South), 2002 N = 719
Mean
= 6.444
SD
= 1.813
Pew Research Center (2002): study TZ 2002 18+ aged, general public, Tanzania, 2002 N = 720
Mean
= 3.833
SD
= 1.961
Pew Research Center (2002): study TR 2002 18+ aged, general public, Turkey, 2002 N = 1005
Mean
= 4.635
SD
= 2.363
Pew Research Center (2002): study UG 2002 18+ aged, general public, Uganda, 2002 N = 1008
Mean
= 3.977
SD
= 2.190
Pew Research Center (2002): study UA 2002 18+ aged, general public, Ukraine, 2002 N = 500
Mean
= 4.619
SD
= 2.121
Pew Research Center (2002): study US 2002 18+ aged, general public, United States, 2002 N = 1501
Mean
= 6.914
SD
= 1.941
Pew Research Center (2002): study UZ 2002 18+ aged, general public, Uzbekistan, 2002 N = 700
Mean
= 5.906
SD
= 2.097
Pew Research Center (2002): study VE 2002 18+ aged, general public, Venezuela, 2002 N = 700
Mean
= 6.362
SD
= 2.344
Pew Research Center (2002): study VN 2002 18+ aged, general public, Viet Nam, 2002 N = 772
Mean
= 6.478
SD
= 1.874
Pew Research Center (2007): study CN 2005 18+ aged, Urban areas, general public, China, 2005 N = 2166
Mean
= 5.528
SD
= 1.902
Pew Research Center (2007): study IN 2005 18+ aged, Urban areas, general public, India, 2005 N = 2038
Mean
= 5.869
SD
= 1.861
Pew Research Center (2007): study RU 2005 18+ aged, general public, Russia, 2005 N = 991
Mean
= 4.478
SD
= 2.144
DDB lifestyle survey (2000): study US 2005 18+ aged, general public, United States, 2005 N = 2203
Mean
= 6.741
SD
= 2.100
Pew Research Center (2007): study PK 2005 18+ aged, Urban areas, general public, Pakistan, 2005 N = 1218
Mean
= 5.169
SD
= 2.103
Pew Research Center (2007): study TR 2005 18+ aged, general public, Turkey, 2005 N = 994
Mean
= 4.857
SD
= 2.229
Gallup (2008a): study AF 2006 15+ aged, general public, Afghanistan, 2006 N = 1187
Mean
= 4.050
SD
= 1.500
Gallup (2008a): study AL 2006 15+ aged, general public, Albania, 2006 N = 965
Mean
= 4.630
SD
= 1.760
Gallup (2008a): study DZ 2006 15+ aged, general public, Algeria, 2006 N = 1064
Mean
= 5.910
SD
= 1.970
Gallup (2008a): study AO 2006 /1 15+ aged, general public, Angola, 2006 N = 974
Mean
= 4.460
SD
= 1.780
Gallup (2008a): study AR 2006 15+ aged, general public, Argentina, 2006 N = 996
Mean
= 6.310
SD
= 1.970
Gallup (2008a): study AM 2006 15+ aged, general public, Armenia, 2006 N = 997
Mean
= 4.280
SD
= 1.980
Gallup (2008a): study AU 2006 15+ aged, general public, Australia, 2006 N = 999
Mean
= 7.340
SD
= 1.520
Gallup (2008a): study AT 2006 15+ aged, general public, Austria, 2006 N = 995
Mean
= 7.120
SD
= 1.760
Gallup (2008a): study AZ 2006 15+ aged, general public, Azerbaijan, 2006 N = 996
Mean
= 4.720
SD
= 1.560
Gallup (2008a): study BD 2006 15+ aged, general public, Bangladesh, 2006 N = 1048
Mean
= 4.310
SD
= 1.760
Gallup (2008a): study BY 2006 15+ aged, general public, Belarus, 2006 N = 1056
Mean
= 5.650
SD
= 1.770
Gallup (2008a): study BE 2006 15+ aged, general public, Belgium, 2006 N = 989
Mean
= 7.260
SD
= 1.490
Gallup (2008a): study BJ 2006 15+ aged, general public, Benin, 2006 N = 998
Mean
= 3.320
SD
= 1.520
Gallup (2008a): study BO 2006 15+ aged, general public, Bolivia, 2006 N = 991
Mean
= 5.360
SD
= 1.810
Gallup (2008a): study BA 2006 15+ aged, general public, Bosnia Herzegovina, 2006 N = 1958
Mean
= 4.890
SD
= 2.290
Gallup (2008a): study BW 2006 15+ aged, general public, Botswana, 2006 N = 998
Mean
= 4.730
SD
= 2.080
Gallup (2008a): study BF 2006 15+ aged, general public, Burkina Faso, 2006 N = 964
Mean
= 3.800
SD
= 1.560
Gallup (2008a): study BG 2006 15+ aged, general public, Bulgaria, 2006 N = 964
Mean
= 3.840
SD
= 1.940
Gallup (2008a): study BI 2006 15+ aged, general public, Burundi, 2006 N = 984
Mean
= 4.380
SD
= 1.400
Gallup (2008a): study KH 2006 15+ aged, general public, Cambodia, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.560
SD
= 1.680
Gallup (2008a): study CM 2006 15+ aged, general public, Cameroon, 2006 N = 999
Mean
= 3.850
SD
= 1.850
Gallup (2008a): study CA 2006 15+ aged, general public, Canada, 2006 N = 1352
Mean
= 7.410
SD
= 1.630
Gallup (2008a): study TD 2006 15+ aged, general public, Chad, 2006 N = 961
Mean
= 3.430
SD
= 1.700
Gallup (2008a): study CL 2006 15+ aged, general public, Chile , 2006 N = 1005
Mean
= 6.060
SD
= 2.210
Gallup (2008a): study CN 2006 15+ aged, general public, China, 2006 N = 3720
Mean
= 4.560
SD
= 1.970
Gallup (2008a): study CO 2006 15+ aged, general public, Colombia, 2006 N = 995
Mean
= 6.020
SD
= 2.390
Gallup (2008a): study CR 2006 15+ aged, general public, Costa Rica, 2006 N = 980
Mean
= 7.080
SD
= 2.080
Gallup (2008a): study HR 2007 15+ aged, general public, Croatia, 2006 N = 990
Mean
= 5.820
SD
= 2.120
Gallup (2008a): study CU 2006 15+ aged, general public, urban areas, Cuba, 2006 N = 994
Mean
= 5.410
SD
= 2.130
Gallup (2008a): study CZ 2006 15+ aged, general public, Czech Republic, 2006 N = 985
Mean
= 6.430
SD
= 2.050
Gallup (2008a): study DK 2006 15+ aged, general public, Denmark, 2006 N = 998
Mean
= 8.010
SD
= 1.340
Gallup (2008a): study DO 2006 15+ aged, general public, Dominican Republic, 2006 N = 975
Mean
= 5.060
SD
= 3.070
Gallup (2008a): study EC 2006 15+ aged, general public, Ecuador, 2006 N = 1065
Mean
= 5.020
SD
= 2.370
Gallup (2008a): study EG 2006 15+ aged, general public, Egypt, 2006 N = 985
Mean
= 5.300
SD
= 2.600
Gallup (2008a): study SV 2006 15+ aged, general public, El Salvador, 2006 N = 977
Mean
= 5.700
SD
= 2.180
Gallup (2008a): study EE 2006 15+ aged, general public, Estonia, 2006 N = 985
Mean
= 5.370
SD
= 1.690
Gallup (2008a): study ET 2006 15+ aged, general public, Ethiopia, 2006 N = 969
Mean
= 3.830
SD
= 1.750
Gallup (2008a): study FI 2006 15+ aged, general public, Finland, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.670
SD
= 1.350
Gallup (2008a): study FR 2006 15+ aged, general public, France, 2006 N = 985
Mean
= 7.010
SD
= 1.610
Gallup (2008a): study GE 2006 15+ aged, general public, Georgia, 2006 N = 996
Mean
= 3.670
SD
= 1.920
Gallup (2008a): study DE 2006 15+ aged, general public, Germany, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.610
SD
= 1.790
Gallup (2008a): study GH 2006 15+ aged, general public, Ghana, 2006 N = 996
Mean
= 4.530
SD
= 1.800
Gallup (2008a): study GR 2006 15+ aged, general public, Greece, 2006 N = 995
Mean
= 6.000
SD
= 2.450
Gallup (2008a): study GT 2006 15+ aged, general public, Guatemala, 2006 N = 1007
Mean
= 5.900
SD
= 2.080
Gallup (2008a): study HT 2006 /1 15+ aged, general public, Haiti, 2006 N = 499
Mean
= 3.750
SD
= 1.840
Gallup (2008a): study HN 2006 15+ aged, general public, Honduras, 2006 N = 965
Mean
= 5.390
SD
= 2.730
Gallup (2008a): study HK 2006 15+ aged, general public, Hong Kong, 2006 N = 794
Mean
= 5.510
SD
= 1.900
Gallup (2008a): study HU 2006 15+ aged, general public, Hungary, 2006 N = 1017
Mean
= 5.190
SD
= 2.060
Gallup (2008a): study IN 2006 15+ aged, general public, India, 2006 N = 2063
Mean
= 5.340
SD
= 1.940
Gallup (2008a): study ID 2006 15+ aged, general public, Indonesia, 2006 N = 1156
Mean
= 4.940
SD
= 1.700
Gallup (2008a): study IR 2006 15+ aged, general public, Iran, 2006 N = 1287
Mean
= 5.300
SD
= 1.990
Gallup (2008a): study IE 2006 15+ aged, general public, Ireland, 2006 N = 977
Mean
= 7.140
SD
= 1.820
Gallup (2008a): study IL 2006 15+ aged, general public, Israel, 2006 N = 998
Mean
= 7.160
SD
= 1.850
Gallup (2008a): study IT 2006 15+ aged, general public, Italy, 2006 N = 989
Mean
= 6.850
SD
= 1.880
Gallup (2008a): study JM 2006 15+ aged, general public, Jamaica, 2006 N = 536
Mean
= 6.210
SD
= 1.910
Gallup (2008a): study JP 2006 15+ aged, general public, Japan, 2006 N = 996
Mean
= 6.510
SD
= 1.780
Gallup (2008a): study JO 2006 15+ aged, general public, Jordan, 2006 N = 986
Mean
= 6.300
SD
= 2.010
Gallup (2008a): study KZ 2006 15+ aged, general public, Kazakhstan, 2006 N = 999
Mean
= 5.470
SD
= 1.840
Gallup (2008a): study KO 2006 15+ aged, general public, Kosovo, 2006 N = 1018
Mean
= 5.100
SD
= 1.880
Gallup (2008a): study KG 2006 /2 15+ aged, general public, Kyrgyzstan, 2006 N = 999
Mean
= 4.640
SD
= 1.750
Gallup (2008a): study LA 2006 15+ aged, general public, Laos, 2006 N = 998
Mean
= 5.070
SD
= 0.860
Gallup (2008a): study LV 2006 15+ aged, general public, Latvia, 2006 N = 988
Mean
= 4.710
SD
= 1.660
Gallup (2008a): study LT 2006 15+ aged, general public, Lithuania, 2006 N = 996
Mean
= 5.950
SD
= 1.830
Gallup (2008a): study MK 2006 15+ aged, general public, Macedonia, 2006 N = 1034
Mean
= 4.490
SD
= 2.200
Gallup (2008a): study MW 2006 15+ aged, general public, Malawi, 2006 N = 999
Mean
= 3.820
SD
= 2.080
Gallup (2008a): study MY 2006 15+ aged, general public, Malaysia, 2006 N = 1003
Mean
= 6.010
SD
= 1.610
Gallup (2008a): study ML 2006 15+ aged, general public, Mali, 2006 N = 997
Mean
= 4.010
SD
= 1.610
Gallup (2008a): study MR 2006 15+ aged, general public, Mauritania, 2006 N = 997
Mean
= 5.200
SD
= 1.930
Gallup (2008a): study MX 2006 15+ aged, general public, Mexico, 2006 N = 988
Mean
= 6.580
SD
= 2.230
Gallup (2008a): study MD 2006 15+ aged, general public, Moldova, 2006 N = 987
Mean
= 5.100
SD
= 1.880
Gallup (2008a): study ME 2006 15+ aged, general public, Montenegro, 2006 N = 809
Mean
= 5.190
SD
= 2.460
Gallup (2008a): study MA 2006 15+ aged, general public, Morocco, 2006 N = 996
Mean
= 4.620
SD
= 1.940
Gallup (2008a): study MZ 2006 15+ aged, general public, Mozambique, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.590
SD
= 1.790
Gallup (2008a): study MM 2006 15+ aged, general public, urban areas, Myanmar, 2006 N = 1047
Mean
= 5.320
SD
= 1.460
Gallup (2008a): study NP 2006 15+ aged, general public, Nepal, 2006 N = 986
Mean
= 4.560
SD
= 1.520
Gallup (2008a): study NZ 2006 15+ aged, general public, New Zealand, 2006 N = 1024
Mean
= 7.300
SD
= 1.740
Gallup (2008a): study NI 2006 15+ aged, general public, Nicaragua, 2006 N = 966
Mean
= 4.460
SD
= 2.710
Gallup (2008a): study NE 2006 15+ aged, general public, Niger, 2006 N = 999
Mean
= 3.800
SD
= 1.610
Gallup (2008a): study NG 2006 15+ aged, general public, Nigeria, 2006 N = 984
Mean
= 4.700
SD
= 1.800
Gallup (2008a): study NO 2006 15+ aged, general public, Norway, 2006 N = 997
Mean
= 7.410
SD
= 1.740
Gallup (2008a): study PK 2006 15+ aged, general public, Pakistan, 2006 N = 886
Mean
= 5.220
SD
= 2.430
Gallup (2008a): study PS 2006 15+ aged, general public, Palestina, 2006 N = 992
Mean
= 4.780
SD
= 2.320
Gallup (2008a): study PA 2006 15+ aged, general public, Panama, 2006 N = 999
Mean
= 6.120
SD
= 2.320
Gallup (2008a): study PY 2006 15+ aged, general public, Paraguay, 2006 N = 991
Mean
= 4.730
SD
= 1.960
Gallup (2008a): study PE 2006 15+ aged, general public, Peru, 2006 N = 987
Mean
= 4.810
SD
= 2.290
Gallup (2008a): study PL 2006 15+ aged, general public, Poland, 2006 N = 991
Mean
= 5.600
SD
= 2.140
Gallup (2008a): study PT 2006 15+ aged, general public, Portugal, 2006 N = 963
Mean
= 5.430
SD
= 2.180
Gallup (2008a): study PR 2006 /1 15+ aged, general public, Puerto Rico, 2006 N = 499
Mean
= 6.590
SD
= 2.610
Gallup (2008a): study RO 2006 15+ aged, general public, Romania, 2006 N = 1005
Mean
= 5.040
SD
= 2.280
Gallup (2008a): study RU 2006 /1 15+ aged, general public, Russia, 2006 N = 1959
Mean
= 4.960
SD
= 2.040
Gallup (2008a): study RW 2006 15+ aged, general public, Rwanda, 2006 N = 1502
Mean
= 4.210
SD
= 1.550
Gallup (2008a): study SA 2006 15+ aged, general public, Saudi Arabia, 2006 N = 994
Mean
= 7.060
SD
= 1.830
Gallup (2008a): study RS 2006 15+ aged, general public, Serbia, 2006 N = 1541
Mean
= 4.750
SD
= 2.040
Gallup (2008a): study SL 2006 15+ aged, general public, Sierra Leone, 2006 N = 999
Mean
= 3.620
SD
= 1.810
Gallup (2008a): study SG 2006 15+ aged, general public, Singapore, 2006 N = 1092
Mean
= 6.540
SD
= 1.290
Gallup (2008a): study ZA 2006 15+ aged, general public, South Africa, 2006 N = 977
Mean
= 5.080
SD
= 2.130
Gallup (2008a): study KR 2006 15+ aged, general public, Korea,(South), 2006 N = 1089
Mean
= 5.330
SD
= 2.220
Gallup (2008a): study ES 2006 15+ aged, general public, Spain, 2006 N = 960
Mean
= 7.150
SD
= 1.720
Gallup (2008a): study LK 2006 15+ aged, general public, Sri Lanka, 2006 N = 1029
Mean
= 4.340
SD
= 1.730
Gallup (2008a): study SE 2006 15+ aged, general public, Sweden, 2006 N = 985
Mean
= 7.380
SD
= 1.620
Gallup (2008a): study TW 2006 15+ aged, general public, Taiwan, 2006 N = 989
Mean
= 6.180
SD
= 1.920
Gallup (2008a): study TJ 2006 15+ aged, general public, Tajikistan, 2006 N = 989
Mean
= 4.570
SD
= 1.560
Gallup (2008a): study TZ 2006 15+ aged, general public, Tanzania, 2006 N = 959
Mean
= 3.660
SD
= 1.720
Gallup (2008a): study TH 2006 15+ aged, general public, Thailand, 2006 N = 1405
Mean
= 5.960
SD
= 1.670
Gallup (2008a): study TG 2006 15+ aged, general public, Togo, 2006 N = 999
Mean
= 3.240
SD
= 1.730
Gallup (2008a): study TT 2006 15+ aged, general public, Trinidad and Tobago, 2006 N = 505
Mean
= 5.830
SD
= 2.390
Gallup (2008a): study UG 2006 15+ aged, general public, Uganda, 2006 N = 995
Mean
= 3.730
SD
= 1.820
Gallup (2008a): study UA 2006 15+ aged, general public, Ukraine, 2006 N = 1077
Mean
= 4.880
SD
= 1.960
Gallup (2008a): study AE 2006 15+ aged, general public, United Arab Emirates, 2006 N = 1008
Mean
= 6.730
SD
= 1.850
Gallup (2008a): study GB 2006 15+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 2006 N = 1032
Mean
= 6.970
SD
= 1.630
Gallup (2008a): study UY 2006 15+ aged, general public, Uruguay, 2006 N = 1001
Mean
= 5.780
SD
= 2.210
Gallup (2008a): study UZ 2006 15+ aged, general public, Uzbekistan, 2006 N = 979
Mean
= 5.230
SD
= 1.910
Gallup (2008a): study VN 2006 15+ aged, general public, Viet Nam, 2006 N = 948
Mean
= 5.290
SD
= 1.350
Gallup (2008a): study YE 2006 15+ aged, general public, Yemen, 2006 N = 998
Mean
= 4.570
SD
= 1.930
Gallup (2008a): study ZM 2006 15+ aged, general public, Zambia, 2006 N = 999
Mean
= 4.820
SD
= 1.890
Gallup (2008a): study ZW 2006 15+ aged, general public, Zimbabwe, 2006 N = 994
Mean
= 3.820
SD
= 2.010
Gallup (2008a): study LB 2006 15+ aged, general public, Lebanon, 2006 N = 993
Mean
= 5.490
SD
= 2.260
Gallup (2008a): study PH 2006 15+ aged, general public, Philippines, 2006 N = 1190
Mean
= 4.660
SD
= 2.330
Gallup (2008a): study MG 2006 15+ aged, general public, Madagascar, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.970
SD
= 1.430
Gallup (2008a): study IQ 2006 15+ aged, general public, Iraq, 2006 N = 3444
Mean
= 3.750
SD
= 1.800
Gallup (2008a): study TR 2006 15+ aged, general public, Turkey, 2006 N = 980
Mean
= 4.710
SD
= 2.340
Gallup (2008a): study US 2006 15+ aged, general public, United States, 2006 N = 995
Mean
= 7.180
SD
= 1.870
Gallup (2008a): study AO 2006 15+ aged, general public, urban areas, Angola, 2006 N = 974
Mean
= 4.150
SD
= 1.860
Gallup (2008a): study AR 2008 15+ aged, general public, Argentina, 2008 N = 995
Mean
= 5.950
SD
= 2.140
Gallup (2008a): study AM 2008 15+ aged, general public, Armenia, 2008 N = 998
Mean
= 4.650
SD
= 1.950
Gallup (2008a): study AU 2008 15+ aged, general public, Australia, 2008 N = 1005
Mean
= 7.250
SD
= 1.680
Gallup (2008a): study AT 2008 15+ aged, general public, Austria, 2008 N = 998
Mean
= 7.180
SD
= 1.690
Gallup (2008a): study AZ 2007 15+ aged, general public, Azerbaijan, 2007 N = 952
Mean
= 4.560
SD
= 1.600
Gallup (2008a): study BD 2008 15+ aged, general public, Bangladesh, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.050
SD
= 1.750
Gallup (2008a): study BY 2007 15+ aged, general public, Belarus, 2007 N = 1068
Mean
= 5.610
SD
= 1.790
Gallup (2008a): study BZ 2007 15+ aged, general public, Belize, 2007 N = 491
Mean
= 6.450
SD
= 2.040
Gallup (2008a): study BE 2008 15+ aged, general public, Belgium, 2008 N = 988
Mean
= 7.110
SD
= 1.520
Gallup (2008a): study BJ 2008 /1 15+ aged, general public, Benin, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.660
SD
= 1.720
Gallup (2008a): study BO 2008 15+ aged, general public, Bolivia, 2008 N = 990
Mean
= 5.290
SD
= 1.870
Gallup (2008a): study BA 2007 15+ aged, general public, Bosnia Herzegovina, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.890
Gallup (2008a): study BW 2008 15+ aged, general public, Botswana, 2008 N = 994
Mean
= 5.450
SD
= 2.400
Gallup (2008a): study BF 2008 15+ aged, general public, Burkina Faso, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.840
SD
= 1.410
Gallup (2008a): study BI 2008 15+ aged, general public, Burundi, 2008 N = 998
Mean
= 3.560
SD
= 1.540
Gallup (2008a): study KH 2008 15+ aged, general public, Cambodia, 2008 N = 1016
Mean
= 4.460
SD
= 1.420
Gallup (2008a): study CM 2008 15+ aged, general public, Cameroon, 2008 N = 997
Mean
= 4.290
SD
= 1.760
Gallup (2008a): study CA 2008 15+ aged, general public, Canada, 2008 N = 1002
Mean
= 7.480
SD
= 1.610
Gallup (2008a): study CF 2007 15+ aged, general public, Central African Republic, 2007 N = 995
Mean
= 4.370
SD
= 1.800
Gallup (2008a): study TD 2007 15+ aged, general public, Chad, 2007 N = 982
Mean
= 4.140
SD
= 1.560
Gallup (2008a): study CL 2008 15+ aged, general public, Chile , 2008 N = 1106
Mean
= 5.780
SD
= 2.390
Gallup (2008a): study CN 2007 15+ aged, general public, China, 2007 N = 4227
Mean
= 4.860
SD
= 1.780
Gallup (2008a): study CO 2008 15+ aged, general public, Colombia, 2008 N = 998
Mean
= 6.160
SD
= 2.390
Gallup (2008a): study CD 2007 15+ aged, general public, Congo (Kinshasa),, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.200
Gallup (2008a): study CR 2008 15+ aged, general public, Costa Rica, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.850
SD
= 1.970
Gallup (2008a): study CY 2006 15+ aged, general public, Cyprus, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.230
SD
= 2.030
Gallup (2008a): study CZ 2007 15+ aged, general public, Czech Republic, 2007 N = 1058
Mean
= 6.500
SD
= 1.990
Gallup (2008a): study DK 2007 15+ aged, general public, Denmark, 2007 N = 1007
Mean
= 7.830
SD
= 1.500
Gallup (2008a): study DJ 2008 15+ aged, general public, Djibouti, 2008 N = 995
Mean
= 5.000
SD
= 1.490
Gallup (2008a): study DO 2007 15+ aged, general public, Dominican Republic, 2007 N = 987
Mean
= 5.080
SD
= 2.840
Gallup (2008a): study EC 2008 15+ aged, general public, Ecuador, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.290
SD
= 2.110
Gallup (2008a): study EG 2008 15+ aged, general public, Egypt, 2008 N = 1096
Mean
= 4.630
SD
= 2.370
Gallup (2008a): study SV 2008 15+ aged, general public, El Salvador, 2008 N = 995
Mean
= 5.190
SD
= 2.110
Gallup (2008a): study EE 2008 15+ aged, general public, Estonia, 2008 N = 597
Mean
= 5.450
SD
= 1.650
Gallup (2008a): study ET 2007 15+ aged, general public, Ethiopia, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.400
Gallup (2008a): study FI 2008 15+ aged, general public, Finland, 2008 N = 998
Mean
= 7.670
SD
= 1.420
Gallup (2008a): study FR 2008 15+ aged, general public, France, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.000
SD
= 1.590
Gallup (2008a): study GE 2008 15+ aged, general public, Georgia, 2008 N = 1077
Mean
= 4.150
SD
= 1.890
Gallup (2008a): study DE 2008 15+ aged, general public, Germany, 2008 N = 4012
Mean
= 6.540
SD
= 1.780
Gallup (2008a): study GH 2008 15+ aged, general public, Ghana, 2008 N = 992
Mean
= 4.960
SD
= 1.620
Gallup (2008a): study GR 2007 15+ aged, general public, Greece, 2007 N = 995
Mean
= 6.640
SD
= 1.960
Gallup (2008a): study GT 2008 15+ aged, general public, Guatemala, 2008 N = 991
Mean
= 6.410
SD
= 2.150
Gallup (2008a): study GN 2007 15+ aged, general public, Guinea, 2007 N = 974
Mean
= 4.290
SD
= 1.480
Gallup (2008a): study GY 2007 15+ aged, general public, Guyana, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.000
Gallup (2008a): study HN 2008 15+ aged, general public, Honduras, 2008 N = 992
Mean
= 5.420
SD
= 2.690
Gallup (2008a): study HU 2007 15+ aged, general public, Hungary, 2007 N = 1005
Mean
= 4.950
SD
= 2.080
Gallup (2008a): study IN 2008 15+ aged, general public, India, 2008 N = 1943
Mean
= 5.140
SD
= 1.620
Gallup (2008a): study ID 2008 /1 15+ aged, general public, Indonesia, 2008 N = 1045
Mean
= 4.810
SD
= 1.570
Gallup (2008a): study IR 2007 15+ aged, general public, Iran, 2007 N = 1001
Mean
= 5.330
SD
= 2.240
Gallup (2008a): study IQ 2008 15+ aged, general public, Iraq, 2008 N = 982
Mean
= 4.580
SD
= 1.730
Gallup (2008a): study IE 2008 15+ aged, general public, Ireland, 2008 N = 998
Mean
= 7.560
SD
= 1.510
Gallup (2008a): study IL 2007 15+ aged, general public, Israel, 2007 N = 982
Mean
= 6.840
SD
= 2.040
Gallup (2008a): study IT 2008 15+ aged, general public, Italy, 2008 N = 992
Mean
= 6.770
SD
= 1.940
Gallup (2008a): study JP 2008 /2 15+ aged, general public, Japan, 2008 N = 2991
Mean
= 5.910
SD
= 1.920
Gallup (2008a): study JO 2007 15+ aged, general public, Jordan, 2007 N = 1016
Mean
= 5.590
SD
= 2.090
Gallup (2008a): study KZ 2007 /1 15+ aged, general public, Kazakhstan, 2007 N = 992
Mean
= 5.710
SD
= 1.750
Gallup (2008a): study KE 2008 15+ aged, general public, Kenya, 2008 N = 2192
Mean
= 4.010
SD
= 1.400
Gallup (2008a): study KW 2006 /1 15+ aged, general public, Kuwait, 2006 N = 970
Mean
= 6.070
SD
= 1.600
Gallup (2008a): study KG 2008 15+ aged, general public, Kyrgyzstan, 2008 N = 994
Mean
= 4.730
SD
= 1.640
Gallup (2008a): study LA 2008 15+ aged, general public, Laos, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.040
SD
= 1.100
Gallup (2008a): study LV 2008 15+ aged, general public, Latvia, 2008 N = 510
Mean
= 5.140
SD
= 1.790
Gallup (2008a): study LB 2008 15+ aged, general public, Lebanon, 2008 N = 999
Mean
= 4.590
SD
= 2.490
Gallup (2008a): study LR 2008 15+ aged, general public, Liberia, 2008 N = 998
Mean
= 4.220
SD
= 1.520
Gallup (2008a): study LT 2008 15+ aged, general public, Lithuania, 2008 N = 500
Mean
= 5.550
SD
= 1.990
Gallup (2008a): study MK 2007 15+ aged, general public, Macedonia, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.500
Gallup (2008a): study MG 2008 15+ aged, general public, Madagascar, 2008 N = 999
Mean
= 4.640
SD
= 1.390
Gallup (2008a): study MW 2007 15+ aged, general public, Malawi, 2007 N = 999
Mean
= 4.890
SD
= 1.810
Gallup (2008a): study ML 2008 15+ aged, general public, Mali, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.110
SD
= 1.500
Gallup (2008a): study MR 2007 /1 15+ aged, general public, Mauritania, 2007 N = 965
Mean
= 4.140
SD
= 1.890
Gallup (2008a): study MX 2008 15+ aged, general public, Mexico, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.820
SD
= 2.090
Gallup (2008a): study MD 2007 15+ aged, general public, Moldova, 2007 N = 980
Mean
= 4.770
SD
= 1.890
Gallup (2008a): study MN 2007 /1 15+ aged, general public, Mongolia, 2007 N = 943
Mean
= 4.600
SD
= 1.690
Gallup (2008a): study ME 2007 15+ aged, general public, Montenegro, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.200
Gallup (2008a): study MA 2007 15+ aged, general public, Morocco, 2007 N = 1031
Mean
= 5.420
SD
= 1.860
Gallup (2008a): study MZ 2007 15+ aged, general public, Mozambique, 2007 N = 985
Mean
= 4.830
SD
= 1.620
Gallup (2008a): study MM 2006 /1 15+ aged, general public, Myanmar, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.300
Gallup (2008a): study NA 2007 15+ aged, general public, Namibia, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.880
SD
= 1.500
Gallup (2008a): study NP 2007 15+ aged, general public, Nepal, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.740
SD
= 1.740
Gallup (2008a): study NL 2008 15+ aged, general public, Netherlands, 2008 N = 997
Mean
= 7.630
SD
= 1.020
Gallup (2008a): study NZ 2008 15+ aged, general public, New Zealand, 2008 N = 744
Mean
= 7.380
SD
= 1.650
Gallup (2008a): study NI 2008 15+ aged, general public, Nicaragua, 2008 N = 997
Mean
= 5.100
SD
= 2.650
Gallup (2008a): study NE 2008 15+ aged, general public, Niger, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.230
SD
= 1.380
Gallup (2008a): study NG 2008 15+ aged, general public, Nigeria, 2008 N = 992
Mean
= 4.930
SD
= 1.690
Gallup (2008a): study PK 2008 15+ aged, general public, Pakistan, 2008 N = 2461
Mean
= 4.410
SD
= 2.660
Gallup (2008a): study PS 2008 /1 15+ aged, general public, Palestina, 2008 N = 999
Mean
= 4.380
SD
= 2.520
Gallup (2008a): study PA 2008 15+ aged, general public, Panama, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.930
SD
= 2.070
Gallup (2008a): study PY 2008 15+ aged, general public, Paraguay, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.600
Gallup (2008a): study PE 2008 15+ aged, general public, Peru, 2008 N = 991
Mean
= 5.120
SD
= 2.390
Gallup (2008a): study PH 2008 15+ aged, general public, Philippines, 2008 N = 989
Mean
= 4.580
SD
= 2.280
Gallup (2008a): study PL 2007 15+ aged, general public, Poland, 2007 N = 982
Mean
= 5.880
SD
= 1.920
Gallup (2008a): study RO 2007 15+ aged, general public, Romania, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.390
SD
= 2.100
Gallup (2008a): study RW 2008 15+ aged, general public, Rwanda, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.360
SD
= 1.540
Gallup (2008a): study SA 2008 15+ aged, general public, Saudi Arabia, 2008 N = 1145
Mean
= 6.810
SD
= 1.340
Gallup (2008a): study SN 2008 15+ aged, general public, Senegal, 2008 N = 998
Mean
= 4.680
SD
= 1.290
Gallup (2008a): study RS 2007 15+ aged, general public, Serbia, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.750
Gallup (2008a): study SL 2008 15+ aged, general public, Sierra Leone, 2008 N = 999
Mean
= 2.990
SD
= 1.680
Gallup (2008a): study SG 2008 /1 15+ aged, general public, Singapore, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.640
SD
= 1.530
Gallup (2008a): study SI 2006 15+ aged, general public, Slovenia, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.800
Gallup (2008a): study ZA 2007 15+ aged, general public, South Africa, 2007 N = 961
Mean
= 5.200
SD
= 1.740
Gallup (2008a): study KR 2008 15+ aged, general public, Korea,(South), 2008 N = 994
Mean
= 5.380
SD
= 2.080
Gallup (2008a): study ES 2008 15+ aged, general public, Spain, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.290
SD
= 1.790
Gallup (2008a): study LK 2008 15+ aged, general public, Sri Lanka, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.430
SD
= 1.760
Gallup (2008a): study SD 2008 15+ aged, general public, Sudan, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.700
Gallup (2008a): study SE 2008 15+ aged, general public, Sweden, 2008 N = 996
Mean
= 7.510
SD
= 1.550
Gallup (2008a): study CH 2006 15+ aged, general public, Switzerland, 2006 N = 996
Mean
= 7.470
SD
= 1.620
Gallup (2008a): study TJ 2007 15+ aged, general public, Tajikistan, 2007 N = 996
Mean
= 4.430
SD
= 1.590
Gallup (2008a): study TZ 2007 15+ aged, general public, Tanzania, 2007 N = 994
Mean
= 4.310
SD
= 1.880
Gallup (2008a): study TH 2007 /1 15+ aged, general public, Thailand, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.780
SD
= 1.670
Gallup (2008a): study TR 2008 15+ aged, general public, Turkey, 2008 N = 994
Mean
= 5.110
SD
= 2.360
Gallup (2008a): study UG 2008 15+ aged, general public, Uganda, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.560
SD
= 1.530
Gallup (2008a): study UA 2008 15+ aged, general public, Ukraine, 2008 N = 1040
Mean
= 5.170
SD
= 1.970
Gallup (2008a): study GB 2008 15+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 2008 N = 990
Mean
= 6.980
SD
= 1.740
Gallup (2008a): study US 2008 15+ aged, general public, United States, 2008 N = 1002
Mean
= 7.280
SD
= 1.770
Gallup (2008a): study UY 2008 15+ aged, general public, Uruguay, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.660
SD
= 2.240
Gallup (2008a): study UZ 2008 15+ aged, general public, Uzbekistan, 2008 N = 960
Mean
= 5.310
SD
= 1.820
Gallup (2008a): study VE 2006 /1 15+ aged, general public, Venezuela, 2006 N = 992
Mean
= 7.160
SD
= 2.530
Gallup (2008a): study VN 2008 15+ aged, general public, Viet Nam, 2008 N = 990
Mean
= 5.480
SD
= 1.350
Gallup (2008a): study YE 2007 15+ aged, general public, Yemen, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.500
Gallup (2008a): study ZM 2008 15+ aged, general public, Zambia, 2008 N = 999
Mean
= 4.730
SD
= 1.860
Gallup (2008a): study ZW 2008 15+ aged, general public, Zimbabwe, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.170
SD
= 1.680
Gallup (2008a): study NO 2008 15+ aged, general public, Norway, 2008 N = 993
Mean
= 7.630
SD
= 1.530
Pew Research Center (2007): study AR 2007 18+ aged, general public, Argentina, 2007 N = 800
Mean
= 6.070
SD
= 2.030
Pew Research Center (2007): study BD 2007 18+ aged, general public, Bangladesh, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.600
SD
= 1.790
Pew Research Center (2007): study BO 2007 18+ aged, general public, Bolivia, 2007 N = 970
Mean
= 5.620
SD
= 1.940
Pew Research Center (2007): study BR 2007 18+ aged, general public, Brazil, 2007 N = 1024
Mean
= 6.320
SD
= 2.240
Pew Research Center (2007): study CA 2007 18+ aged, general public, Canada, 2007 N = 1008
Mean
= 7.480
SD
= 1.810
Pew Research Center (2007): study CL 2007 18+ aged, general public, Chile , 2007 N = 1023
Mean
= 5.690
SD
= 2.160
Pew Research Center (2007): study CN 2007 18+ aged, general public, China, 2007 N = 3142
Mean
= 5.819
SD
= 1.745
Pew Research Center (2007): study CZ 2007 18+ aged, general public, Czech Republic, 2007 N = 900
Mean
= 6.048
SD
= 1.782
Pew Research Center (2007): study EG 2007 18+ aged, general public, Egypt, 2007 N = 1022
Mean
= 5.540
SD
= 2.600
Pew Research Center (2007): study ET 2007 18+ aged, general public, Ethiopia, 2007 N = 710
Mean
= 5.852
SD
= 1.713
Pew Research Center (2007): study FR 2007 18+ aged, general public, France, 2007 N = 1195
Mean
= 6.580
SD
= 1.800
Pew Research Center (2007): study DE 2007 18+ aged, general public, Germany, 2007 N = 1211
Mean
= 6.410
SD
= 1.860
Pew Research Center (2007): study GH 2007 18+ aged, general public, Ghana, 2007 N = 990
Mean
= 5.220
SD
= 1.940
Pew Research Center (2007): study GB 2007 18+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 2007 N = 1198
Mean
= 6.800
SD
= 1.850
Pew Research Center (2007): study IN 2007 18+ aged, general public, India, 2007 N = 3169
Mean
= 5.020
SD
= 1.620
Pew Research Center (2007): study ID 2007 18+ aged, general public, Indonesia, 2007 N = 998
Mean
= 5.100
SD
= 1.490
Pew Research Center (2007): study IL 2007 18+ aged, general public, Israel, 2007 N = 982
Mean
= 6.840
SD
= 2.040
Pew Research Center (2007): study IT 2007 18+ aged, general public, Italy, 2007 N = 999
Mean
= 6.570
SD
= 1.850
Pew Research Center (2007): study CI 2007 18+ aged, general public, Cote d Ivoire, 2007 N = 708
Mean
= 5.748
SD
= 1.809
Pew Research Center (2007): study JP 2007 18+ aged, general public, Japan, 2007 N = 1149
Mean
= 6.230
SD
= 1.980
Pew Research Center (2007): study JO 2007 18+ aged, general public, Jordan, 2007 N = 1013
Mean
= 5.590
SD
= 2.090
Pew Research Center (2007): study KE 2007 18+ aged, general public, Kenya, 2007 N = 999
Mean
= 4.570
SD
= 1.580
Pew Research Center (2007): study KW 2007 18+ aged, general public, Kuwait, 2007 N = 500
Mean
= 6.184
SD
= 1.991
Pew Research Center (2007): study LB 2007 18+ aged, general public, Lebanon, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.640
SD
= 2.430
Pew Research Center (2007): study MY 2007 18+ aged, general public, Malaysia, 2007 N = 1227
Mean
= 6.230
SD
= 1.600
Pew Research Center (2007): study ML 2007 18+ aged, general public, Mali, 2007 N = 700
Mean
= 4.970
SD
= 1.537
Pew Research Center (2007): study MX 2007 18+ aged, general public, Mexico, 2007 N = 999
Mean
= 6.520
SD
= 2.040
Pew Research Center (2007): study NG 2007 18+ aged, general public, Nigeria, 2007 N = 987
Mean
= 4.890
SD
= 1.620
Pew Research Center (2007): study MA 2007 18+ aged, general public, Morocco, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.285
SD
= 1.218
Pew Research Center (2007): study PK 2007 18+ aged, general public, Pakistan, 2007 N = 1494
Mean
= 5.670
SD
= 2.540
Pew Research Center (2007): study PS 2007 18+ aged, general public, Palestina, 2007 N = 808
Mean
= 4.780
SD
= 2.470
Pew Research Center (2007): study PE 2007 18+ aged, general public, Peru, 2007 N = 998
Mean
= 5.210
SD
= 2.250
Pew Research Center (2007): study PL 2007 18+ aged, general public, Poland, 2007 N = 504
Mean
= 5.913
SD
= 1.880
Pew Research Center (2007): study RU 2007 18+ aged, general public, Russia, 2007 N = 1002
Mean
= 5.082
SD
= 2.036
Pew Research Center (2007): study SN 2007 18+ aged, general public, Senegal, 2007 N = 700
Mean
= 5.512
SD
= 1.685
Pew Research Center (2007): study SK 2007 18+ aged, general public, Slovakia, 2007 N = 900
Mean
= 5.855
SD
= 1.786
Pew Research Center (2007): study ZA 2007 18+ aged, general public, South Africa, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.504
SD
= 2.510
Pew Research Center (2007): study KR 2007 18+ aged, general public, Korea,(South), 2007 N = 988
Mean
= 5.760
SD
= 2.000
Pew Research Center (2007): study ES 2007 18+ aged, general public, Spain, 2007 N = 994
Mean
= 6.990
SD
= 1.940
Pew Research Center (2007): study SE 2007 18+ aged, general public, Sweden, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.063
SD
= 1.655
Pew Research Center (2007): study TZ 2007 18+ aged, general public, Tanzania, 2007 N = 704
Mean
= 4.165
SD
= 1.920
Pew Research Center (2007): study TR 2007 18+ aged, general public, Turkey, 2007 N = 971
Mean
= 5.288
SD
= 2.198
Pew Research Center (2007): study US 2007 18+ aged, general public, United States, 2007 N = 2026
Mean
= 7.022
SD
= 1.930
Pew Research Center (2007): study UG 2007 18+ aged, general public, Uganda, 2007 N = 1122
Mean
= 4.005
SD
= 1.862
Pew Research Center (2007): study UA 2007 18+ aged, general public, Ukraine, 2007 N = 500
Mean
= 5.440
SD
= 2.169
Pew Research Center (2007): study VE 2007 18+ aged, general public, Venezuela, 2007 N = 803
Mean
= 6.899
SD
= 1.998
Latin American Public Opinion Project (2010): study AR 2010 18+ aged, general public, Argentina, 2010 N = 1410
Mean
= 6.440
SD
= 2.100
Latin American Public Opinion Project (2010): study BZ 2010 18+ aged, general public, Belize, 2010 N = 1504
Mean
= 5.336
SD
= 2.525
Latin American Public Opinion Project (2010): study BO 2010 18+ aged, general public, Bolivia, 2010 N = 3018
Mean
= 5.895
SD
= 1.669
Latin American Public Opinion Project (2010): study BR 2010 18+ aged, general public, Brazil, 2010 N = 2482
Mean
= 7.053
SD
= 1.986
Latin American Public Opinion Project (2010): study CA 2010 18+ aged, general public, Canada, 2010 N = 1499
Mean
= 6.257
SD
= 2.002
Latin American Public Opinion Project (2010): study CL 2010 18+ aged, general public, Chile , 2010 N = 1965
Mean
= 6.150
SD
= 1.945
Latin American Public Opinion Project (2010): study CO 2010 18+ aged, general public, Colombia, 2010 N = 997
Mean
= 6.400
SD
= 2.560
Latin American Public Opinion Project (2010): study CR 2010 18+ aged, general public, Costa Rica, 2010 N = 1001
Mean
= 7.270
SD
= 1.940
Latin American Public Opinion Project (2010): study EC 2010 18+ aged, general public, Ecuador, 2010 N = 998
Mean
= 5.830
SD
= 1.940
Latin American Public Opinion Project (2010): study SV 2010 18+ aged, general public, El Salvador, 2010 N = 1550
Mean
= 5.328
SD
= 2.311
Latin American Public Opinion Project (2010): study GT 2010 18+ aged, general public, Guatemala, 2010 N = 1504
Mean
= 6.139
SD
= 2.206
Latin American Public Opinion Project (2010): study GY 2010 18+ aged, general public, Guyana, 2010 N = 1540
Mean
= 5.877
SD
= 2.274
Latin American Public Opinion Project (2010): study HT 2010 18+ aged, general public, Haiti, 2010 N = 503
Mean
= 3.760
SD
= 1.550
Latin American Public Opinion Project (2010): study HN 2010 18+ aged, general public, Honduras, 2010 N = 992
Mean
= 5.860
SD
= 2.680
Latin American Public Opinion Project (2010): study JM 2010 18+ aged, general public, Jamaica, 2010 N = 1504
Mean
= 5.248
SD
= 2.533
Latin American Public Opinion Project (2010): study MX 2010 18+ aged, general public, Mexico, 2010 N = 1562
Mean
= 6.166
SD
= 2.279
Latin American Public Opinion Project (2010): study NI 2010 18+ aged, general public, Nicaragua, 2010 N = 990
Mean
= 5.680
SD
= 2.520
Latin American Public Opinion Project (2010): study PA 2010 18+ aged, general public, Panama, 2010 N = 998
Mean
= 7.320
SD
= 1.990
Latin American Public Opinion Project (2010): study PY 2010 18+ aged, general public, Paraguay, 2010 N = 1502
Mean
= 6.053
SD
= 2.020
Latin American Public Opinion Project (2010): study PE 2010 18+ aged, general public, Peru, 2010 N = 994
Mean
= 5.610
SD
= 2.120
Latin American Public Opinion Project (2010): study DO 2010 18+ aged, general public, Dominican Republic, 2010 N = 1500
Mean
= 5.296
SD
= 2.905
Latin American Public Opinion Project (2010): study SR 2010 18+ aged, general public, Surinam, 2010 N = 1500
Mean
= 6.138
SD
= 1.843
Latin American Public Opinion Project (2010): study TT 2010 18+ aged, general public, Trinidad and Tobago, 2010 N = 1516
Mean
= 6.356
SD
= 2.000
Latin American Public Opinion Project (2010): study UY 2010 18+ aged, general public, Uruguay, 2010 N = 1500
Mean
= 6.248
SD
= 1.950
Latin American Public Opinion Project (2010): study US 2010 18+ aged, general public, United States, 2010 N = 1500
Mean
= 5.904
SD
= 2.177
Latin American Public Opinion Project (2010): study VE 2010 18+ aged, general public, Venezuela, 2010 N = 1500
Mean
= 6.562
SD
= 2.016
Latin American Public Opinion Project (2010): study AR 2008 18+ aged, general public, Argentina, 2008 N = 1486
Mean
= 6.196
SD
= 1.799
Latin American Public Opinion Project (2010): study BO 2008 18+ aged, general public, Bolivia, 2008 N = 3003
Mean
= 5.882
SD
= 1.982
Latin American Public Opinion Project (2010): study BR 2008 18+ aged, general public, Brazil, 2008 N = 1028
Mean
= 6.690
SD
= 2.260
Latin American Public Opinion Project (2010): study CL 2008 18+ aged, general public, Chile , 2008 N = 1527
Mean
= 6.393
SD
= 1.925
Latin American Public Opinion Project (2010): study CO 2009 18+ aged, general public, Colombia, 2009 N = 995
Mean
= 6.270
SD
= 2.460
Latin American Public Opinion Project (2010): study CR 2008 18+ aged, general public, Costa Rica, 2008 N = 1500
Mean
= 7.589
SD
= 2.216
Latin American Public Opinion Project (2010): study EC 2008 18+ aged, general public, Ecuador, 2008 N = 3000
Mean
= 6.641
SD
= 2.091
Latin American Public Opinion Project (2010): study SV 2008 18+ aged, general public, El Salvador, 2008 N = 1549
Mean
= 5.944
SD
= 2.703
Latin American Public Opinion Project (2010): study GT 2008 18+ aged, general public, Guatemala, 2008 N = 1538
Mean
= 6.841
SD
= 2.255
Latin American Public Opinion Project (2010): study GY 2008 18+ aged, general public, Guyana, 2008 N = 2505
Mean
= 6.482
SD
= 2.153
Latin American Public Opinion Project (2010): study HN 2008 18+ aged, general public, Honduras, 2008 N = 1522
Mean
= 7.085
SD
= 2.296
Latin American Public Opinion Project (2010): study MX 2008 18+ aged, general public, Mexico, 2008 N = 1560
Mean
= 7.118
SD
= 1.998
Latin American Public Opinion Project (2010): study NI 2008 18+ aged, general public, Nicaragua, 2008 N = 1540
Mean
= 6.296
SD
= 2.721
Latin American Public Opinion Project (2010): study PA 2008 18+ aged, general public, Panama, 2008 N = 1536
Mean
= 7.411
SD
= 2.061
Latin American Public Opinion Project (2010): study PY 2008 18+ aged, general public, Paraguay, 2008 N = 1165
Mean
= 5.510
SD
= 2.200
Latin American Public Opinion Project (2010): study PE 2008 18+ aged, general public, Peru, 2008 N = 1500
Mean
= 5.613
SD
= 2.099
Latin American Public Opinion Project (2010): study DO 2008 18+ aged, general public, Dominican Republic, 2008 N = 982
Mean
= 4.840
SD
= 3.100
Latin American Public Opinion Project (2010): study UY 2008 18+ aged, general public, Uruguay, 2008 N = 1500
Mean
= 6.333
SD
= 2.139
Gallup (2009a): study ZZ 2011 15+ aged, general public, WORLD, 2011 N = 420000
Mean
= 5.332
SD
= 2.119
Gallup (2009a): study ZZ North America 2011 15+ aged, general public, North America, 2011 N = 6000
Mean
= 7.293
SD
= 1.893
Gallup (2009a): study ZZ Europe 2011 15+ aged, general public, Europe, 2011 N = 105000
Mean
= 6.442
SD
= 2.027
Gallup (2009a): study ZZ Latin America 2011 15+ aged, general public, Latin America & Caribbean, 2011 N = 69000
Mean
= 6.354
SD
= 2.344
Gallup (2009a): study ZZ South East Asia 2011 15+ aged, general public, South-East Asia, 2011 N = 27000
Mean
= 5.270
SD
= 1.736
Gallup (2009a): study ZZ Various nation sets 2011 15+ aged, general public, Middle East & North Africa, 2011 N = 15000
Mean
= 5.216
SD
= 2.157
Gallup (2009a): study ZZ East Asia 2011 15+ aged, general public, East Asia, 2011 N = 15000
Mean
= 4.858
SD
= 1.929
Gallup (2009a): study ZZ CIS 2011 15+ aged, general public, Commonwealth of Independent States (GIS), [Russia and allies], 2011 N = 3000
Mean
= 5.217
SD
= 1.977
Gallup (2009a): study ZZ South Asia 2011 15+ aged, general public, South Asia, 2011 N = 15000
Mean
= 4.942
SD
= 1.947
Gallup (2009a): study ZZ South Sahara Africa 2011 15+ aged, general public, Sub-Sahara Africa, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.365
SD
= 1.808
Gallup (2009a): study AF 2010 15+ aged, general public, Afghanistan, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.760
SD
= 1.880
Gallup (2009a): study AL 2011 15+ aged, general public, Albania, 2011 N = 1005
Mean
= 5.860
SD
= 1.840
Gallup (2009a): study DZ 2010 15+ aged, general public, Algeria, 2011 N = 1996
Mean
= 5.600
SD
= 1.650
Gallup (2009a): study AR 2011 15+ aged, general public, Argentina, 2011 N = 998
Mean
= 6.770
SD
= 1.980
Gallup (2009a): study BD 2010 15+ aged, general public, Bangladesh, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.850
SD
= 1.930
Gallup World View (2012): study BY 2011 15+ aged, general public, Belarus, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.220
SD
= 1.970
Gallup (2009a): study BE 2010 15+ aged, general public, Belgium, 2011 N = 990
Mean
= 6.850
SD
= 1.600
Gallup World View (2012): study BZ 2007 /2 15+ aged, general public, Belize, 2007 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.500
Gallup World View (2012): study BO 2011 15+ aged, general public, Bolivia, 2011 N = 979
Mean
= 5.770
SD
= 1.730
Gallup World View (2012): study BA 2011 15+ aged, general public, Bosnia Herzegovina, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.990
SD
= 2.040
Gallup (2009a): study BW 2010 15+ aged, general public, Botswana, 2011 N = 998
Mean
= 3.550
SD
= 1.940
Gallup (2011): study BR 2010 15+ aged, general public, Brazil, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.830
SD
= 2.250
Gallup World View (2012): study KH 2011 15+ aged, general public, Cambodia, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.160
SD
= 1.330
Gallup (2011): study CA 2010 15+ aged, general public, Canada, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.650
SD
= 1.740
Gallup (2009a): study CF 2010 15+ aged, general public, Central African Republic, 2011 N = 998
Mean
= 3.560
SD
= 1.500
Gallup (2009a): study CL 2010 15+ aged, general public, Chile , 2011 N = 1007
Mean
= 6.630
SD
= 2.180
Gallup (2009a): study CD 2009 15+ aged, general public, Congo (Kinshasa),, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.500
Gallup (2009a): study CG 2008 15+ aged, general public, Congo (Brazzaville), 2011 N = 997
Mean
= 3.810
SD
= 1.990
Gallup (2009a): study CR 2011 15+ aged, general public, Costa Rica, 2011 N = 992
Mean
= 7.220
SD
= 2.200
Gallup (2009a): study HR 2010 15+ aged, general public, Croatia, 2011 N = 1001
Mean
= 5.590
SD
= 1.990
Gallup (2009a): study CZ 2011 15+ aged, general public, Czech Republic, 2011 N = 996
Mean
= 6.330
SD
= 1.930
Gallup (2009a): study DK 2011 15+ aged, general public, Denmark, 2011 N = 1002
Mean
= 7.780
SD
= 1.500
Gallup (2009a): study EC 2011 15+ aged, general public, Ecuador, 2011 N = 997
Mean
= 5.790
SD
= 2.300
Gallup (2009a): study EG 2011 15+ aged, general public, Egypt, 2011 N = 5255
Mean
= 4.170
SD
= 2.060
Gallup (2009a): study SV 2010 15+ aged, general public, El Salvador, 2011 N = 993
Mean
= 6.730
SD
= 2.150
Gallup (2009a): study EE 2009 15+ aged, general public, Estonia, 2011 N = 600
Mean
= 5.130
SD
= 1.890
Gallup (2009a): study ET 2010 15+ aged, general public, Ethiopia, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.400
Gallup (2009a): study PH 2010 15+ aged, general public, Philippines, 2011 N = 994
Mean
= 4.940
SD
= 2.100
Gallup (2009a): study FI 2011 15+ aged, general public, Finland, 2011 N = 994
Mean
= 7.350
SD
= 1.610
Gallup (2009a): study FR 2010 15+ aged, general public, France, 2011 N = 998
Mean
= 6.790
SD
= 1.750
Gallup (2009a): study GA 2010 15+ aged, general public, Gabon, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.300
Gallup (2009a): study GH 2010 15+ aged, general public, Ghana, 2011 N = 999
Mean
= 4.600
SD
= 1.760
Gallup (2009a): study GR 2011 15+ aged, general public, Greece, 2011 N = 995
Mean
= 5.370
SD
= 2.210
Gallup World View (2012): study GT 2011 15+ aged, general public, Guatemala, 2011 N = 986
Mean
= 5.740
SD
= 2.540
Gallup (2009a): study GN 2010 15+ aged, general public, Guinea, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.700
Gallup (2009a): study GY 2010 15+ aged, general public, Guyana, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.000
Gallup (2009a): study HT 2011 15+ aged, general public, Haiti, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.840
SD
= 1.730
Gallup (2009a): study HN 2011 15+ aged, general public, Honduras, 2011 N = 991
Mean
= 4.960
SD
= 2.660
Gallup (2009a): study IS 2008 15+ aged, general public, Iceland, 2011 N = 501
Mean
= 6.880
SD
= 1.940
Gallup World View (2012): study IN 2012 15+ aged, general public, India, 2011 N = 12404
Mean
= 4.590
SD
= 1.950
Gallup (2009a): study ID 2010 15+ aged, general public, Indonesia, 2011 N = 1071
Mean
= 5.450
SD
= 1.590
Gallup (2009a): study IE 2011 15+ aged, general public, Ireland, 2011 N = 994
Mean
= 7.000
SD
= 1.880
Gallup (2009a): study IL 2011 15+ aged, general public, Israel, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.430
SD
= 1.820
Gallup (2009a): study IT 2010 15+ aged, general public, Italy, 2011 N = 990
Mean
= 6.350
SD
= 1.950
Gallup (2009a): study JP 2010 15+ aged, general public, Japan, 2011 N = 998
Mean
= 6.050
SD
= 1.970
Gallup (2009a): study JO 2010 15+ aged, general public, Jordan, 2011 N = 1981
Mean
= 5.560
SD
= 2.230
Gallup (2009a): study KZ 2011 15+ aged, general public, Kazakhstan, 2011 N = 976
Mean
= 5.730
SD
= 1.800
Gallup (2009a): study KE 2010 15+ aged, general public, Kenya, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.250
SD
= 1.580
Gallup (2009a): study KG 2010 15+ aged, general public, Kyrgyzstan, 2011 N = 996
Mean
= 4.990
SD
= 1.540
Gallup (2009a): study LA 2008 15+ aged, general public, Laos, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.700
Gallup (2009a): study LV 2009 15+ aged, general public, Latvia, 2011 N = 512
Mean
= 4.660
SD
= 1.850
Gallup (2009a): study LB 2010 15+ aged, general public, Lebanon, 2011 N = 2023
Mean
= 5.030
SD
= 2.290
Gallup (2009a): study LR 2010 15+ aged, general public, Liberia, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.190
SD
= 1.660
Gallup (2009a): study LT 2011 15+ aged, general public, Lithuania, 2011 N = 980
Mean
= 5.430
SD
= 1.830
Gallup (2009a): study LU 2011 15+ aged, general public, Luxembourg, 2011 N = 993
Mean
= 7.100
SD
= 1.560
Gallup (2009a): study LY 2010 15+ aged, general public, Libya, 2011 N = 1979
Mean
= 4.920
SD
= 1.920
Gallup (2009a): study MK 2011 15+ aged, general public, Macedonia, 2011 N = 1008
Mean
= 4.890
SD
= 2.300
Gallup (2009a): study MG 2011 15+ aged, general public, Madagascar, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.380
SD
= 1.340
Gallup (2009a): study ML 2010 15+ aged, general public, Mali, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.760
SD
= 1.530
Gallup (2009a): study MR 2010 15+ aged, general public, Mauritania, 2011 N = 2000
Mean
= 4.770
SD
= 1.570
Gallup (2009a): study MU 2011 15+ aged, general public, Mauritius, 2011 N = 997
Mean
= 5.470
SD
= 1.950
Gallup (2009a): study MX 2010 15+ aged, general public, Mexico, 2011 N = 997
Mean
= 6.800
SD
= 2.140
Gallup (2009a): study MD 2011 15+ aged, general public, Moldova, 2011 N = 977
Mean
= 5.790
SD
= 1.940
Gallup (2009a): study MN 2010 15+ aged, general public, Mongolia, 2011 N = 995
Mean
= 4.580
SD
= 1.740
Gallup (2009a): study ME 2010 15+ aged, general public, Montenegro, 2011 N = 986
Mean
= 5.450
SD
= 1.760
Gallup (2009a): study MA 2010 15+ aged, general public, Morocco, 2011 N = 2005
Mean
= 4.660
SD
= 1.620
Gallup (2009a): study MM 2010 15+ aged, general public, Myanmar, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.300
Gallup (2009a): study NA 2010 15+ aged, general public, Namibia, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.900
Gallup (2009a): study NP 2010 15+ aged, general public, Nepal, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.340
SD
= 1.820
Gallup (2009a): study NL 2010 15+ aged, general public, Netherlands, 2011 N = 998
Mean
= 7.500
SD
= 1.330
Gallup (2009a): study NZ 2010 15+ aged, general public, New Zealand, 2011 N = 747
Mean
= 7.220
SD
= 1.680
Gallup (2009a): study NI 2011 15+ aged, general public, Nicaragua, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.400
Gallup (2009a): study NE 2010 15+ aged, general public, Niger, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.100
SD
= 1.240
Gallup (2009a): study NG 2010 15+ aged, general public, Nigeria, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.760
SD
= 1.920
Gallup (2009a): study OM 2011 15+ aged, general public, Oman, 2011 N = 1998
Mean
= 6.850
SD
= 2.100
Gallup (2011): study PK 2010 15+ aged, general public, Pakistan, 2011 N = 1029
Mean
= 5.778
SD
= 2.350
Gallup (2009a): study PA 2011 15+ aged, general public, Panama, 2011 N = 997
Mean
= 7.240
SD
= 2.120
Gallup (2009a): study PY 2010 15+ aged, general public, Paraguay, 2011 N = 987
Mean
= 5.570
SD
= 2.180
Gallup (2009a): study PE 2010 15+ aged, general public, Peru, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.600
Gallup (2009a): study PL 2011 15+ aged, general public, Poland, 2011 N = 1020
Mean
= 5.640
SD
= 1.960
Gallup (2009a): study PT 2010 15+ aged, general public, Portugal, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.200
Gallup (2009a): study PR 2010 15+ aged, general public, Puerto Rico, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.600
Gallup (2009a): study QA 2010 15+ aged, general public, Qatar, 2011 N = 990
Mean
= 6.840
SD
= 2.020
Gallup (2009a): study RO 2011 15+ aged, general public, Romania, 2011 N = 998
Mean
= 5.020
SD
= 2.260
Gallup (2009a): study RU 2010 15+ aged, general public, Russia, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.400
Gallup (2009a): study RW 2009 15+ aged, general public, Rwanda, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.020
SD
= 1.540
Gallup (2009a): study SA 2010 15+ aged, general public, Saudi Arabia, 2011 N = 2030
Mean
= 6.300
SD
= 2.220
Gallup (2009a): study SN 2010 15+ aged, general public, Senegal, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.370
SD
= 1.530
Gallup (2009a): study RS 2011 15+ aged, general public, Serbia, 2011 N = 990
Mean
= 4.810
SD
= 2.210
Gallup (2009a): study SL 2011 15+ aged, general public, Sierra Leone, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.500
SD
= 2.150
Gallup (2009a): study SK 2011 15+ aged, general public, Slovakia, 2011 N = 991
Mean
= 6.030
SD
= 2.180
Gallup (2009a): study SI 2011 15+ aged, general public, Slovenia, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.030
Gallup (2009a): study XY Somaliland 2010 15+ aged, general public, Somaliland, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.900
Gallup (2009a): study ZA 2010 15+ aged, general public, South Africa, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.650
SD
= 1.890
Gallup (2009a): study KR 2010 15+ aged, general public, Korea,(South), 2011 N = 969
Mean
= 6.110
SD
= 1.960
Gallup (2009a): study ES 2010 15+ aged, general public, Spain, 2011 N = 997
Mean
= 6.180
SD
= 1.990
Gallup (2009a): study SD 2010 15+ aged, general public, Sudan, 2011 N = 1807
Mean
= 4.430
SD
= 1.710
Gallup (2009a): study SE 2011 15+ aged, general public, Sweden, 2011 N = 992
Mean
= 7.380
SD
= 1.580
Gallup (2009a): study CH 2009 15+ aged, general public, Switzerland, 2011 N = 998
Mean
= 7.520
SD
= 1.570
Gallup (2009a): study SY 2010 15+ aged, general public, Syria, 2011 N = 2012
Mean
= 4.460
SD
= 2.150
Gallup (2009a): study TW 2010 15+ aged, general public, Taiwan, 2011 N = 983
Mean
= 6.220
SD
= 1.940
Gallup (2009a): study TJ 2010 15+ aged, general public, Tajikistan, 2011 N = 982
Mean
= 4.380
SD
= 1.280
Gallup (2009a): study TZ 2011 15+ aged, general public, Tanzania, 2011 N = 999
Mean
= 4.070
SD
= 1.880
Gallup (2009a): study TH 2010 15+ aged, general public, Thailand, 2011 N = 998
Mean
= 6.210
SD
= 1.710
Gallup (2009a): study TG 2008 /1 15+ aged, general public, Togo, 2011 N = 974
Mean
= 2.800
SD
= 1.730
Gallup (2009a): study TN 2010 15+ aged, general public, Tunisia, 2011 N = 2083
Mean
= 5.130
SD
= 1.510
Gallup (2009a): study TR 2010 15+ aged, general public, Turkey, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.490
SD
= 2.040
Gallup (2009a): study TM 2009 15+ aged, general public, Turkmenistan, 2011 N = 983
Mean
= 6.560
SD
= 1.740
Gallup (2009a): study UG 2011 15+ aged, general public, Uganda, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.820
SD
= 2.000
Gallup (2009a): study UA 2011 15+ aged, general public, Ukraine, 2011 N = 987
Mean
= 5.080
SD
= 2.050
Gallup (2009a): study US 2010 15+ aged, general public, United States, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.160
SD
= 2.180
Gallup (2009a): study UY 2011 15+ aged, general public, Uruguay, 2011 N = 974
Mean
= 6.550
SD
= 2.170
Gallup (2009a): study UZ 2011 15+ aged, general public, Uzbekistan, 2011 N = 990
Mean
= 5.730
SD
= 1.820
Gallup (2009a): study VE 2011 15+ aged, general public, Venezuela, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.570
SD
= 2.290
Gallup (2009a): study YE 2010 15+ aged, general public, Yemen, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.350
SD
= 2.240
Gallup (2009a): study ZM 2009 15+ aged, general public, Zambia, 2011 N = 994
Mean
= 5.260
SD
= 1.880
Gallup (2009a): study ZW 2010 15+ aged, general public, Zimbabwe, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.680
SD
= 1.510
Gallup (2008a): study AU 2011 15+ aged, general public, Australia, 2011 N = 1005
Mean
= 7.400
SD
= 1.770
Gallup (2009a): study DO 2010 15+ aged, general public, Dominican Republic, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.730
SD
= 2.740
Gallup (2011): study CY 2011 18+ aged general public, Cyprus, 2011 N = 993
Mean
= 6.680
SD
= 2.200
Gallup World View (2012): study AT 2010 15+ aged, general public, Austria, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.340
SD
= 1.770
Gallup World View (2012): study CA 2012 15+ aged, general public, Canada, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.700
Gallup World View (2012): study CF 2011 15+ aged, general public, Central African Republic, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.700
Gallup World View (2012): study CO 2011 15+ aged, general public, Colombia, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.500
Gallup World View (2012): study KM 2012 15+ aged, general public, Comoros, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.000
Gallup World View (2012): study DO 2011 15+ aged, general public, Dominican Republic, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.400
Gallup World View (2012): study IR 2011 15+ aged, general public, Iran, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.500
Gallup World View (2012): study JO 2012 15+ aged, general public, Jordan, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.500
Gallup World View (2012): study KE 2012 15+ aged, general public, Kenya, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.500
Gallup World View (2012): study KG 2011 15+ aged, general public, Kyrgyzstan, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.900
Gallup-WIN (2011): study ML 2011 15+ aged, general public, Mali, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.700
Gallup World View (2012): study MN 2011 15+ aged, general public, Mongolia, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.000
Gallup World View (2012): study NZ 2012 15+ aged, general public, New Zealand, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.200
Gallup World View (2012): study PY 2011 15+ aged, general public, Paraguay, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.700
NicGabhainn & Sixsmith (2005): study PT 2011 15+ aged, general public, Portugal, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.600
Gallup World View (2012): study XY Somaliland 2012 15+ aged, general public, Somaliland, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.100
Gallup World View (2012): study US 2012 15+ aged, general public, USA N = 1000
Mean
= 7.000
Myers & Liu (2013): study US 2012 Veterans, United States, 2012 N = 48690
Mean
= 6.900
Gallup World View (2012): study AF 2011 15+ aged, general public, Afghanistan, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.830
SD
= 1.780
Gallup World View (2012): study AL 2012 15+ aged general public Albania, 2012 N = 1029
Mean
= 5.510
SD
= 1.920
Gallup World View (2012): study DZ 2011 15+ aged, general public, Algeria, 2011 N = 2000
Mean
= 5.310
SD
= 1.660
Gallup World View (2012): study AR 2012 15+ aged general public Argentina, 2012 N = 998
Mean
= 6.460
SD
= 2.090
Gallup World View (2012): study AM 2011 /1 15+ aged, general public, Armenia, 2011 N = 984
Mean
= 4.260
SD
= 1.950
Gallup World View (2012): study AU 2012 15+ aged general public Australia, 2012 N = 998
Mean
= 7.190
SD
= 1.760
Gallup World View (2012): study AT 2011 /1 15+ aged, general public, Austria, 2011 N = 995
Mean
= 7.470
SD
= 1.840
Gallup World View (2012): study AZ 2012 15+ aged general public Azerbaijan, 2012 N = 998
Mean
= 4.910
SD
= 1.890
Gallup World View (2012): study BD 2012 /1 15+ aged general public Bangladesh, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.720
SD
= 1.920
Gallup World View (2012): study BY 2012 15+ aged general public Belarus, 2012 N = 1012
Mean
= 5.740
SD
= 2.030
Gallup World View (2012): study BJ 2012 15+ aged general public Benin, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.190
SD
= 1.640
Gallup World View (2012): study BO 2012 15+ aged general public Bolivia, 2012 N = 942
Mean
= 6.010
SD
= 2.160
Gallup World View (2012): study BW 2011 /1 15+ aged, general public, Botswana, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.510
SD
= 1.960
Gallup World View (2012): study BR 2011 /1 15+ aged, general public, Brazil, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.030
SD
= 2.030
Gallup World View (2012): study BG 2011 /1 15+ aged, general public, Bulgaria, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.870
SD
= 1.990
Gallup World View (2012): study BF 2013 15+ aged general public Burkina Faso, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.320
Gallup World View (2012): study BI 2011 15+ aged general public Burundi, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.700
SD
= 1.740
Gallup World View (2012): study KH 2012 15+ aged general public Cambodia, 2012 N = 996
Mean
= 3.890
SD
= 1.700
Gallup World View (2012): study CM 2013 15+ aged general public Cameroon, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.270
Gallup World View (2012): study TD 2011 /1 15+ aged, general public, Chad, 2011 N = 996
Mean
= 4.390
SD
= 1.740
Gallup World View (2012): study CL 2012 15+ aged general public Chile, 2012 N = 1001
Mean
= 6.590
SD
= 2.120
Gallup World View (2012): study CO 2012 15+ aged general public Colombia, 2012 N = 994
Mean
= 6.370
SD
= 2.520
Gallup World View (2012): study CG 2012 15+ aged general publc Congo (Brazzaville), 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.910
SD
= 2.110
Gallup World View (2012): study CD 2012 15+ aged general public Congo (Knishas), 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.630
Gallup World View (2012): study CI 2009 15+ aged general public Côte d'Ivoire, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.190
SD
= 1.480
Gallup World View (2012): study HR 2012 15+ aged general public Croatia, 2012 N = 940
Mean
= 6.020
SD
= 2.060
Gallup World View (2012): study DK 2012 15+ aged general public Denmark, 2012 N = 997
Mean
= 7.510
SD
= 1.700
Gallup World View (2012): study DJ 2011 15+ aged general public Djibouti, 2011 N = 986
Mean
= 4.360
SD
= 2.370
Gallup World View (2012): study DO 2012 15+ aged general public Dominican Republic, 2012 N = 989
Mean
= 4.750
SD
= 2.740
Gallup World View (2012): study EC 2012 15+ aged general public Ecuador, 2012 N = 999
Mean
= 5.960
SD
= 2.120
Gallup World View (2012): study EG 2012 15+ aged general public Egypt, 2012 N = 4178
Mean
= 4.200
SD
= 2.040
Gallup World View (2012): study SV 2012 15+ aged general public El Salvador, 2012 N = 993
Mean
= 5.930
SD
= 2.340
Gallup World View (2012): study EE 2012 15+ aged general public Estonia, 2012 N = 999
Mean
= 5.360
SD
= 1.960
Gallup World View (2012): study FI 2012 15+ aged general public Finland, 2012 N = 998
Mean
= 7.420
SD
= 1.630
Gallup World View (2012): study FR 2012 /1 15+ aged general public France, 2012 N = 1986
Mean
= 6.640
SD
= 1.790
Gallup World View (2012): study GA 2012 15+ aged general public Gabon, 2012 N = 995
Mean
= 3.970
SD
= 2.010
Gallup World View (2012): study GE 2012 15+ aged general public Georgia, 2012 N = 995
Mean
= 4.250
SD
= 1.950
Gallup World View (2012): study DE 2012 15+ aged general public Germany, 2012 N = 13210
Mean
= 6.700
SD
= 1.830
Gallup World View (2012): study GR 2012 15+ aged general public Greece, 2012 N = 995
Mean
= 5.090
SD
= 2.490
Gallup World View (2012): study GT 2012 15+ aged general public Guatemala, 2012 N = 979
Mean
= 5.850
SD
= 2.680
Gallup World View (2012): study GN 2012 15+ aged general public Guinea, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.650
SD
= 1.650
Gallup World View (2012): study HT 2012 15+ aged general public Haiti, 2012 N = 503
Mean
= 4.410
SD
= 1.780
Gallup World View (2012): study HN 2012 15+ aged general public Honduras, 2012 N = 997
Mean
= 4.600
SD
= 2.540
Gallup World View (2012): study HK 2012 15+ aged general public Hong Kong, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.480
SD
= 1.930
Gallup World View (2012): study HU 2012 15+ aged general public Hungary, 2012 N = 1003
Mean
= 4.680
SD
= 2.090
Gallup World View (2012): study IS 2012 15+ aged general public Iceland, 2012 N = 995
Mean
= 7.590
SD
= 1.560
Gallup World View (2012): study ID 2012 /1 15+ aged general public Indonesia, 2012 N = 2978
Mean
= 5.360
SD
= 1.600
Gallup World View (2012): study IQ 2012 /1 15+ aged general public Iraq, 2012 N = 1988
Mean
= 4.650
SD
= 1.970
Gallup World View (2012): study IE 2012 15+ aged general public Ireland, 2012 N = 997
Mean
= 6.960
SD
= 1.870
Gallup World View (2012): study IL 2012 15+ aged general public Isreal, 2012 N = 993
Mean
= 7.110
SD
= 1.740
Gallup World View (2012): study IT 2011 15+ aged, general public, Italy, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.050
SD
= 1.630
Gallup World View (2012): study JM 2011 15+ aged general public Jamaica, 2011 N = 491
Mean
= 5.370
SD
= 2.330
Gallup World View (2012): study JP 2012 /1 15+ aged general public Japan, 2012 N = 1991
Mean
= 5.960
SD
= 1.900
Gallup World View (2012): study JO 2011 15+ aged, general public, Jordan, 2011 N = 1996
Mean
= 5.530
SD
= 2.100
Gallup World View (2012): study KZ 2012 15+ aged general public Kazakhstan, 2012 N = 969
Mean
= 5.750
SD
= 1.960
Gallup World View (2012): study KR 2012 /1 15+ aged general public Korea (south), 2012 N = 1969
Mean
= 6.000
SD
= 2.070
Gallup World View (2012): study KO 2012 15+ aged general public Kosovo, 2012 N = 1012
Mean
= 5.630
SD
= 2.440
Gallup World View (2012): study KW 2012 15+ aged general public Kuwait, 2012 N = 997
Mean
= 6.220
SD
= 1.610
Gallup World View (2012): study KG 2012 15+ aged general public Kyrgyzstan, 2012 N = 995
Mean
= 5.200
SD
= 1.580
Gallup World View (2012): study LA 2012 15+ aged general public Laos, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.870
SD
= 1.690
Gallup World View (2012): study LV 2012 15+ aged general public Latvia, 2012 N = 993
Mean
= 5.120
SD
= 1.890
Gallup World View (2012): study LB 2012 /1 15+ aged general public Lebanon, 2012 N = 2010
Mean
= 4.570
SD
= 2.320
Gallup World View (2012): study LR 2011 15+ aged general public Liberia, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.200
Gallup World View (2012): study LY 2012 /1 15+ aged general public Libya, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.800
Gallup World View (2012): study LT 2012 15+ aged general public Lithuania, 2012 N = 987
Mean
= 5.770
SD
= 1.840
Gallup World View (2012): study LU 2012 15+ aged general public Luxembourg, 2012 N = 994
Mean
= 6.960
SD
= 1.780
Gallup World View (2012): study MK 2012 15+ aged general public Macedonia, 2012 N = 1020
Mean
= 4.630
SD
= 2.170
Gallup World View (2012): study MG 2013 15+ aged general public Madagascar, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.810
Gallup World View (2012): study MW 2012 15+ aged general public Malawi, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.270
SD
= 2.840
Gallup World View (2012): study MY 2012 15+ aged general public Malaysia, 2012 N = 998
Mean
= 5.910
SD
= 1.560
Gallup World View (2012): study ML 2012 15+ aged general public Mali, 2012 N = 999
Mean
= 4.310
SD
= 2.040
Gallup World View (2012): study MT 2012 15+ aged general public Malta, 2012 N = 995
Mean
= 5.960
SD
= 2.180
Gallup World View (2012): study MR 2012 /1 15+ aged general public Mauritania, 2012 N = 996
Mean
= 4.670
SD
= 1.350
Gallup World View (2012): study MX 2012 /1 15+ aged general public Mexico, 2012 N = 1977
Mean
= 7.320
SD
= 2.070
Gallup World View (2012): study MD 2012 15+ aged general public Moldova, 2012 N = 963
Mean
= 5.990
SD
= 1.900
Gallup World View (2012): study MN 2012 15+ aged general public Mongolia, 2012 N = 993
Mean
= 4.880
SD
= 1.570
Gallup World View (2012): study ME 2012 15+ aged general public Montenegro, 2012 N = 996
Mean
= 5.210
SD
= 2.300
Gallup World View (2012): study MZ 2011 15+ aged general public Mozambique, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.970
SD
= 2.110
Gallup World View (2012): study MM 2012 15+ aged general public Myanmar, 2012 N = 1016
Mean
= 4.430
SD
= 1.730
Gallup World View (2012): study NP 2012 /1 15+ aged general public Nepal, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.230
SD
= 1.770
Gallup World View (2012): study NL 2012 15+ aged general public Netherlands, 2012 N = 999
Mean
= 7.470
SD
= 1.350
Gallup World View (2012): study NZ 2013 15+ aged general public New Zealand, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.280
Gallup World View (2012): study NE 2012 15+ aged general public Niger, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.790
SD
= 1.310
Gallup World View (2012): study NG 2012 /1 15+ aged general public Nigeria, 2012 N = 1995
Mean
= 5.490
SD
= 1.730
Gallup World View (2012): study NO 2012 15+ aged general public Norway, 2012 N = 994
Mean
= 7.670
SD
= 1.740
Gallup World View (2012): study PK 2012 /1 15+ aged general public Pakistan, 2012 N = 3006
Mean
= 5.130
SD
= 2.170
Gallup World View (2012): study PS 2012 /1 15+ aged general public Palestina, 2012 N = 1994
Mean
= 4.640
SD
= 2.200
Gallup World View (2012): study PA 2012 15+ aged general public Panama 2012 N = 999
Mean
= 6.850
SD
= 2.300
Gallup World View (2012): study PY 2012 15+ aged general public Paraguay, 2012 N = 997
Mean
= 5.820
SD
= 1.700
Gallup World View (2012): study PE 2012 15+ aged general public Peru , 2012 N = 993
Mean
= 5.820
SD
= 2.090
Gallup World View (2012): study PH 2012 /1 15+ aged general public Philippines ,2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.000
SD
= 2.470
Gallup World View (2012): study PL 2012 15+ aged general public Poland, 2012 N = 986
Mean
= 5.870
SD
= 1.880
Gallup World View (2012): study PT 2012 15+ aged general public Portugal, 2012 N = 977
Mean
= 4.990
SD
= 2.490
Gallup World View (2012): study RO 2012 15+ aged general public Romania, 2012 N = 986
Mean
= 5.160
SD
= 2.440
Gallup World View (2012): study RU 2012 /1 15+ aged general public Russia, 2012 N = 2000
Mean
= 5.600
Gallup World View (2012): study RW 2012 15+ aged general public Rwanda , 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.330
SD
= 1.540
Gallup World View (2012): study SA 2012 /1 15+ aged general public Saudi Arabia, 2012 N = 2111
Mean
= 6.460
SD
= 2.220
Gallup World View (2012): study SN 2012 /1 15+ aged general public Senegal, 2012 N = 998
Mean
= 3.660
SD
= 1.700
Gallup World View (2012): study RS 2012 15+ aged general public Serbia, 2012 N = 1017
Mean
= 5.150
SD
= 2.450
Gallup World View (2012): study SL 2011 15+ aged general public Sierra Leone, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.500
Gallup World View (2012): study SG 2012 15+ aged general public Singapore, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.530
SD
= 1.510
Gallup World View (2012): study SI 2012 15+ aged general public Slovenia, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.060
Gallup World View (2012): study ZA 2012 /1 15+ aged general public South-Africa, 2012 N = 1998
Mean
= 5.130
SD
= 2.170
Gallup World View (2012): study ES 2012 /1 15+ aged general public Spain, 2012 N = 1999
Mean
= 6.290
SD
= 2.030
Gallup World View (2012): study LK 2012 /1 15+ aged general public Sri Lanka, 2012 N = 2001
Mean
= 4.220
SD
= 1.810
Gallup World View (2012): study SD 2012 15+ aged general public Sudan, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.550
SD
= 1.590
Gallup World View (2012): study SR 2012 15+ aged general public Surinam, 2012 N = 490
Mean
= 6.260
SD
= 1.940
Gallup World View (2012): study SE 2012 15+ aged general public Sweden, 2012 N = 997
Mean
= 7.560
SD
= 1.580
Gallup World View (2012): study SY 2012 /1 15+ aged general public Syria, 2012 N = 2000
Mean
= 3.160
SD
= 2.500
Gallup World View (2012): study CH 2012 15+ aged general public Switzerland, 2012 N = 997
Mean
= 7.770
SD
= 1.560
Gallup World View (2012): study TW 2012 15+ aged general public Taiwan, 2012 N = 995
Mean
= 6.120
SD
= 2.030
Gallup World View (2012): study TJ 2012 15+ aged general public Tajikistan, 2012 N = 995
Mean
= 4.490
SD
= 1.140
Gallup World View (2012): study TZ 2012 15+ aged general public Tanzania, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.000
SD
= 1.910
Gallup World View (2012): study TH 2012 /1 15+ aged general public Thailand, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.300
SD
= 1.760
Gallup World View (2012): study TG 2011 15+ aged general public Togo, 2011 N = 999
Mean
= 2.930
SD
= 1.950
Gallup World View (2012): study TN 2012 15+ aged general public Tunisia, 2012 N = 2029
Mean
= 4.460
SD
= 2.110
Gallup World View (2012): study TR 2012 /1 15+ aged general public, Turkey, 2012 N = 1997
Mean
= 5.300
SD
= 1.970
Gallup World View (2012): study TM 2012 15+ aged general public Turkmenistan, 2012 N = 993
Mean
= 5.460
SD
= 1.870
Gallup World View (2012): study UG 2012 15+ aged general public Uganda, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.300
SD
= 1.750
Gallup World View (2012): study UA 2012 15+ aged general public Ukraine, 2012 N = 970
Mean
= 5.030
SD
= 1.970
Gallup World View (2012): study AE 2012 15+ aged general public United Arab Emirates, 2012 N = 2010
Mean
= 7.210
SD
= 1.690
Gallup World View (2012): study GB 2012 15+ aged general public United Kingdom, 2012 N = 13298
Mean
= 6.880
SD
= 1.870
Gallup World View (2012): study UY 2012 15+ aged general public Uruguay, 2012 N = 994
Mean
= 6.440
SD
= 2.310
Gallup World View (2012): study UZ 2012 15+ aged general public Uzbekistan, 2012 N = 992
Mean
= 6.010
SD
= 2.020
Gallup World View (2012): study VE 2012 15+ aged general public Venezuela, 2012 N = 987
Mean
= 7.060
SD
= 2.320
Gallup World View (2012): study VN 2012 15+ aged general public Vietnam, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.500
Gallup World View (2012): study ZM 2012 15+ aged general public Zambia, 2012 N = 997
Mean
= 5.010
SD
= 2.200
Gallup World View (2012): study ZW 2013 15+ aged general public Zimbabwe, 2013 N = 994
Mean
= 4.700
Easterlin et al. (2012): study CN 1999 /2 18+ aged, general public, China, 1999 N = 3500
Mean
= 4.110
Easterlin et al. (2012): study CN 2004 /2 18+ aged, general public, China, 2004 N = 3500
Mean
= 4.500
Easterlin et al. (2012): study CN 2006 /2 18+ aged, general public, China, 2006 N = 3500
Mean
= 3.960
Easterlin et al. (2012): study CN 2007 18+ aged, general public, China, 2007 N = 3500
Mean
= 4.290
Easterlin et al. (2012): study CN 2008 18+ aged, general public, China, 2008 N = 4365
Mean
= 4.840
SD
= 1.800
Easterlin et al. (2012): study CN 2009 18+ aged, general public, China, 2009 N = 4188
Mean
= 4.450
SD
= 1.820
Easterlin et al. (2012): study CN 2010 18+ aged, general public, China, 2010 N = 4114
Mean
= 4.650
SD
= 1.880
Easterlin et al. (2012): study CN 2011 18+ aged, general public, China, 2011 N = 4170
Mean
= 5.030
SD
= 1.880
Easterlin et al. (2012): study CN 2010 /1 18+ aged, general public, China, 2010 N = 3000
Mean
= 5.850
Oishi et al. (2012): study ZZ 2007 15+ aged, general public, 54 nations, 2007 N = 59634
Mean
= 6.160
SD
= 0.360
Ott (2010): study ZZ 2006 15+ aged, general public, Multiple nations, 2006 N = 127000
Helliwell et al. (2014): study US 2004 18+ aged general public, urban areas, USA, 2008-2011 N = 952433
Ott (2010): study ZZ 2006 /1 18+ aged, general public, Multiple nations, 2006 N = 1300000
Ruprah (2010): study ZZ Latin America 1997 18+ aged, general public, Latin America, 1997-2007 N = 147446
Mean
= 6.950
SD
= 1.600
Campbell & Porquet (2014): study ZZ EU 27 2010 18+ aged, general public, 27 EU nations, 2010 N = 26723
Helliwell et al. (2015): study AF 2012 15+ aged general population, Afghanistan 2012 N = 1990
Mean
= 3.780
SD
= 1.790
Helliwell et al. (2015): study AF 2013 15+ aged general population, Afghanistan 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.570
Helliwell et al. (2015): study AF 2014 15+ aged general population, Afghanistan 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.130
Helliwell et al. (2015): study AO 2011 15+ aged general population, Angola, 2011 N = 991
Mean
= 5.580
SD
= 2.210
Helliwell et al. (2015): study AO 2012 15+ aged general population, Angola, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.360
Helliwell et al. (2015): study AO 2013 15+ aged general population, Angola, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.930
Helliwell et al. (2015): study AL 2013 15+ aged general population, Albania, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.550
Helliwell et al. (2015): study AL 2014 15+ aged general population, Albania, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.810
Helliwell et al. (2015): study AE 2013 15+ aged general population, United Arab Emirates, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.620
Helliwell et al. (2015): study AE 2014 15+ aged general population, United Arab Emirates, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.600
Helliwell et al. (2015): study AR 2013 15+ aged general population, Argentina, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.580
Helliwell et al. (2015): study AR 2014 15+ aged general population, Argentina, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.670
Helliwell et al. (2015): study AR 2009 15+ aged general population, Argentina, 2009 N = 998
Mean
= 6.420
SD
= 2.060
Helliwell et al. (2015): study AE 2009 15+ aged general population, United Arab Emirates, 2009 N = 2033
Mean
= 6.860
SD
= 2.010
Helliwell et al. (2015): study AE 2010 15+ aged general population, United Arab Emirates, 2010 N = 2051
Mean
= 7.090
SD
= 1.900
Helliwell et al. (2015): study AE 2011 15+ aged general population, United Arab Emirates, 2011 N = 2022
Mean
= 7.110
SD
= 1.670
Helliwell et al. (2015): study AL 2009 15+ aged general population,Albania, 2009 N = 997
Mean
= 5.480
SD
= 1.910
Helliwell et al. (2015): study AL 2010 15+ aged general population,Albania, 2010 N = 993
Mean
= 5.260
SD
= 1.860
Helliwell et al. (2015): study AO 2007 15+ aged general population, Angola, 2007 N = 993
Mean
= 4.720
SD
= 1.670
Helliwell et al. (2015): study AO 2008 15+ aged general population, Angola, 2008 N = 959
Mean
= 4.200
SD
= 2.010
Helliwell et al. (2015): study AF 2009 15+ aged general population, Afghanistan 2009 N = 1994
Mean
= 4.401
SD
= 1.720
Helliwell et al. (2015): study AM 2007 15+ aged general population, Armenia, 2007 N = 999
Mean
= 4.880
SD
= 1.700
Helliwell et al. (2015): study AM 2009 15+ aged general population, Armenia, 2009 N = 999
Mean
= 4.170
SD
= 2.170
Helliwell et al. (2015): study AM 2010 15+ aged general population , Armenia, 2010 N = 997
Mean
= 4.360
SD
= 2.090
Helliwell et al. (2015): study AU 2007 15+ aged general population, Australia, 2007 N = 1203
Mean
= 7.280
SD
= 1.760
Helliwell et al. (2015): study AU 2010 15+ aged general population, Australia, 2010 N = 999
Mean
= 7.450
SD
= 1.730
Helliwell et al. (2015): study AU 2013 15+ aged general population, Australia, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.360
Helliwell et al. (2015): study AU 2014 15+ aged general population, Australia, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.290
Helliwell et al. (2015): study AT 2009 15+ aged general population, Austria, 2009 N = 997
Mean
= 7.250
SD
= 1.730
Helliwell et al. (2015): study AT 2012 15+ aged general population,Austria, 2012 N = 998
Mean
= 7.400
SD
= 1.720
Helliwell et al. (2015): study AT 2013 15+ aged general population,Austria, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.490
Helliwell et al. (2015): study AT 2014 15+ aged general population,Austria, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.940
Helliwell et al. (2015): study AZ 2008 15+ aged general population, Azerbaijan, 2008 N = 987
Mean
= 4.810
SD
= 1.880
Helliwell et al. (2015): study AZ 2009 15+ aged general population, Azerbaijan, 2009 N = 992
Mean
= 4.570
SD
= 1.890
Helliwell et al. (2015): study AZ 2010 15+ aged general population, Azerbaijan, 2010 N = 977
Mean
= 4.210
SD
= 1.890
Helliwell et al. (2015): study AZ 2011 15+ aged general population, Azerbaijan, 2011 N = 990
Mean
= 4.680
SD
= 1.870
Helliwell et al. (2015): study AZ 2013 15+ aged general population, Azerbaijan, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.480
Helliwell et al. (2015): study AZ 2014 15+ aged general population, Azerbaijan, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.250
Helliwell et al. (2015): study BI 2009 15+ aged general population, Burundi, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.790
SD
= 1.490
Helliwell et al. (2015): study BI 2014 15+ aged general population, Burundi, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 2.900
Helliwell et al. (2015): study BE 2007 15+ aged general population, Belgium, 2007 N = 996
Mean
= 7.210
SD
= 1.460
Helliwell et al. (2015): study BE 2011 15+ aged general population, Belgium, 2011 N = 992
Mean
= 7.110
SD
= 1.620
Helliwell et al. (2015): study BE 2013 15+ aged general population, Belgium, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.100
Helliwell et al. (2015): study BE 2014 15+ aged general population, Belgium, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.850
Helliwell et al. (2015): study BJ 2011 15+ aged general population, Benin, 2011 N = 982
Mean
= 3.870
SD
= 1.690
Helliwell et al. (2015): study BJ 2013 15+ aged general population, Benin, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.470
Helliwell et al. (2015): study BJ 2014 15+ aged general population, Benin, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.340
Helliwell et al. (2015): study BF 2007 15+ aged general population, Burkina Faso, 2007 N = 969
Mean
= 4.010
SD
= 1.270
Helliwell et al. (2015): study BF 2010 15+ aged general population, Burkina Faso, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.030
SD
= 1.400
Helliwell et al. (2015): study BF 2012 15+ aged general population, Burkina Faso, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.950
SD
= 1.750
Helliwell et al. (2015): study BF 2014 15+ aged general population, Burkina Faso, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.480
Helliwell et al. (2015): study BD 2009 15+ aged general population, Bangladesh, 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.080
SD
= 1.690
Helliwell et al. (2015): study BD 2011 15+ aged general population, Bangladesh, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.980
SD
= 1.850
Helliwell et al. (2015): study BD 2013 15+ aged general population, Bangladesh, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.660
Helliwell et al. (2015): study BD 2014 15+ aged general population, Bangladesh, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.630
Helliwell et al. (2015): study BG 2009 15+ aged general population, Bulgaria, 2009 N = 983
Mean
= 3.600
SD
= 1.850
Helliwell et al. (2015): study BG 2010 15+ aged general population, Bulgaria, 2010 N = 996
Mean
= 4.220
SD
= 2.020
Helliwell et al. (2015): study BG 2012 15+ aged general population, Bulgaria, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.220
SD
= 2.160
Helliwell et al. (2015): study BG 2013 15+ aged general population, Bulgaria, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.990
Helliwell et al. (2015): study BG 2014 15+ aged general population, Bulgaria, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.430
Helliwell et al. (2015): study BA 2009 15+ aged general population, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2009 N = 999
Mean
= 4.960
SD
= 2.110
Helliwell et al. (2015): study BA 2010 15+ aged general population, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.660
SD
= 1.970
Helliwell et al. (2015): study BA 2012 15+ aged general population, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2012 N = 1004
Mean
= 4.770
SD
= 2.410
Helliwell et al. (2015): study BA 2013 15+ aged general population, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.120
Helliwell et al. (2015): study BY 2008 15+ aged general population, Belarus, 2008 N = 1050
Mean
= 5.460
SD
= 1.800
Helliwell et al. (2015): study BY 2009 15+ aged general population, Belarus, 2009 N = 1031
Mean
= 5.560
SD
= 1.930
Helliwell et al. (2015): study BY 2010 15+ aged general population, Belarus, 2010 N = 991
Mean
= 5.520
SD
= 1.840
Helliwell et al. (2015): study BY 2013 15+ aged general population, Belarus, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.870
Helliwell et al. (2015): study BY 2014 15+ aged general population, Belarus, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.810
Helliwell et al. (2015): study BO 2009 15+ aged general population, Bolivia, 2009 N = 987
Mean
= 6.080
SD
= 1.970
Helliwell et al. (2015): study BO 2013 15+ aged general population, Bolivia, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.760
Helliwell et al. (2015): study BR 2008 15+ aged, general public, Brazil, 2008 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.700
SD
= 2.430
Helliwell et al. (2015): study BR 2009 15+ aged general population, Brazil, 2009 N = 1023
Mean
= 7.000
SD
= 2.230
Helliwell et al. (2015): study BR 2012 15+ aged general population, Brazil, 2012 N = 1984
Mean
= 6.930
SD
= 2.300
Helliwell et al. (2015): study BR 2013 15+ aged general population, Brazil, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.140
Helliwell et al. (2015): study BR 2014 15+ aged general population, Brazil, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.980
Helliwell et al. (2015): study BW 2012 15+ aged general population, Botswana, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.830
SD
= 1.990
Helliwell et al. (2015): study BW 2013 15+ aged general population, Botswana, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.120
Helliwell et al. (2015): study BW 2014 15+ aged general population, Botswana, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.030
Helliwell et al. (2015): study CF 2011 15+ aged general population,Central African Republic, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.670
SD
= 1.700
Helliwell et al. (2015): study CA 2009 15+ aged general population,Canada, 2009 N = 1006
Mean
= 7.480
SD
= 1.610
Helliwell et al. (2015): study CA 2013 15+ aged general population,Canada, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.590
Burger & Veenhoven (2016): study CA 2014 15+ aged general population,Canada, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.280
Helliwell et al. (2015): study CH 2014 15+ aged general population,Switzerland, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.490
Helliwell et al. (2015): study CL 2009 15+ aged general population, Chile, 2009 N = 1008
Mean
= 6.490
SD
= 2.210
Helliwell et al. (2015): study CL 2011 15+ aged general population, Chile, 2011 N = 1007
Mean
= 6.520
SD
= 2.060
Helliwell et al. (2015): study CL 2013 15+ aged general population, Chile, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.740
Helliwell et al. (2015): study CN 2012 15+ aged general population, China, 2012 N = 9320
Mean
= 5.090
SD
= 2.080
Helliwell et al. (2015): study CN 2013 15+ aged general population,China, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.240
Helliwell et al. (2015): study CI 2013 15+ aged general population, Côte D'ivoire, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.730
Helliwell et al. (2015): study CI 2014 15+ aged general population, Côte D'ivoire, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.570
Helliwell et al. (2015): study CM 2007 15+ aged general population, Cameroon, 2007 N = 992
Mean
= 4.340
SD
= 1.640
Helliwell et al. (2015): study CM 2009 15+ aged general population, Cameroon, 2009 N = 994
Mean
= 4.740
SD
= 1.850
Helliwell et al. (2015): study CM 2011 15+ aged general population, Cameroon, 2011 N = 998
Mean
= 4.430
SD
= 1.940
Helliwell et al. (2015): study CM 2012 15+ aged general population, Cameroon, 2012 N = 999
Mean
= 4.240
SD
= 2.230
Helliwell et al. (2015): study CM 2014 15+ aged general population,Camaroon, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.240
Helliwell et al. (2015): study CD 2009 15+ aged general population, Congo, Democratic Rep. 2009 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.980
Helliwell et al. (2015): study CD 2011 15+ aged general population, Congo, Democratic Rep. 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.510
Helliwell et al. (2015): study CD 2013 15+ aged general population, Congo, Democratic Rep. 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.490
Helliwell et al. (2015): study CD 2014 15+ aged general population, Congo, Democratic Rep. 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.410
Helliwell et al. (2015): study CG 2011 15+ aged general population, Congo, Republic, 2011 N = 998
Mean
= 4.500
SD
= 1.960
Helliwell et al. (2015): study CG 2013 15+ aged general population, Congo, Republic, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.950
Helliwell et al. (2015): study CG 2014 15+ aged general population, Congo, Republic, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.050
Helliwell et al. (2015): study CO 2007 15+ aged general population,Colombia, 2007 N = 997
Mean
= 6.130
SD
= 2.440
Helliwell et al. (2015): study CO 2011 15+ aged general population,Colombia, 2011 N = 993
Mean
= 6.460
SD
= 2.360
Helliwell et al. (2015): study CO 2013 15+ aged general population,Colombia, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.600
Helliwell et al. (2015): study CO 2014 15+ aged general population,Colombia, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.440
Helliwell et al. (2015): study KM 2009 15+ aged general population, Comoros, 2009 N = 1995
Mean
= 3.470
SD
= 1.470
Helliwell et al. (2015): study KM 2010 15+ aged general population, Comoros, 2010 N = 1996
Mean
= 3.810
SD
= 1.660
Helliwell et al. (2015): study KM 2011 15+ aged general population, Comoros, 2011 N = 1999
Mean
= 3.830
SD
= 1.350
Helliwell et al. (2015): study KM 2012 15+ aged general population, Comoros, 2012 N = 999
Mean
= 3.950
SD
= 1.380
Helliwell et al. (2015): study CR 2007 15+ aged general population,Costa Rica, 2007 N = 986
Mean
= 7.430
SD
= 2.170
Helliwell et al. (2015): study CR 2009 15+ aged general population,Costa Rica, 2009 N = 993
Mean
= 7.610
SD
= 1.920
Helliwell et al. (2015): study CR 2012 15+ aged general population,Costa Rica, 2012 N = 995
Mean
= 7.270
SD
= 2.140
Helliwell et al. (2015): study CR 2013 15+ aged general population,Costa Rica, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.150
Helliwell et al. (2015): study CR 2014 15+ aged general population, Costa Rica, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.240
Helliwell et al. (2015): study CY 2009 15+ aged general population, Cyprus, 2009 N = 495
Mean
= 6.830
SD
= 2.030
Helliwell et al. (2015): study CY 2010 15+ aged general population, Cyprus, 2010 N = 994
Mean
= 6.380
SD
= 2.210
Helliwell et al. (2015): study CY 2013 15+ aged general population, Cyprus, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.430
Helliwell et al. (2015): study CY 2014 15+ aged general population, Cyprus, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.620
Helliwell et al. (2015): study CZ 2005 15+ aged general population,Czech Republik, 2005 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.430
Helliwell et al. (2015): study CZ 2009 15+ aged general population,Czech Republic, 2009 N = 1072
Mean
= 6.330
SD
= 1.840
Helliwell et al. (2015): study CZ 2010 15+ aged general population,Czech Republic, 2010 N = 994
Mean
= 6.150
SD
= 1.910
Helliwell et al. (2015): study CZ 2013 15+ aged general population,Czech Republic, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.690
Helliwell et al. (2015): study CZ 2014 15+ aged general population,Czech Republic, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.480
Helliwell et al. (2015): study DE 2005 15+ aged general population, Germany, 2005 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.610
Helliwell et al. (2015): study DE 2009 15+ aged general population, Germany, 2009 N = 997
Mean
= 6.670
SD
= 1.890
Helliwell et al. (2015): study DE 2010 15+ aged general population, Germany, 2010 N = 1004
Mean
= 6.720
SD
= 1.860
Helliwell et al. (2015): study DE 2011 15+ aged general population, Germany, 2011 N = 10085
Mean
= 6.620
SD
= 1.850
Helliwell et al. (2015): study DE 2013 15+ aged general population, Germany, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.960
Helliwell et al. (2015): study DE 2014 15+ aged general population, Germany, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.980
Helliwell et al. (2015): study DJ 2009 15+ aged general population, Djibouti, 2009 N = 1998
Mean
= 4.900
SD
= 1.380
Helliwell et al. (2015): study DJ 2010 15+ aged general population, Djibouti, 2010 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.000
SD
= 2.150
Helliwell et al. (2015): study DK 2005 15+ aged general population, Denmark, 2005 N = 1000
Mean
= 8.010
Helliwell et al. (2015): study DK 2008 15+ aged general population, Denmark, 2008 N = 1001
Mean
= 7.970
SD
= 1.400
Helliwell et al. (2015): study DK 2009 15+ aged general population, Denmark, 2009 N = 998
Mean
= 7.680
SD
= 1.570
Helliwell et al. (2015): study DK 2010 15+ aged general population, Denmark, 2010 N = 997
Mean
= 7.770
SD
= 1.510
Helliwell et al. (2015): study DK 2013 15+ aged general population, Denmark, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.580
Helliwell et al. (2015): study DK 2014 15+ aged general population, Denmark, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.500
Helliwell et al. (2015): study DO 2009 15+ aged general population, Dominican Republic, 2009 N = 993
Mean
= 5.430
SD
= 3.120
Helliwell et al. (2015): study DO 2011 15+ aged general population, Dominican Republic, 2011 N = 997
Mean
= 5.390
SD
= 3.000
Helliwell et al. (2015): study DO 2013 15+ aged general population, Dominican Republic, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.010
Helliwell et al. (2015): study DZ 2008 15+ aged general population, Algeria, 2008 N = 1101
Mean
= 5.070
SD
= 1.860
Helliwell et al. (2015): study DZ 2009 15+ aged general population , Algeria, 2009 N = 1995
Mean
= 5.610
SD
= 1.670
Helliwell et al. (2015): study DZ 2012 15+ aged general population , Algeria, 2012 N = 2025
Mean
= 5.600
SD
= 1.930
Helliwell et al. (2015): study EC 2007 15+ aged general population, Ecuador, 2007 N = 1058
Mean
= 4.990
SD
= 2.100
Helliwell et al. (2015): study EC 2009 15+ aged general population, Ecuador, 2009 N = 998
Mean
= 6.020
SD
= 2.230
Helliwell et al. (2015): study EC 2013 15+ aged general population, Ecuador, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.010
Helliwell et al. (2015): study EC 2014 15+ aged general population, Ecuador, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.940
Helliwell et al. (2015): study EG 2009 15+ aged general population, Egypt, Arab Republic, 2009 N = 2105
Mean
= 5.060
SD
= 1.850
Helliwell et al. (2015): study EG 2010 15+ aged general population, Egypt, Arab Republic, 2010 N = 2034
Mean
= 4.660
SD
= 2.100
Helliwell et al. (2015): study EG 2013 15+ aged general population, Egypt, Arab Republic, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.550
Helliwell et al. (2015): study EG 2014 15+ aged general population, Egypt, Arab Republic, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.880
Helliwell et al. (2015): study ES 2009 15+ aged general population, Spain, 2009 N = 1005
Mean
= 6.190
SD
= 2.070
Helliwell et al. (2015): study ES 2011 15+ aged general population, Spain, 2011 N = 1005
Mean
= 6.510
SD
= 1.950
Helliwell et al. (2015): study ES 2013 15+ aged general population, Spain, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.150
Helliwell et al. (2015): study ES 2014 15+ aged general population, Spain, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.450
Helliwell et al. (2015): study EE 2007 15+ aged general population, Estonia, 2007 N = 985
Mean
= 5.330
SD
= 1.700
Helliwell et al. (2015): study EE 2011 15+ aged general population, Estonia, 2011 N = 1005
Mean
= 5.480
SD
= 1.950
Helliwell et al. (2015): study EE 2013 15+ aged general population, Estonia, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.360
Helliwell et al. (2015): study EE 2014 15+ aged general population, Estonia, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.550
Helliwell et al. (2015): study ET 2012 15+ aged general population, Ethiopia, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.560
Helliwell et al. (2015): study ET 2013 15+ aged general population, Ethiopia, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.440
Helliwell et al. (2015): study ET 2014 15+ aged general population, Ethiopia, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.500
Helliwell et al. (2015): study FI 2010 15+ aged general population, Finland, 2010 N = 997
Mean
= 7.390
SD
= 1.670
Helliwell et al. (2015): study FI 2013 15+ aged general population, Finland, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.440
Helliwell et al. (2015): study FI 2014 15+ aged general population, Finland, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.380
Helliwell et al. (2015): study FR 2005 15+ aged general population, France, 2005 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.090
Helliwell et al. (2015): study FR 2009 15+ aged general population, France, 2009 N = 984
Mean
= 6.280
SD
= 1.970
Helliwell et al. (2015): study FR 2013 15+ aged general population, France, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.660
Helliwell et al. (2015): study FR 2014 15+ aged general population, France, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.460
Helliwell et al. (2015): study GA 2011 15+ aged general population, Gabon, 2011 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.250
SD
= 1.940
Helliwell et al. (2015): study GA 2013 15+ aged general population, Gabon, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.800
Helliwell et al. (2015): study GA 2014 15+ aged general population, Gabon, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.910
Helliwell et al. (2015): study GB 2005 15+ aged general population, United Kingdom, 2005 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.980
Helliwell et al. (2015): study GB 2009 15+ aged general population, United Kingdom, 2009 N = 990
Mean
= 6.900
SD
= 1.870
Helliwell et al. (2015): study GB 2010 15+ aged general population, United Kingdom, 2010 N = 991
Mean
= 7.020
SD
= 1.850
Helliwell et al. (2015): study GB 2011 15+ aged general population, United Kingdom, 2011 N = 10174
Mean
= 6.860
SD
= 1.910
Helliwell et al. (2015): study GB 2013 15+ aged general population, United Kingdom, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.910
Helliwell et al. (2015): study GB 2014 15+ aged general population, United Kingdom, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.750
Helliwell et al. (2015): study GE 2007 15+ aged general population, Georgia, 2007 N = 994
Mean
= 3.700
SD
= 1.820
Helliwell et al. (2015): study GE 2009 15+ aged general population, Georgia, 2009 N = 979
Mean
= 3.800
SD
= 2.010
Helliwell et al. (2015): study GE 2010 15+ aged general population, Georgia, 2010 N = 988
Mean
= 4.100
SD
= 1.870
Helliwell et al. (2015): study GE 2011 15+ aged general population, Georgia, 2011 N = 997
Mean
= 4.200
SD
= 1.950
Helliwell et al. (2015): study GE 2013 15+ aged general population, Georgia, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.340
Helliwell et al. (2015): study GE 2014 15+ aged general population, Georgia, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.280
Helliwell et al. (2015): study GH 2009 15+ aged general population, Ghana, 2009 N = 990
Mean
= 4.190
SD
= 1.880
Helliwell et al. (2015): study GH 2011 15+ aged general population, Ghana, 2011 N = 999
Mean
= 5.600
SD
= 2.590
Helliwell et al. (2015): study GH 2012 15+ aged general population, Ghana, 2012 N = 999
Mean
= 5.050
SD
= 2.130
Helliwell et al. (2015): study GH 2013 15+ aged general population, Ghana, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.960
Helliwell et al. (2015): study GH 2014 15+ aged general population, Ghana, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.860
Helliwell et al. (2015): study GN 2011 15+ aged general population, Guinea, 2011 N = 993
Mean
= 4.040
SD
= 1.730
Helliwell et al. (2015): study GN 2013 15+ aged general population, Guinea, 2013 N = 2013
Mean
= 3.900
Helliwell et al. (2015): study GN 2014 15+ aged general population, Guinea, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.410
Helliwell et al. (2015): study GW 2007 15+ aged general population, Guinea-Bissau, 2007 N = 501
Mean
= 5.990
SD
= 1.840
Helliwell et al. (2015): study GR 2009 15+ aged general population, Greece, 2009 N = 995
Mean
= 6.030
SD
= 1.970
Helliwell et al. (2015): study GR 2010 15+ aged general population, Greece, 2010 N = 994
Mean
= 5.830
SD
= 2.270
Helliwell et al. (2015): study GR 2013 15+ aged general population, Greece, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.720
Helliwell et al. (2015): study GR 2014 15+ aged general population, Greece, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.750
Helliwell et al. (2015): study GT 2007 15+ aged general population,Guatemala, 2007 N = 982
Mean
= 6.320
SD
= 2.110
Helliwell et al. (2015): study GT 2009 15+ aged general population,Guatemala, 2009 N = 1004
Mean
= 6.450
SD
= 2.230
Helliwell et al. (2015): study GT 2013 15+ aged general population,Guatemala, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.980
Helliwell et al. (2015): study GT 2014 15+ aged general population,Guatemala, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.530
Helliwell et al. (2015): study HK 2008 15+ aged general population, Hong Kong SAR, China, 2008 N = 745
Mean
= 5.130
SD
= 1.850
Helliwell et al. (2015): study HK 2009 15+ aged general population, Hong Kong SAR, China, 2009 N = 742
Mean
= 5.390
SD
= 1.960
Helliwell et al. (2015): study HK 2010 15+ aged general population, Hong Kong SAR, China, 2010 N = 751
Mean
= 5.640
SD
= 1.740
Helliwell et al. (2015): study HK 2011 15+ aged general population, Hong Kong SAR, China, 2011 N = 1023
Mean
= 5.470
SD
= 1.930
Helliwell et al. (2015): study HK 2014 15+ aged general population, Hong Kong SAR, China, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.460
Helliwell et al. (2015): study HN 2007 15+ aged general population, Honduras, 2007 N = 984
Mean
= 5.090
SD
= 2.640
Helliwell et al. (2015): study HN 2009 15+ aged general population, Honduras, 2009 N = 990
Mean
= 6.030
SD
= 2.660
Helliwell et al. (2015): study HN 2013 15+ aged general population, Honduras, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.710
Helliwell et al. (2015): study HN 2014 15+ aged general population, Honduras, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.050
Helliwell et al. (2015): study HR 2009 15+ aged general population, Croatia, 2009 N = 901
Mean
= 5.430
SD
= 1.930
Helliwell et al. (2015): study HR 2011 15+ aged general population, Croatia, 2011 N = 1016
Mean
= 5.380
SD
= 2.010
Helliwell et al. (2015): study HR 2013 15+ aged general population, Croatia, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.880
Helliwell et al. (2015): study HR 2014 15+ aged general population, Croatia, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.380
Helliwell et al. (2015): study HT 2008 15+ aged general population, Haiti, 2008 N = 495
Mean
= 3.840
SD
= 1.860
Helliwell et al. (2015): study HT 2013 15+ aged general population, Haiti, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.620
Helliwell et al. (2015): study HU 2008 15+ aged general population, Hungary, 2008 N = 1004
Mean
= 4.890
SD
= 2.090
Helliwell et al. (2015): study HU 2010 15+ aged general population, Hungary, 2010 N = 1005
Mean
= 4.720
SD
= 1.970
Helliwell et al. (2015): study HU 2011 15+ aged general population, Hungary, 2011 N = 1003
Mean
= 4.910
SD
= 2.090
Helliwell et al. (2015): study HU 2013 15+ aged general population, Hungary, 2013 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.910
Helliwell et al. (2015): study ID 2009 15+ aged general population, Indonesia, 2009 N = 1080
Mean
= 5.470
SD
= 1.710
Helliwell et al. (2015): study ID 2011 15+ aged general population, Indonesia, 2011 N = 999
Mean
= 5.170
SD
= 1.430
Helliwell et al. (2015): study ID 2013 15+ aged general population, Indonesia, 2013 N = 999
Mean
= 5.290
Helliwell et al. (2015): study ID 2014 15+ aged general population, Indonesia, 2014 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.590
Helliwell et al. (2015): study IN 2009 15+ aged general population,India, 2009 N = 2976
Mean
= 4.520
SD
= 1.960
Helliwell et al. (2015): study IN 2010 15+ aged general population,India, 2010 N = 5958