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Happiness Measures

Characteristics

Code:
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-a
Focus:
Affect: Balance (Bradburn's index) (A-BB)
Time frame:
last month, last few weeks (cm)
Mode:
multiple questions (mq)
Scale Type:
verbal scale (v)
Scale Range:
2

Description

Selfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....?  (yes/no)
A   Particularly excited or interested in something?
B   So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C   Proud because someone complimented you on something  
     you had done?
D   Very lonely or remote from other people?
E   Pleased about having accomplished something?
F   Bored?
G   On top of the world?
H   Depressed or very unhappy?
I    That things were going your way?
J    Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no  = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)

List of Studies Using this Measure

Study Population N Statistics Chang & Dodder (1984): study US 1980 Retired teachers, Oklahoma, USA and Taipei, Taiwan, 198? N = 379
Halman et al. (1987): study ZZ EU 10 1981 /1 18+ aged, general public, EU 10 nations, 1981 N = 12464
Halman et al. (1987): study ZZ EU 10 1981 /2 18+ aged, general public, EU 10, 1981 N = 12464
Hall (1976): study GB 1971 Adults, general public, Great Britain, 1971-1975 N = 593
Mean
= 1.400
Palisi (1985a): study ZZ Western nations 1977 /1 Males, metropolitan areas: London, Los Angeles and Sydney, 1977-80 N = 752
Campbell (1981): study US 1978 18+ aged, general public, USA, 1978 N = 3692
Mean
= 2.000
Palisi (1985b): study ZZ Western nations 1977 Males, metropolitan areas: London, Los Angeles and Sydney, 1977-80 N = 752
Gerard (1985): study GB 1981 18+ aged, general public, Great Britain, 1981 N = 1231
Mean
= 1.410
Levitt et al. (1986): study US 1984 Mothers of 13-months infants, Florida, U.S.A., 1984 N = 43
Gaitz & Scott (1972): study US Texas 1969 Adults, general public, Houston, Texas, USA, 1969 N = 1441
Phillips (1967a): study US NewHampshire 1962 21+ aged, general public, New Hampshire, USA, 196? N = 600
Phillips (1969): study US NewHampshire 1965 21+ aged, general public, New Hampshire, USA, 196? N = 600
Tissue (1972): study US 1969 Aged persons, welfare recipients, USA, 1969 N = 256
Cherlin & Reeder (1975): study US Los Angeles County, California 1972 Adults, general public, Los Angeles County, USA, 1972-1973 N = 1000
Graney & Graney (1973): study US 1971 62-89 aged females, USA, 1971 N = 44
Graney (1975): study US 1967 62-89 aged females, followed 4 years, USA, 1967-71 N = 44
Garber (1971): study US California 1970 Middle-aged, presently employed army retirees, California, USA, 1970 N = 362
Mean
= 5.970
Graney (1973): study US 1967 62-89 aged females, followed 4 years USA, 1967-71 N = 44
Hacker & Gaitz (1969): study US 1966 Aged mental patients, 1 year after admission, USA, 1966 N = 36
Moriwaki (1973): study US 1971 60+ aged, retirees, Los Angeles County, USA, 1971 N = 71
Andrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973 /1 18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/7 N = 222
Baker & Intagliata (1982): study US 1981 Mental patients shortly after change in institutional setting, USA, 1981 N = 118
Briscoe (1982): study GB 1977 Married couples with high incidence of minor psychiatric problems, London, U.K., 1977 N = 100
Mean
= 2.430
Andrews & Withey (1976): study US 1972 /2 18+ aged, general public, USA, Nov 1972 N = 1072
Mean
= 1.520
SD
= 2.150
Hanson & Spanier (1983): study US Pennsylvania 1977 Recently separated, Pennsylvania.USA, followed 2 years, 1977-79 N = 210
Harding (1982): study GB 1975 Adults, general public, urban areas, Great-Britain, 1975 N = 932
Mean
= 1.400
Fogarty (1985): study GB 1981 Adults, general public, Britain, 1981 N = 1231
Mean
= 1.100
Lewis (1972): study US 1967 24-75 aged Catholic sisters, Eastern USA. 196? N = 183
Kammann & Flett (1983a): study NZ 1980 18 + aged, general public, New Zealand, 198? N = 118
Kammann & Flett (1983a): study NZ 1980 /3 18+ aged, general public, New Zealand, 198? N = 118
Harding (1985): study GB 1981 18+ aged, general public, Great Britain, 1983 N = 1231
Mean
= 1.400
Levy et al. (1988): study US 1979 Breast cancer patients, first recurrence cases, Eastern USA, 1979 N = 36
McCrae & Costa (1991): study US Baltimore County, Maryland 1979 Single males and couples Baltimore USA, followed 7 years, 1979-86 N = 429
Hay (1979): study GB 1976 Adult, general public, Great Britain, 1976 N = 2000
Headey et al. (1984a): study AU 1978 18-65 aged, general public, followed 3 years, Melbourne, Australia, 1979-80 N = 184
Mitchell (1985): study US 1974 65+ aged, with children, USA, 1974 N = 2147
Palisi (1986): study US 1977 Males, metropolitan areas: London, Los Angeles and Sydney, 1977-80 N = 752
Lomranz & Lubin (1981): study IL 1976 18-40 aged college students Tell Aviv, Israel, 197? N = 167
Yeo et al. (1987): study US 1979 65+ aged, patients, ambulatory medical center, followed 18 mth, California, USA, 198? N = 139
Nelson (1981): study US 1978 Recently divorced women, Manitoba, USA, 1978 N = 15
Adams (1988): study US 1981 62+ aged, white non-married females, middle class suburb of Chicago, USA. followed 1981-84 N = 70
Nelson (1982): study US 1978 /1 Mothers, Winnipeg, USA, 1978 N = 45
Ward (1983): study US 1974 18+ aged, general public, USA, 1974 N = 4085
Yates et al. (1980): study US 1978 Cancer patients, estimated surv. 3 - 12 months, Vermont, USA, 1978 N = 52
George (1978): study US NorthCarolina 1973 50+ aged, whites, Durham, North Carolina, USA, 197? N = 380
Duckitt (1982): study ZA 1980 65-90 aged whites Pretoria, South Africa, 198? N = 80
Mean
= 6.800
SD
= 2.100
Spanier & Furstenberg (1982): study US 1977 Separated, followed 2 years, Pennsylvania, USA, 1977-79 N = 210
Verkuyten (1986a): study NL 1984 Adolescents, autochtones and allochtones, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 1984 N = 261
Czapinski & Peeters (1989): study ZZ Various nation sets 1985 25+ aged, Belgium and Poland, 198? N = 344
Mean
= 6.150
Bradburn (1969): study US 1963 21-60 aged, urban areas, USA, 1963 - 64 N = 2787
Mean
= 0.350
Verkleij & Stolk (1989): study MZ 1983 30-50 aged, in working force, followed 1 year, urban areas, Netherlands, 1983-84 N = 1100
Stacey & Gatz (1991): study US 1971 Three generations of family members, followed 14 years, USA, 1971-85 N = 1159
Timmermans (1997): study NL 1990 18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1990 N = 1017
Mean
= 1.820
Timmermans (1997): study DK 1990 18+ aged, general public, Denmark, 1990 N = 1030
Mean
= 1.930
Timmermans (1997): study GB 1990 18+ aged, general public, Britain, 1990 N = 1484
Mean
= 1.660
Timmermans (1997): study DE West Germany 1990 18+ aged, general public, West Germany, 1990 N = 2201
Mean
= 1.430
Timmermans (1997): study IT 1990 18+ aged, general public, Italy, 1990 N = 2010
Mean
= 1.220
Timmermans (1997): study ZA 1990 18+ aged, general public, South Africa, 1990 N = 2736
Mean
= 1.930
Timmermans (1997): study HU 1990 18+ aged, general public, Hungary, 1990 N = 999
Mean
= 0.860
Timmermans (1997): study GB Northern Ireland 1990 18+ aged, general public, North Ireland, 1990 N = 304
Mean
= 1.690
Timmermans (1997): study US 1990 18+ aged, general public, USA, 1990 N = 1839
Mean
= 2.220
Timmermans (1997): study BE 1990 18+ aged, general public, Belgium, 1990 N = 2792
Mean
= 1.480
Timmermans (1997): study ES 1990 18+ aged, general public, Spain, 1990 N = 4147
Mean
= 0.710
Timmermans (1997): study IE 1990 18+ aged, general public, Ireland, 1990 N = 1000
Mean
= 2.000
Timmermans (1997): study CA 1990 18+ aged, general public, Canada, 1990 N = 1730
Mean
= 2.310
Timmermans (1997): study JP 1990 18+ aged, general public, Japan, 1990 N = 1011
Mean
= 0.390
Timmermans (1997): study MX 1990 18+ aged, general public, Mexico, 1990 N = 1531
Mean
= 1.390
Timmermans (1997): study SE 1990 18+ aged, general public, Sweden, 1990 N = 1047
Mean
= 2.900
Timmermans (1997): study FI 1990 18+ aged, general public, Finland, 1990 N = 588
Mean
= 1.180
Timmermans (1997): study IS 1990 18+ aged, general public, Iceland 1990 N = 702
Mean
= 2.530
Timmermans (1997): study AR 1991 18+ aged, general public, Argentina, 1990 N = 1002
Mean
= 1.260
Timmermans (1997): study BR 1990 18+ aged, general public, Brazil 1990 N = 1782
Mean
= 1.190
Timmermans (1997): study IN 1990 18+ aged, general public, India, 1990 N = 2500
Mean
= 0.330
Timmermans (1997): study PL 1989 18+ aged, general public, Poland, 1990 N = 938
Mean
= 1.460
Timmermans (1997): study CL 1990 18+ aged, general public, Chile, 1990 N = 1500
Mean
= 1.030
Timmermans (1997): study BY 1990 18+ aged, general public, Belarus, 1990 N = 1015
Mean
= 0.770
Timmermans (1997): study DE East Germany 1990 18+ aged, general public, East Germany, 1990 N = 1336
Mean
= 1.250
Timmermans (1997): study SI 1992 18+ aged, general public, Slovenia, 1990 N = 1035
Mean
= 1.530
Timmermans (1997): study NG 1990 18+ aged, general public, Nigeria, 1990 N = 1001
Mean
= 1.530
Timmermans (1997): study CZ 1990 18+ aged, general public, Czechoslovakia, 1990 N = 1396
Mean
= 0.760
Timmermans (1997): study RO 1993 18+ aged, general public, Romania, 1990 N = 1103
Mean
= 0.710
Timmermans (1997): study CN 1990 18+aged, general public, China, 1990 N = 1000
Mean
= 1.280
Timmermans (1997): study PT 1990 18+ aged, general public, Portugal, 1990 N = 1185
Mean
= 1.330
Timmermans (1997): study AT 1990 18+ aged, general public, Austria, 1990 N = 1460
Mean
= 1.770
Timmermans (1997): study TR 1991 18+ aged, general public, Turkey, 1990 N = 1030
Mean
= 0.600
Timmermans (1997): study LT 1990 18+ aged, general public, Lithuania, 1990 N = 1000
Mean
= 0.600
Timmermans (1997): study LV 1990 18+ aged, general public, Latvia, 1990 N = 903
Mean
= 0.920
Timmermans (1997): study EE 1990 18+ aged, general public, Estonia, 1990 N = 1008
Mean
= 0.770
Timmermans (1997): study RU 1991 18+ aged, general public, Russia, 1990 N = 1961
Mean
= 0.280
Timmermans (1997): study FR 1990 18+ aged, general public, France, 1990 N = 1002
Mean
= 1.330
Timmermans (1997): study NO 1990 18+ aged, general public, Norway, 1990 N = 1239
Mean
= 2.320
Timmermans (1997): study CH 1989 18+ aged, general public, Switzerland, 1999 N = 1400
Mean
= 0.930
Diener et al. (2000a): study ZZ World samples 1990 18+ aged, general public, 43 nations 1990-1992 N = 59169
Mean
= 1.470
Headey (1981): study AU 1978 Adults, general public, Australia, 1978 N = 679
Mean
= 1.700
SD
= 2.000
Headey & Wearing (1981): study AU AU Victoria 1978 /1 Adults, general public, Melbourne, Australia, followed 25 months 1978-1981 N = 184
Suh et al. (1998): study ZZ 1990 16+ aged, general public, 43 nations 1990-93 N = 55666
Headey et al. (1993): study AU AU Victoria 1981 18-65 aged, Victoria, Australia, followed 1981 to 1987 N = 419
Barefoot et al. (1998): study US 1978 Elderly, USA, followed from 1978 to 1992 N = 100
VanEe & VanDijk (2005): study ZZ Western nations 2004 University students, USA and The Netherlands, 2004 N = 361
Mean
= 1.690
Inglehart (1994): study ZZ 1990 18+ aged, general public, 43 nations, 1990-1991 N = 56292
Ryff (1989): study US 1984 Adults, USA, 198? N = 321
McCrae (1986): study US Baltimore County, Maryland 1981 Adults, general public, Baltimore, USA, 1981 N = 62
Veenhoven & Verkuyten (1989): study NL 1986 Secondary school pupils, The Netherlands, 1986 N = 2511
Mean
= 1.688
Lepper (1998): study US California 1993 Retirees, Southern California, USA, followed 9 months199? N = 971
Mean
= 0.590
Goldberg et al. (1979): study US 1971 18+ aged, died within 1-4 years and matched controls, USA, 1971-76 N = 164
H├ębert et al. (2007): study CA Quebec 2006 Family caregivers followed before and after stress coping programme, Canada, Quebec, 2006 N = 118
Mean
= 0.980
Veenhoven (2000g): study ZZ 1980 Adults, general public, 41 nations, 1980-1990 N = 50000
Veenhoven (2001): study ZZ 1990 Adults, general public, 41 nations, 1990 N = 50000
Ouweneel (2000): study ZZ 1980 Adults, general public, 15 nations 1980, 39 nations 1990 N = 50000
Ouweneel (2002): study ZZ Developed nations 1980 Unemployed adults, 42 nations, 1980-90 N = 60000
Ouweneel (2002): study ZZ Developed nations 1980 /1 Employed and unemployed adults, 42 nations, 1980-90 N = 60000
Kozma & Stones (1980): study CA 1975 65-95 aged, New Foundland, Canada, 197? N = 598
Kammann & Flett (1983a): study NZ 1980 /1 18+ aged, general public, Dunedin, New Zealand, 198? N = 112
Cheng & Furnham (2003a): study GB London 2003 Students, London, UK, 2003 N = 234
Parry & Warr (1980): study GB 1975 Working class mothers with children under 14, UK, 1975 N = 185
Mean
= 1.030
Francis & Bolger (1994): study GB 1990 55-85 aged retired civil servants, UK, 1990 N = 50
Franklin et al. (1986): study US 1985 18-65 aged, mentally ill, USA, 1985 N = 220
Harkins (1978): study US 1973 Empty Nest mothers, USA, 1973-1974 N = 475
Cummins et al. (2003c): study NG 1990 18+ aged, general public, Nigeria, 1990 N = 1001
Mean
= 1.540
SD
= 2.120
Cummins et al. (2003c): study ZA 1981 18+ aged, general public, South Africa, 1981 N = 601
Mean
= 1.820
Cummins et al. (2003c): study ZA 1990 18+ aged, general public, South Africa, 1990 N = 2736
Mean
= 1.200
SD
= 2.610
Cummins et al. (2003c): study CA 1981 18+ aged, general public, Canada, 1981 N = 1240
Mean
= 2.270
SD
= 1.880
Cummins et al. (2003c): study CA 1990 18+ aged, general public, Canada, 1990 N = 1730
Mean
= 2.310
SD
= 1.910
Smith (1979): study US 1973 /1 16+ aged, general public, United States, 1973 N = 647
Mean
= 1.650
Smith (1979): study US 1973 /2 16+ aged, general public, United States, 1973 N = 642
Mean
= 1.570
Smith (1979): study US 1973 /3 16+ aged, general public, United States, 1973 N = 615
Mean
= 1.400
Smith (1979): study US 1973 /4 16+ aged, general public, United States, 1973 N = 639
Mean
= 1.550
Smith (1979): study US 1973 /5 16+ aged, general public, United States, 1973 N = 630
Mean
= 1.640
Smith (1979): study US 1973 /7 16+ aged, general public, United States, 1973 N = 696
Mean
= 1.700
Smith (1979): study US 1974 16+ aged, general public, United States, 1974 N = 696
Mean
= 1.630
Smith (1979): study US 1974 /1 16+ aged, general public, United States, 1974 N = 692
Mean
= 1.650
Smith (1979): study US 1974 /3 16+ aged, general public, United States, 1974 N = 610
Mean
= 1.600
Smith (1979): study US 1974 /4 16+ aged, general public, United States, 1974 N = 656
Mean
= 1.790
World Values Survey (2000): study US 1981 18+ aged, general public, United States, 1981 N = 2310
Mean
= 2.020
SD
= 2.030
Cummins et al. (2003c): study US 1990 18+ aged, general public, United States, 1990 N = 1839
Mean
= 2.210
SD
= 2.020
Cummins et al. (2003c): study CN 1990 18+ aged, general public, China, 1990 N = 1000
Mean
= 1.270
Cummins et al. (2003c): study IN 1990 18+ aged, general public, India, 1990 N = 2500
Mean
= 0.330
SD
= 1.820
Cummins et al. (2003c): study JP 1981 18+ aged, general public, Japan, 1981 N = 1140
Mean
= 0.260
Cummins et al. (2003c): study JP 1990 18+ aged, general public, Japan, 1990 N = 1011
Mean
= 0.390
SD
= 1.580
World Values Survey (2000): study TR 1990 18+ aged, general public, Turkey, 1990 N = 1030
Mean
= 0.600
SD
= 1.730
Headey & Wearing (1981): study AU 1978 16+ aged, general public, Australia, 1978 N = 679
Mean
= 1.700
World Values Survey (2000): study AU 1983 18+ aged, general public, Australia, 1983 N = 1228
Mean
= 2.040
Cummins et al. (2003c): study AT 1990 18+ aged, general public, Austria, 1990 N = 1460
Mean
= 1.770
SD
= 1.970
Cummins et al. (2003c): study BE 1981 18+ aged, general public, Belgium, 1981 N = 1100
Mean
= 1.440
SD
= 1.960
Cummins et al. (2003c): study BE 1990 18+ aged, general public, Belgium, 1990 N = 2792
Mean
= 1.570
SD
= 1.970
Cummins et al. (2003c): study BY 1984 18+ aged, general public, Belarus, 1984 N = 1200
Mean
= 0.940
Cummins et al. (2003c): study BY 1990 18+ aged, general public, Belarus, 1990 N = 1015
Mean
= 0.770
SD
= 1.900
Cummins et al. (2003c): study GB 1981 18+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 1981 N = 1210
Mean
= 1.400
SD
= 2.060
Cummins et al. (2003c): study GB 1990 18+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 1990 N = 1484
Mean
= 1.700
SD
= 2.130
World Values Survey (2012): study XZ Czechoslovakia 1990 18+ aged, general public, Czechoslovakia (former), 1990 N = 1396
Mean
= 0.760
SD
= 1.680
Cummins et al. (2003c): study DK 1981 18+ aged, general public, Denmark, 1981 N = 1170
Mean
= 1.970
SD
= 1.720
Cummins et al. (2003c): study DK 1990 18+ aged, general public, Denmark, 1990 N = 1030
Mean
= 1.930
SD
= 1.850
Cummins et al. (2003c): study EE 1990 18+ aged, general public, Estonia, 1990 N = 1008
Mean
= 0.770
SD
= 1.780
World Values Survey (2000): study FI 1990 18+ aged, general public, Finland, 1990 N = 1505
Mean
= 1.180
SD
= 2.030
Cummins et al. (2003c): study FR 1981 18+ aged, general public, France, 1981 N = 1190
Mean
= 1.000
SD
= 1.790
Cummins et al. (2003c): study FR 1990 18+ aged, general public, France, 1990 N = 1002
Mean
= 1.330
SD
= 1.910
Noelle-Neumann (1977a): study XZ Germany West 1973 /7 16+ aged, general public, Germany-West (former), 1973 N = 1041
Mean
= 1.280
World Values Survey (2004): study XZ Germany West 1981 18+ aged, general public, Germany-West (former), 1981 N = 1305
Mean
= 1.390
SD
= 1.470
Noll & Zapf (1991): study DE West Germany 1990 18+ aged, general public, West-Germany region, Germany, 1990 N = 2102
Mean
= 1.470
SD
= 2.190
Noll (1993): study DE West Germany 1990 Adults, age range not reported, general public, West-Germany, Germany, 1990 N = 0
Mean
= 1.420
Noll & Zapf (1991): study DE East Germany 1990 18+ aged, general public, East-Germany, Germany, 1990 N = 1336
Mean
= 1.250
SD
= 1.900
Noll (1993): study DE East Germany 1990 18+ aged age range not reported, general public, East-Germany, Germany, 1990 N = 0
Mean
= 0.940
Cummins et al. (2003c): study HU 1981 18+ aged, general public, Hungary, 1981 N = 1440
Mean
= 1.140
Cummins et al. (2003c): study HU 1990 18+ aged, general public, Hungary, 1990 N = 999
Mean
= 0.860
SD
= 1.770
Cummins et al. (2003c): study IS 1981 18+ aged, general public, Iceland, 1981 N = 920
Mean
= 2.480
SD
= 1.570
Cummins et al. (2003c): study IS 1990 18+ aged, general public, Iceland, 1990 N = 702
Mean
= 2.530
SD
= 1.680
Cummins et al. (2003c): study IE 1981 18+ aged, general public, Ireland, 1981 N = 1200
Mean
= 1.630
SD
= 2.030
Cummins et al. (2003c): study IE 1990 18+ aged, general public, Ireland, 1990 N = 1000
Mean
= 2.000
SD
= 2.180
Cummins et al. (2003c): study IT 1981 18+ aged, general public, Italy, 1981 N = 1330
Mean
= 0.870
SD
= 1.950
Cummins et al. (2003c): study IT 1990 18+ aged, general public, Italy, 1990 N = 2018
Mean
= 1.240
SD
= 1.910
Cummins et al. (2003c): study LV 1990 18+ aged, general public, Latvia, 1990 N = 903
Mean
= 0.920
SD
= 1.780
Cummins et al. (2003c): study LT 1990 18+ aged, general public, Lithuania, 1990 N = 1000
Mean
= 0.600
SD
= 1.790
CBS (1984b): study NL 1980 18+ aged, general public, Netherlands, 1980 N = 2000
Mean
= 1.950
Cummins et al. (2003c): study NL 1981 18+ aged, general public, Netherlands, 1981 N = 1221
Mean
= 1.510
SD
= 1.690
CBS (1984): study NL 1983 18+ aged, general public, Netherlands, 1983 N = 2000
Mean
= 1.900
CBS (1987): study NL 1986 18+ aged, general public, Netherlands, 1986 N = 2000
Mean
= 2.000
Cummins et al. (2003c): study NL 1990 18+ aged, general public, Netherlands, 1990 N = 1017
Mean
= 1.860
SD
= 1.930
Halman et al. (1987): study GB Northern Ireland 1981 18+ aged, general public, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom, 1981 N = 312
Mean
= 1.860
SD
= 2.100
World Values Survey (2012): study GB Northern Ireland 1990 18+ aged, general public, Northern Ireland region, United Kingdom, 1990 N = 304
Mean
= 1.690
SD
= 2.090
Cummins et al. (2003c): study NO 1981 18+ aged, general public, Norway, 1981 N = 1240
Mean
= 2.270
SD
= 1.770
Cummins et al. (2003c): study NO 1990 18+ aged, general public, Norway, 1990 N = 1227
Mean
= 2.310
Cummins et al. (2003c): study PL 1989 18+ aged, general public, Poland, 1989 N = 938
Mean
= 1.460
SD
= 1.950
Cummins et al. (2003c): study PT 1990 18+ aged, general public, Portugal, 1990 N = 1185
Mean
= 1.360
SD
= 1.920
Cummins et al. (2003c): study RO 1993 18+ aged, general public, Romania, 1993 N = 1103
Mean
= 0.710
SD
= 2.000
Cummins et al. (2003c): study RU 1991 18+ aged, general public, Russia, 1991 N = 1961
Mean
= 0.330
SD
= 1.950
Cummins et al. (2003c): study SI 1992 18+ aged, general public, Slovenia, 1992 N = 1035
Mean
= 1.530
SD
= 1.720
Cummins et al. (2003c): study ES 1981 18+ aged, general public, Spain, 1981 N = 2300
Mean
= 0.790
SD
= 1.710
Cummins et al. (2003c): study ES 1990 18+ aged, general public, Spain, 1990 N = 4147
Mean
= 0.730
SD
= 1.830
Cummins et al. (2003c): study SE 1981 18+ aged, general public, Sweden, 1981 N = 940
Mean
= 2.540
SD
= 1.600
Cummins et al. (2003c): study SE 1990 18+ aged, general public, Sweden, 1990 N = 1047
Mean
= 2.900
SD
= 1.620
Cummins et al. (2003c): study AR 1991 18+ aged, general public, Argentina, 1991 N = 1002
Mean
= 1.260
SD
= 1.930
Cummins et al. (2003c): study BR 1991 18+ aged, general public, Brazil, 1991 N = 1782
Mean
= 1.170
SD
= 2.070
Cummins et al. (2003c): study CL 1990 18+ aged, general public, Chile , 1990 N = 1500
Mean
= 1.030
SD
= 1.990
Cummins et al. (2003c): study MX 1981 18+ aged, general public, Mexico, 1981 N = 1830
Mean
= 1.580
Cummins et al. (2003c): study MX 1990 18+ aged, general public, Mexico, 1990 N = 1531
Mean
= 1.380
SD
= 1.980
RUSSET panel study (2005): study RU 1998 18+ aged, general public, Russia, 1998 N = 3513
Mean
= -0.028
SD
= 2.019
RUSSET panel study (2005): study RU 1999 16+ aged, general public, Russia, 1999 N = 2868
Mean
= -1.950
SD
= 2.039
Hall (1976): study GB 1975 Adults, general public, urban areas, United Kingdom, 1975 N = 932
Mean
= 1.400
World Values Survey (2012): study SK 1990 18+ aged, general public, Slovakia, 1999 N = 1561
Mean
= 0.910
SD
= 0.420
World Values Survey (2012): study CH 1989 18+ aged, general public, Switzerland, 0 N = 3853
Mean
= 1.140
SD
= 0.340
Tissue & Wells (1971): study US 1971 Applicants for old age assistance, USA, 1971. N = 256
Zautra (1975): study US Utah 1970 18+ aged, men and women, Salt Lake County, USA, 1973-1974 N = 454
Smith (1979): study US 1973 16+ aged, general public, United States, 1973 N = 723
Mean
= 1.710
Francis & Bolger (1994): study GB 1993 55-85 aged, retired civil servants, United Kingdom, 199? N = 50
Verkuyten (1989): study NL 1984 13-16 aged general public, Netherlands, 198? N = 3228
Mean
= 1.550
Gonzalez Gutierriez et al. (2005a): study ES Madrid 2002 Nursing professionals, 7 hospitals, Madrid, Spain, 2002 N = 236
Mean
= 6.590
SD
= 1.920
Haraldsson & Houtkooper (1991): study ZZ Developed nations 1981 15+ aged general popualtion, 11 western nations, 1981-1984 N = 18607
Hay & Morisy (1978): study GB 1976 General public, Great Britain, 1976 N = 1865
Baker et al. (1994): study US 1992 Bone marrow transplant survivors 5 years after transplant, United States, 1992 N = 157
Cheng & Furnham (2003a): study GB London 2001 Students. London, UK, 2001 N = 234
Mean
= 0.700
SD
= 1.970
Stevenson & Wolfers (2008): study ZZ World samples 1981 18+ aged general public, 61 nations, 1981-2004 N = 250000
Mean
= 1.380
Ludwigs (2014): study DE 2014 Users of a happiness app and controls, followed 9 weeks. Germany 2014 N = 349
Choi (2011): study NL 2009 Participants in a 9 day meditation retreat and controls, Netherlands, 2009 N = 26
Choi (2011): study NL 2009 /1 Long-term meditators and controls, Netherlands 2009 N = 20
Mean
= 8.350
White et al. (1999): study US 1999 65+ aged, residents of a retirement community, USA, 1999 N = 23
Mean
= 9.010
SD
= 1.400