Correlational finding on Happiness and Tensions in relationship
Subject code: M03ab06

StudyBradburn (1969): study US 1963
TitleThe Structure of Psychological Well-Being.
SourceAldine Publishing, 1969, Chicago, USA
Public21-60 aged, urban areas, USA, 1963 - 64
Sample
Non-Response 20%, Attrition 30%
Respondents N =2787

Correlate
Author's labelMarital tension
Page in Source 164
Our classificationTensions in relationship, code M03ab06
Operationalization
11-item index of questions on differences in opinion or 
problems concerning: Each rated yes/no
1. time spend with friends
2. household expenses
3. being tired
4. being away from home too much
5. disciplining children
6. in-laws
7. not showing love
8. spouces job
9. how to spend leisuretime
10 religion
11 irritating personal habits

Assessed at:
T1: Januari 1963
T3: Oktober 1963
Remarks
Data T1. Results T3 similar.
         

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=-.25
Males
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aG=-.16
Males
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aG=-.32
Females 

- Strong relation with negative affect. Hardly
  any with positive affect.
- Unaffected by SES.
               
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=-.37
Females
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDMr=+
CHANGE in marital tension is paralelled by CHANGE 
in negative affect (Relation with change in full 
ABS not computed).

This relation is stronger among females than 
males.

Change in negative affect expressed in change () 
in average ridits (RT). Ridit analysis compares 
distribution in category with distribution in 
total sample. RT above .50 means relative 
increase, RT below .50 relative decrease in 
happiness.


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no)
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaSelfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say that you are....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
DMrDIFFERENCE IN MEAN RIDITS
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Happiness ordinal
Range: [0; +1]

Meaning:
Mr < .50: average happiness in this subgroup lower than in the larger population
Mr = .50: average happiness in this subgroup the same as in the larger population
Mr > .50: average happiness in this subgroup higher than in the larger population

'Ridit analysis' compares the distribution of happiness scores in subgroups to its distribution in the entire sample ("Relative to an Identified Distribution")

Testing for significance can be performed through a "BROSS Confidence Interval" (BCI). If all values the BCI for a subgroup are above/below 0.500, the subgroup is significantly more/less happy than the larger population.
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 no rank correlation
G = +1 strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl