Correlational finding on Happiness and Household income
Subject code: I01ab03

StudyBradburn (1969): study US 1963
TitleThe Structure of Psychological Well-Being.
SourceAldine Publishing, 1969, Chicago, USA
Public21-60 aged, urban areas, USA, 1963 - 64
Sample
Non-Response 20%, Attrition 30%
Respondents N =2787

Correlate
Author's labelFamily income
Page in Source 91
Our classificationHousehold income , code I01ab03
Operationalization
Estimated total family income in 1962 in US $.
1. < 2000
2. 2000-2999
3. 3000-3999
4. 4000-4999
5. 5000-5999
6. 6000-6999
7. 7000-7999
8. 8000-8999
9. 10000-14999
10. > 15000 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.33 p < .01
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDMr=+ p < .05
Data T1.

Happiness level in average ridits (RT):
1.  RT=.34
2.  RT=.37
3.  RT=.39
4.  RT=.43
5.  RT=.47
6.  RT=.47
7.  RT=.46
8.  RT=.52
9.  RT=.56
10. RT=.59

Ridit analysis compares distribution in category 
with distribution in total sample. RT above .50 
means relative high level, RT below .50 relative 
low level.

The relationship is strongest at the lower 
educational levels (less than high school) 
and among young highschool graduates 
(younger than 35).

The relationship appears in all age categories.

The relationship appears in all family sizes: 
strongest in families with 4 or more children.


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no)
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaSelfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say that you are....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
DMrDIFFERENCE IN MEAN RIDITS
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Happiness ordinal
Range: [0; +1]

Meaning:
Mr < .50: average happiness in this subgroup lower than in the larger population
Mr = .50: average happiness in this subgroup the same as in the larger population
Mr > .50: average happiness in this subgroup higher than in the larger population

'Ridit analysis' compares the distribution of happiness scores in subgroups to its distribution in the entire sample ("Relative to an Identified Distribution")

Testing for significance can be performed through a "BROSS Confidence Interval" (BCI). If all values the BCI for a subgroup are above/below 0.500, the subgroup is significantly more/less happy than the larger population.
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 no rank correlation
G = +1 strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl