Correlational finding on Happiness and Social security in nation
Subject code: N04ab11ce

StudyOuweneel (2000): study ZZ 1980
TitleMeer Zekerheid is Niet Meer Welzijn. (More Security is Not more Well-Being).
SourceEconomische Statistische Berichten, 2000, 14th April, 320 - 322
PublicAdults, general public, 15 nations 1980, 39 nations 1990
SampleMixed samples
Respondents N =50000

Author's labelChange in inequality in happiness and social security
Page in Source 322
Our classificationSocial security in nation, code N04ab11ce
Growth social security expenditure in % GNP per capita 
over the period 1980-1990

Observed Relation with Happiness
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=- ns
Correlation with 1980-90 CHANGE in INEQUALITY of 
happiness in nations as measured with the standard 
deviation (instead of level as measured with mean)
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-arpc=- ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-ar=- ns
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-arpc=- ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=+ ns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-arpc=+ ns
rpc's  controlled for Real GDP growth between 

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no)
A Particularly excited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, would you say you are.....?
4 very happy
3 quite happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole these days?
1 dissatisfied
10 satisfied

Appendix 2: Statistics used
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning: a partial correlation between happiness and one of the correlates is that correlation, which remains after accounting for the contribution of the other influences, or some of them, to the total variability in the happiness scores.
Under that conditions
rpc > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating,
rpc < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating,
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.