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Happiness Measures

Characteristics

Code:
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aa
Focus:
Overall: Happiness in Life (O-HL)
Time frame:
currently (today, these days, presently) (c)
Mode:
1 question (sq)
Scale Type:
verbal scale (v)
Scale Range:
3

Description

Selfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days?   Would you say that you are....?
3  very happy
2  pretty happy
1  not too happy

List of Studies Using this Measure

Study Population N Statistics Roberts (1980): study US Alameda County, California 1974 Adults, general public, Alameda County, California, USA, 1974 N = 3119
Roberts (1980): study US Alameda County, California 1975 Adult, general public, Alameda County, California, USA, 1975 N = 657
Shin & Johnson (1978): study US 1975 Heads of households, Illinois, USA, 1975 N = 665
Campbell (1981): study US 1978 18+ aged, general public, USA, 1978 N = 3692
Mean
= 2.200
SD
= 0.600
Glenn & Hoppe (1984): study US 1973 18+ aged whites, USA, 1973-78 N = 10
Spreitzer et al. (1975): study US 1973 18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973 N = 1500
Mean
= 2.230
SD
= 0.661
Beiser (1974): study CA 1963 18+ aged, general public, Stirling County, Canada, 1963-1968 N = 112
Bradburn & Caplovitz (1965): study US Illinois 1962 /1 Adults, general public, 2 towns, prosperous and depressed, Illinois, USA, 1962/3 - 1962/10 N = 547
Mean
= 2.070
SD
= 0.636
Brenner (1967): study US 1963 21+ aged, general public, USA, 1963 N = 1499
Mean
= 2.160
SD
= 0.677
Brenner (1975a): study US Washington County, Maryland 1973 18+ aged, general public, Washington County, Maryland, USA, 1973-1974 N = 916
Mean
= 2.290
SD
= 0.571
Glenn (1975): study US 1972 40-59 aged mothers, non-institutionalized, USA, 1972-73 N = 425
Eurobarometer (1975a): study GB 1975 15+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 1975 N = 1317
Mean
= 1.949
SD
= 0.702
Eurobarometer (1975a): study ZZ EU 9 1975 15+ aged, general public, EU 9 nations, 1975 N = 9605
Eurobarometer (1975a): study BE 1975 15+ aged, general public, Belgium, 1975 N = 1555
Mean
= 2.265
SD
= 0.632
Eurobarometer (1975a): study DK 1975 15+ aged, general public, Denmark, 1975 N = 1039
Mean
= 2.280
SD
= 0.634
Eurobarometer (1975a): study FR 1975 15+ aged, general public, France, 1975 N = 1196
Mean
= 1.888
SD
= 0.653
Eurobarometer (1975a): study XZ Germany West 1975 15+ aged, general public, West Germany, 1975 N = 1039
Mean
= 1.895
SD
= 0.571
Eurobarometer (1975a): study IT 1975 15+ aged, general public, Italy, 1975 N = 1043
Mean
= 1.612
SD
= 0.600
Eurobarometer (1975a): study IE 1975 15+ aged, general public, Ireland, 1975 N = 999
Mean
= 1.870
SD
= 0.673
Eurobarometer (1975a): study LU 1975 15+ aged, general public, Luxembourg, 1975 N = 324
Mean
= 2.032
SD
= 0.688
Eurobarometer (1975a): study NL 1975 15+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1975 N = 1093
Mean
= 2.221
SD
= 0.619
Phillips & Clancy (1971): study US Various places 1967 21+ aged general public, New England and Mid-Atlantic States, USA, 197? N = 404
Gurin et al. (1960): study US 1957 21+ aged, general public, USA,1957 N = 2460
Mean
= 2.240
SD
= 0.634
Payne (1974): study GB 1972 Employed males, supervising jobs, England, 197? N = 192
Bradburn & Caplovitz (1965): study US Illinois 1962 Adult, general public, 4 towns, varying in economic prosperity, Illinois, USA, 1962 N = 2006
Veroff et al. (1981): study US 1976 21+ aged, general public, USA, 1976 N = 2264
Mean
= 2.240
SD
= 0.634
Weingarten (1985): study US 1976 21+ aged whites, first married; divorced and remarried, USA, 1976 N = 1452
Palisi & Canning (1986): study US 1974 18+ aged, general public, USA, 1974-1982 N = 7542
Mean
= 2.380
SD
= 0.834
Alexander (1969): study US 1964 Schizophrenic males non-hospitalized, Monroe County, New York, USA, 1964-65 N = 178
Mean
= 2.132
SD
= 0.578
Alspach (1982): study US 1972 English speaking, 18+ aged women non-institutionalized, USA, 1972-78 N = 3996
Andrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973 /1 18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/7 N = 222
Andrews & Withey (1976): study US 1972 /2 18+ aged, general public, USA, Nov 1972 N = 1072
Mean
= 2.110
SD
= 0.564
Hynson (1975): study US 1973 60+ aged, general public, USA, 1973 N = 319
Keith (1985a): study US 1969 58-63 aged unmarried, followed 10 years, USA, 1969-1979 N = 1398
Marini (1976): study US 1963 Married persons, metropolitan areas, USA, 1963 N = 3934
Klassen et al. (1975): study US Kansas 1972 18+ aged, general public, Kansas City, USA, 1971-1972 N = 976
Kammann & Flett (1983a): study NZ 1980 /3 18+ aged, general public, New Zealand, 198? N = 118
Harry (1976): study US 1973 18+ aged males, living with family, USA, 1973 N = 374
Dosch (1979): study US 1977 Parents, abusing and non-abusing, Oregon, USA, 197? N = 34
Nelson (1981): study US 1978 /1 Children, living with divorced mothers, Manitoba, USA, 1978 N = 31
Nock (1982): study US 1972 18+ aged, general public, USA, 1972-77 N = 8224
Palisi & Ransford (1987): study US 1972 18+ aged, general public, USA 1972-1983 N = 15320
Andrews & Withey (1976): study US 1972 /1 18+ aged, general public, USA, May 1972 N = 1297
Mean
= 2.180
SD
= 0.572
Glenn & Weaver (1979): study US 1972 18-59 aged whites, non-institutionalized, USA, 1972-75 N = 4049
Glenn & Weaver (1981): study US 1973 /1 25-54 aged, general public, ,USA, 1973-1978 N = 3350
Herzog et al. (1982): study US 1971 25-97 aged, general public, USA, 1971-1978 N = 1500
McNamara & St.George (1978): study US 1971 18+ aged, general public, USA, 1971 N = 2164
Polit et al. (1980): study US 1975 Couples, white, middle/upper class, USA, 1975 N = 1074
Smith (1982): study US 1972 18+ aged, general public, USA, 1972-1980 N = 11997
Willits et al. (1978): study US 1946 Highschool pupils, rural area, followed 25 years, Pennsylvania, USA, 1946-71 N = 2081
Mean
= 2.330
Nelson (1982): study US 1978 /2 Children, Winnipeg, Manitoba, U.S.A., 1978 N = 96
Rosenberg & Chelte (1980): study US 1975 18+ aged, general public, USA, 1975-1977 N = 1500
Glenn & McLanahan (1981): study US 1973 50+ aged, with no children under age 18 at home, USA,1973-78 N = 2465
Glenn & Weaver (1981a): study US 1973 Marrieds, USA, 1973-78 N = 9000
Lowenthal et al. (1975): study US 1969 People in transition, metropolis,USA, 1969 N = 216
Mean
= 2.300
Sigelman (1981): study US 1974 18+ aged, general public, USA, 1974-76 N = 2650
Ward (1983): study US 1972 18+ aged, general public, USA, 1972-1977 N = 9035
Ward (1979): study US 1972 /1 25+ aged, general public, USA, 1972-1977 N = 7872
Yates et al. (1980): study US 1978 Cancer patients, estimated surv. 3 - 12 months, Vermont, USA, 1978 N = 52
Wright (1978): study US 1971 White married women, USA, 1971-76 N = 2541
Simmons et al. (1974): study US 1969 Signers of organ-donor cards (and controls), USA, 1969 N = 75
Simmons et al. (1977): study US 1970 Adult renal patients, followed before and after transplant, USA, 1970-73 N = 178
McLanahan & Adams (1989): study US 1957 21+ aged, general public, USA, 1957-1976 N = 4664
Mean
= 0.320
Glenn & Kramer (1985): study US 1973 18+ aged whites, USA, 1973-82 N = 9704
Anderson et al. (1985): study US 1985 Couples, followed family therapy, USA, 1985-86 N = 94
Mean
= 1.700
Bradburn (1969): study US 1963 21-60 aged, urban areas, USA, 1963 - 64 N = 2787
Mean
= 2.250
Herzog et al. (1982): study US 1978 /1 25-97 aged, general public, USA, 1971-1978 N = 6918
Simmons et al. (1977): study US 1970 /1 Kidney donors followed before and after donation, USA, 1970-1973 N = 133
Thomas & Hughes (1986): study US 1972 18+ aged, general public, USA, 1972-85 N = 18000
Mean
= 2.140
Mookherjee (1997): study US 1986 60+ aged, general public, USA 1982-91 N = 3049
Mean
= 2.230
SD
= 0.661
Evans et al. (1990): study US 1986 Patients with end-stage renal disease , USA, followed 11 month, 1986 N = 329
Mean
= 11.240
SD
= 3.130
Sudman (1967): study US 1964 Adults, general public, USA, 1964 N = 2084
Easterlin (1974): study US 1946 /1 Adults, general public, USA, 1946-1970 N = 29143
Mean
= 2.340
SD
= 0.020
Ferree (1984): study US 1971 White married women, USA, 1971-76 N = 2541
Mean
= 1.700
Lewis & Joseph (1996a): study GB 1993 Students, Northern Ireland, 1993 N = 63
Goldberg et al. (1980): study US Maryland 1971 18+ aged, general public, county, Maryland, USA 1971-1974 N = 640
Simmons et al. (1988): study US 1980 Renal patients, 1-year post transplant, USA 1980-84 N = 113
Mean
= 1.340
Luechinger et al. (2008): study US 1976 Employees public and private sector, USA, 1976-2002. N = 19530
Wong (1985a): study US 1984 Working parents with children <16, USA, 1984 N = 651
Mean
= 1.840
Baker et al. (2005): study US 1986 60+ aged, USA, followed 3 years 1986-1989 N = 1279
Mean
= 2.232
SD
= 0.639
Napier & Jost (2008): study US 1974 Voters, USA, 1974 - 2004 N = 2536
Hanson & Sloane (1992): study US 1976 18+ aged, general public, USA, 1976-1989 N = 4509
Kammann & Flett (1983a): study NZ 1980 /1 18+ aged, general public, Dunedin, New Zealand, 198? N = 112
DiTella & MacCulloch (2006): study US 1975 Adults, general public, USA, 1975-1997 N = 25000
Schwartz-Barcott & Schwartz (1990): study US 1972 18+ aged, general public, USA, 1972-1986 N = 19787
Mean
= 2.200
SD
= 0.650
Easterlin (2001): study US 1994 Adults, general public, USA, 1994 N = 2627
Mean
= 2.160
SD
= 0.612
Coleman & Antonucci (1983): study US 1976 40-59 aged women, USA, 1976 N = 389
Alesina et al. (2004): study US 1981 Adults, general public, United States, 1981-1996 N = 19895
Mean
= 2.199
SD
= 0.622
Alesina et al. (2004): study ZZ EU 12 1992 Adults, general public, EU 12 member states, 1975-1992 N = 104000
Ferriss (2002): study US 1972 18 + aged, general public, United States, 1972-1996 N = 34706
Mean
= 2.201
SD
= 0.635
Levin & Taylor (1998): study US 1979 18+ aged Blacks, USA, followed 1979 to 1992 N = 1988
Mean
= 2.100
SD
= 0.660
Smith (1979): study US 1957 Adults, age range not reported, general public, United States, 1957 N = 2451
Mean
= 2.240
SD
= 0.634
Smith (1979): study US 1963 Adults, age range not reported, general public, United States, 1963 N = 1501
Mean
= 2.150
SD
= 0.684
Smith (1979): study US 1964 Adults, age range not reported, general public, United States, 1964 N = 1489
Mean
= 2.240
SD
= 0.680
Smith (1979): study US 1964 /1 Adults, age range not reported, general public, United States, 1964 N = 1966
Mean
= 2.260
SD
= 0.642
Smith (1979): study US 1965 Adults, age range not reported, general public, United States, 1965 N = 1468
Mean
= 2.130
SD
= 0.673
Smith (1979): study US 1971 Adults, age range not reported, general public, United States, 1971 N = 2147
Mean
= 2.190
SD
= 0.595
Smith (1979): study US 1972 Adults, general public, United States, 1972 N = 254
Mean
= 2.190
SD
= 0.560
Smith (1979): study US 1972 /2 Adults, general public, United States, 1972 N = 1459
Mean
= 2.130
SD
= 0.627
Rodgers & Converse (1975): study US 1972 Adults, age range not reported, general public, United States, 1972 N = 947
Mean
= 2.120
SD
= 0.553
Cummins et al. (2003c): study US 1972 18+ aged, general public, United States, 1972 N = 1613
Mean
= 2.126
SD
= 0.673
Campbell (1981): study US 1972 Adults, age range not reported, general public, United States, 1972 N = 2369
Mean
= 2.140
SD
= 0.566
Smith (1979): study US 1972 /1 Adults, general public, United States, 1972 N = 1056
Mean
= 2.110
SD
= 0.564
General Social Survey (2011): study US 1973 18+ aged, general public, United States, 1973 N = 1504
Mean
= 2.244
SD
= 0.657
Smith (1979): study US 1973 16+ aged, general public, United States, 1973 N = 723
Mean
= 2.200
SD
= 0.648
Smith (1979): study US 1973 /1 16+ aged, general public, United States, 1973 N = 647
Mean
= 2.210
SD
= 0.637
Smith (1979): study US 1973 /2 16+ aged, general public, United States, 1973 N = 642
Mean
= 2.160
SD
= 0.689
Smith (1979): study US 1973 /3 16+ aged, general public, United States, 1973 N = 615
Mean
= 2.110
SD
= 0.677
Smith (1979): study US 1973 /4 16+ aged, general public, United States, 1973 N = 639
Mean
= 2.120
SD
= 0.697
Smith (1979): study US 1973 /5 16+ aged, general public, United States, 1973 N = 630
Mean
= 2.130
SD
= 0.658
Smith (1979): study US 1973 /7 16+ aged, general public, United States, 1973 N = 696
Mean
= 2.130
SD
= 0.658
General Social Survey (2011): study US 1974 18+ aged, general public, United States, 1974 N = 1484
Mean
= 2.258
SD
= 0.665
Smith (1979): study US 1974 16+ aged, general public, United States, 1974 N = 696
Mean
= 2.090
SD
= 0.665
Smith (1979): study US 1974 /1 16+ aged, general public, United States, 1974 N = 692
Mean
= 2.030
SD
= 0.655
Smith (1979): study US 1974 /2 18+ aged, general public, United States, 1974 N = 1496
Mean
= 2.250
SD
= 0.669
Smith (1979): study US 1974 /3 16+ aged, general public, United States, 1974 N = 610
Mean
= 2.130
SD
= 0.643
Smith (1979): study US 1974 /4 16+ aged, general public, United States, 1974 N = 656
Mean
= 2.210
SD
= 0.637
General Social Survey (2011): study US 1975 18+ aged, general public, United States, 1975 N = 1490
Mean
= 2.205
SD
= 0.650
Smith (1979): study US 1975 Adults, age range not reported, general public, United States, 1975 N = 581
Mean
= 2.140
SD
= 0.693
General Social Survey (2011): study US 1976 18+ aged, general public, United States, 1976 N = 1499
Mean
= 2.226
SD
= 0.648
Campbell (1981): study US 1976 Adults, age range not reported, general public, United States, 1976 N = 2369
Mean
= 2.140
SD
= 0.566
Smith (1979): study US 1976 Adults, age range not reported, general public, United States, 1976 N = 1520
Mean
= 2.180
SD
= 0.606
Smith (1979): study US 1976 /1 Adults, age range not reported, general public, United States, 1976 N = 2207
Mean
= 2.200
SD
= 0.616
Smith (1979): study US 1976 /2 Adults, age range not reported, general public, United States, 1976 N = 1317
Mean
= 2.240
SD
= 0.650
General Social Survey (2011): study US 1977 18+ aged, general public, United States, 1977 N = 1530
Mean
= 2.247
SD
= 0.637
General Social Survey (2011): study US 1978 18+ aged, general public, United States, 1978 N = 1533
Mean
= 2.266
SD
= 0.592
General Social Survey (2011): study US 1980 18+ aged, general public, United States, 1980 N = 1469
Mean
= 2.239
SD
= 0.650
General Social Survey (2011): study US 1982 18+ aged, general public, United States, 1982 N = 1862
Mean
= 2.230
SD
= 0.641
General Social Survey (2011): study US 1983 18+ aged, general public, United States, 1983 N = 1619
Mean
= 2.191
SD
= 0.637
General Social Survey (2011): study US 1984 18+ aged, general public, United States, 1984 N = 1455
Mean
= 2.237
SD
= 0.650
General Social Survey (2011): study US 1985 18+ aged, general public, United States, 1985 N = 1545
Mean
= 2.191
SD
= 0.601
General Social Survey (2011): study US 1986 18+ aged, general public, United States, 1986 N = 1470
Mean
= 2.231
SD
= 0.617
General Social Survey (2011): study US 1987 18+ aged, general public, United States, 1987 N = 1825
Mean
= 2.223
SD
= 0.632
General Social Survey (2011): study US 1988 18+ aged, general public, United States, 1988 N = 1481
Mean
= 2.278
SD
= 0.605
General Social Survey (2011): study US 1989 18+ aged, general public, United States, 1989 N = 1537
Mean
= 2.258
SD
= 0.605
Shin (1986): study KR 1980 /1 18+ aged, general public, Korea,(South), 1980 N = 1500
Mean
= 1.810
SD
= 0.611
Cushing (1987): study AU 1984 /1 Adults, age range not reported, general public, Australia, 1984 N = 3012
Mean
= 2.260
SD
= 0.559
General Social Survey (2011): study US 1990 18+ aged, general public, United States, 1990 N = 1372
Mean
= 2.280
SD
= 0.597
General Social Survey (2011): study US 1991 18+ aged, general public, United States, 1991 N = 1517
Mean
= 2.231
SD
= 0.606
General Social Survey (2011): study US 1993 18+ aged, general public, United States, 1993 N = 1606
Mean
= 2.237
SD
= 0.613
General Social Survey (2011): study US 1994 18+ aged, general public, United States, 1994 N = 2992
Mean
= 2.193
SD
= 0.617
General Social Survey (2011): study US 1996 18+ aged, general public, United States, 1996 N = 2904
Mean
= 2.215
SD
= 0.617
General Social Survey (2011): study US 1998 18+ aged, general public, United States, 1998 N = 2832
Mean
= 2.224
SD
= 0.626
Czapinski (2003): study PL 1991 18+ aged, general public, Poland, 1991 N = 4187
Mean
= 1.684
SD
= 0.539
Czapinski (2003): study PL 1992 16+ aged, general public, Poland, 1992 N = 3402
Mean
= 1.615
SD
= 0.556
Czapinski (2003): study PL 1994 16+ aged, general public, Poland, 1994 N = 2304
Mean
= 1.728
SD
= 0.535
Czapinski (2003): study PL 1995 16+ aged, general public, Poland, 1995 N = 3020
Mean
= 1.698
SD
= 0.559
Czapinski (2003): study PL 1996 16+ aged, general public, Poland, 1996 N = 2333
Mean
= 1.741
SD
= 0.566
Czapinski (2003): study PL 1997 16+ aged, general public, Poland, 1997 N = 2094
Mean
= 1.791
SD
= 0.540
Czapinski (2003): study PL 2000 16+ aged, general public, Poland, 2000 N = 6403
Mean
= 1.698
SD
= 0.561
Czapinski (1993): study PL 1993 18+ aged, general public, Poland, 1993 N = 2340
Mean
= 1.630
SD
= 0.561
General Social Survey (2011): study US 2000 18+ aged, general public, United States, 2000 N = 2817
Mean
= 2.243
SD
= 0.613
General Social Survey (2011): study US 2002 18+ aged, general public, United States, 2002 N = 2765
Mean
= 2.215
SD
= 0.629
General Social Survey (2011): study US 2004 18+ aged, general public, United States, 2004 N = 2812
Mean
= 2.219
SD
= 0.636
DDB lifestyle survey (2000): study US 2006 18+ aged, general public, United States, 2006 N = 4510
Mean
= 2.206
SD
= 0.631
Eurobarometer (2004b): study DK 1975 15+ aged, general public, Denmark, 1975 N = 1073
Mean
= 2.360
SD
= 0.584
Czapinski & Panek (2007): study PL 1991 16+ aged, general public, Poland, 1991 N = 4187
Mean
= 1.684
SD
= 0.539
Czapinski & Panek (2007): study PL 1992 16+ aged, general public, Poland, 1992 N = 3402
Mean
= 1.615
SD
= 0.556
Czapinski & Panek (2007): study PL 1994 16+ aged, general public, Poland, 1994 N = 2302
Mean
= 1.728
SD
= 0.535
Czapinski & Panek (2007): study PL 1995 16+ aged, general public, Poland, 1995 N = 3020
Mean
= 1.699
SD
= 0.559
Czapinski & Panek (2007): study PL 1996 16+ aged, general public, Poland, 1996 N = 2333
Mean
= 1.741
SD
= 0.566
Czapinski & Panek (2007): study PL 1997 16+ aged, general public, Poland, 1997 N = 2094
Mean
= 1.791
SD
= 0.540
Czapinski & Panek (2007): study PL 2000 16+ aged, general public, Poland, 2000 N = 6403
Mean
= 1.698
SD
= 0.561
Berg (2010): study US Alabama 1990 18+ aged, general public, Alabama region, United States, 1990 N = 1025
Mean
= 2.225
SD
= 0.641
Berg (2010): study US Alaska 1990 18+ aged, general public, Alaska region, United States, 1990 N = 162
Mean
= 2.259
SD
= 0.643
Berg (2010): study US Arizona 1990 18+ aged, general public, Arizona region, United States, 1990 N = 1980
Mean
= 2.172
SD
= 0.623
Berg (2010): study US Arkansas 1990 18+ aged, general public, Arkansas region, United States, 1990 N = 1416
Mean
= 2.169
SD
= 0.642
Berg (2010): study US California 1990 18+ aged, general public, California region, United States, 1990 N = 21635
Mean
= 2.186
SD
= 0.646
Berg (2010): study US Colorado 1990 18+ aged, general public, Colorado region, United States, 1990 N = 6660
Mean
= 2.214
SD
= 0.621
Berg (2010): study US Connecticut 1990 18+ aged, general public, Connecticut region, United States, 1990 N = 4893
Mean
= 2.210
SD
= 0.620
Berg (2010): study US Delaware 1990 18+ aged, general public, Delaware region, United States, 1990 N = 872
Mean
= 2.146
SD
= 0.556
Berg (2010): study US Florida 1990 18+ aged, general public, Florida region, United States, 1990 N = 17442
Mean
= 2.202
SD
= 0.661
Berg (2010): study US Georgia 1990 18+ aged, general public, Georgia region, United States, 1990 N = 12350
Mean
= 2.247
SD
= 0.629
Berg (2010): study US Hawaii 1990 18+ aged, general public, Hawaii region, United States, 1990 N = 429
Mean
= 2.128
SD
= 0.515
Berg (2010): study US Idaho 1990 18+ aged, general public, Idaho region, United States, 1990 N = 2040
Mean
= 2.253
SD
= 0.633
Berg (2010): study US Illinois 1990 18+ aged, general public, Illinois region, United States, 1990 N = 23205
Mean
= 2.181
SD
= 0.644
Berg (2010): study US Indiana 1990 18+ aged, general public, Indiana region, United States, 1990 N = 14154
Mean
= 2.156
SD
= 0.608
Berg (2010): study US Iowa 1990 18+ aged, general public, Iowa region, United States, 1990 N = 5655
Mean
= 2.262
SD
= 0.598
Berg (2010): study US Kansas 1990 18+ aged, general public, Kansas region, United States, 1990 N = 8992
Mean
= 2.258
SD
= 0.584
Berg (2010): study US Kentucky 1990 18+ aged, general public, Kentucky region, United States, 1990 N = 5559
Mean
= 2.260
SD
= 0.633
Berg (2010): study US Louisiana 1990 18+ aged, general public, Louisiana region, United States, 1990 N = 11106
Mean
= 2.172
SD
= 0.656
Berg (2010): study US Maine 1990 18+ aged, general public, Maine region, United States, 1990 N = 836
Mean
= 2.091
SD
= 0.668
Berg (2010): study US Maryland 1990 18+ aged, general public, Maryland region, United States, 1990 N = 13660
Mean
= 2.094
SD
= 0.622
Berg (2010): study US Massachusetts 1990 18+ aged, general public, Massachusetts region, United States, 1990 N = 19173
Mean
= 2.230
SD
= 0.606
Berg (2010): study US Michigan 1990 18+ aged, general public, Michigan region, United States, 1990 N = 48906
Mean
= 2.211
SD
= 0.626
Berg (2010): study US Minnesota 1990 18+ aged, general public, Minnesota region, United States, 1990 N = 20171
Mean
= 2.266
SD
= 0.593
Berg (2010): study US Missisippi 1990 18+ aged, general public, Missisippi region, United States, 1990 N = 7368
Mean
= 2.134
SD
= 0.629
Berg (2010): study US Missouri 1990 18+ aged, general public, Missouri region, United States, 1990 N = 29350
Mean
= 2.184
SD
= 0.612
Berg (2010): study US Montana 1990 18+ aged, general public, Montana region, United States, 1990 N = 5876
Mean
= 2.187
SD
= 0.588
Berg (2010): study US NewHampshire 1990 18+ aged, general public, NewHampshire, United States, 1990 N = 4872
Mean
= 2.315
SD
= 0.579
Berg (2010): study US NewMexico 1990 18+ aged, general public, NewMexico, United States, 1990 N = 1426
Mean
= 2.239
SD
= 0.632
Berg (2010): study US NewYork 1990 18+ aged, general public, NewYork, United States, 1990 N = 100608
Mean
= 2.135
SD
= 0.633
Berg (2010): study US NorthCarolina 1990 18+ aged, general public, NorthCarolina, United States, 1990 N = 53295
Mean
= 2.233
SD
= 0.659
Berg (2010): study US NorthDakota 1990 18+ aged, general public, NorthDakota, United States, 1990 N = 10914
Mean
= 2.265
SD
= 0.524
Berg (2010): study US Ohio 1990 18+ aged, general public, Ohio, United States, 1990 N = 77805
Mean
= 2.193
SD
= 0.645
Berg (2010): study US Oklahoma 1990 18+ aged, general public, Oklahoma, United States, 1990 N = 19080
Mean
= 2.214
SD
= 0.648
Berg (2010): study US Oregon 1990 18+ aged, general public, Oregon, United States, 1990 N = 21904
Mean
= 2.198
SD
= 0.575
Berg (2010): study US Pennsylvania 1990 18+ aged, general public, Pennsylvania, United States, 1990 N = 82308
Mean
= 2.155
SD
= 0.644
Berg (2010): study US RhodeIsland 1990 18+ aged, general public, RhodeIsland, United States, 1990 N = 5694
Mean
= 2.205
SD
= 0.596
Berg (2010): study US SouthCarolina 1990 18+ aged, general public, SouthCarolina, United States, 1990 N = 25120
Mean
= 2.222
SD
= 0.649
Berg (2010): study US SouthDakota 1990 18+ aged, general public, SouthDakota, United States, 1990 N = 3854
Mean
= 2.213
SD
= 0.581
Berg (2010): study US Tennessee 1990 18+ aged, general public, Tennessee, United States, 1990 N = 56742
Mean
= 2.255
SD
= 0.637
Berg (2010): study US Texas 1990 18+ aged, general public, Texas, United States, 1990 N = 110467
Mean
= 2.214
SD
= 0.625
Berg (2010): study US Utah 1990 18+ aged, general public, Utah, United States, 1990 N = 8360
Mean
= 2.368
SD
= 0.590
Berg (2010): study US Vermont 1990 18+ aged, general public, Vermont, United States, 1990 N = 7065
Mean
= 2.267
SD
= 0.601
Berg (2010): study US Virginia 1990 18+ aged, general public, Virginia, United States, 1990 N = 74014
Mean
= 2.239
SD
= 0.626
Berg (2010): study US Washington 1990 18+ aged, general public, Washington, United States, 1990 N = 38587
Mean
= 2.207
SD
= 0.637
Berg (2010): study US WestVirginia 1990 18+ aged, general public, WestVirginia, United States, 1990 N = 27804
Mean
= 2.220
SD
= 0.688
Berg (2010): study US Wisconsin 1990 18+ aged, general public, Wisconsin, United States, 1990 N = 57624
Mean
= 2.211
SD
= 0.612
Berg (2010): study US Wyoming 1990 18+ aged, general public, Wyoming, United States, 1990 N = 10100
Mean
= 2.208
SD
= 0.550
Berg (2010): study US NewJersey 1990 18+ aged, general public, NewJersey, United States, 1990 N = 42300
Mean
= 2.170
SD
= 0.640
Berg (2010): study US Washington DC 1990 18+ aged, general public, Washington DC region, United States, 1990 N = 4845
Mean
= 2.253
SD
= 0.632
General Social Survey (2011): study US 2008 18+ aged, general public, United States, 2008 N = 2023
Mean
= 2.177
SD
= 0.652
Okulicz-Kozaryn (2011a): study ZZ 1996 15+ aged, general public, the U.S. and Western Europe, 1996-2002 N = 11630
Fischer (2008): study US 1972 18+ aged, general public, United States, 1972-2004 N = 48000
Graham (2005): study US 1972 18+ aged, general public, United States, 1972-98 N = 24128
Sander (2011): study US 2000 /1 25+ aged general public, United States, 2000-2006 N = 6563
Sander (2011): study US 2000 25+ aged general public, United States, 2000-2008 N = 8500
Serpa Barros de Moura & De Losso da Silveira Beuno (2013): study BR São Paulo 2007 18+ aged, illigal land occupants, followed 18 months after legalization, Brazil 2007-2008 N = 326
Franz & McClelland (1994a): study US 1977 46 of 116 children from child- rearing studies born in 1946 at age 31 years classified as participants in protest movement of the 1960th, United states, white, American N = 116