print

Happiness Measures

Characteristics

Code:
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a
Focus:
Overall: Satisfaction w Life as a Whole (O-SLW)
Time frame:
currently (today, these days, presently) (c)
Mode:
1 question (sq)
Scale Type:
numeric scale (n)
Scale Range:
10

Description

Selfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole these days?
1   dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10  satisfied

List of Studies Using this Measure

Study Population N Statistics Gundelach & Kreiner (2004): study ZZ Western Europe 1999 18 + aged, general public, 9 nations in Western Europe, 1999 N = 10517
Veenhoven (1997a): study ZZ 1990 Adults, general public, 39 nations, around 1990 N = 40000
Veenhoven (1997a): study ZZ 1990 /1 Adults, general public, 13 nations of varying wealth, around 1990 N = 15000
Veenhoven (1999): study ZZ 1990 Adults, general public, 48 nations, around 1990 N = 75000
Veenhoven (2000g): study ZZ 1980 Adults, general public, 41 nations, 1980-1990 N = 50000
Bjornskov et al. (2007): study ZZ 1997 18+ aged, general public, 74 nations, 1997-2001 N = 120000
Ott (2005): study ZZ 1991 18+ aged, general public, 78 nations, 1991-2001 N = 100000
Veenhoven (2001): study ZZ 1990 Adults, general public, 41 nations, 1990 N = 50000
Fahey & Smyth (2004a): study ZZ Europe 1999 18+ aged, general public, 33 European nations, 1999-2000 N = 39799
Veenhoven (2004b): study ZZ 1995 Adults, general public, 65 nations, 1995 and 1997 N = 90000
Ovaska & Takashima (2006): study ZZ 1990 18+ aged, general public, 68 nations, 1990-2001. N = 120000
Mean
= 6.630
SD
= 1.110
Veenhoven (2007e): study ZZ 1995 Adults, general public, 90 nations, 1995-2000 N = 140000
Bjornskov (2007): study ZZ 2004 18+ aged, general public, 60 nations, 1999-2004 N = 71000
Bruni & Stanca (2006): study ZZ 1990 Adults, general public, 80 nations, 1990-2004 N = 259947
Mean
= 6.640
SD
= 2.490
Ouweneel (2000): study ZZ 1980 Adults, general public, 15 nations 1980, 39 nations 1990 N = 50000
Ouweneel (2002): study ZZ Developed nations 1980 Unemployed adults, 42 nations, 1980-90 N = 60000
Ouweneel (2002): study ZZ Developed nations 1980 /1 Employed and unemployed adults, 42 nations, 1980-90 N = 60000
Radcliff (2001): study ZZ Developed nations 1990 18+ aged, general public, 15 rich nations, 1990 N = 22500
Frey & Stutzer (2000b): study CH 1992 Adults, general public, Switzerland, 1992 N = 6000
Ball & Chernova (2008): study ZZ 1995 /1 18+ aged, general public, 18 nations, 1995-1997 N = 20771
Ball & Chernova (2008): study ZZ 1995 Adults, general public, 42 nations, 1995-1997 N = 60000
Mean
= 6.350
SD
= 1.240
Sandoval & Guerrero (2001): study PH 1996 Adults, general public, Philippines, 1996-2001 N = 2000
Mean
= 6.760
SD
= 2.440
Selim (2008): study TR 1990 18+ aged, general public, Turkey, 1990-2001 N = 6338
Mean
= 6.127
SD
= 2.574
Snoep (2008): study ZZ Western nations 2000 18+ aged, general public, USA, The Netherlands, Denmark, 2000 N = 3226
Tesch-Römer et al. (2008): study ZZ 1999 18+ aged, general public, 57 countries, 1999-2004 N = 74395
Fischer (2009b): study ZZ OECD member states 1997 /1 Adults, general public, 30 OECD Countries, 1997-2001 N = 45000
Fischer (2009b): study ZZ OECD member states 1997 Adults, general public, 30 OECD countries, 1997-2001 N = 45000
Veenhoven (2008b): study ZZ 1995 Adults, general public, 98 nations, 2000s N = 150000
Bjornskov et al. (2010): study ZZ 1981 18+ aged, general public, 55 nations, 1981-2004 N = 135000
Mean
= 6.867
Samanni & Holmberg (2010): study ZZ 1999 18+ aged, general public, in 90 nations, 1999-2008 N = 100000
Kotakorpi & Laamanen (2010): study FI 2000 18+ aged, general public, Finland, 2000 N = 1000
Inglehart et al. (2008): study ZZ 1981 18+ aged, general public, 52 nations, 1981-2007 N = 72000
Oishi et al. (2007a): study 1981 18+ aged, general public, 96 nations, 1981-2000 N = 118519
Heukamp & Arino (2011): study ZZ World samples 1981 18+ aged general public, 64 countries, 1981-2004 N = 114281
Mean
= 6.910
SD
= 2.300
Bond et al. (0): study ZZ World samples 2005 15-24 aged, 43 nations, 2005-2008 N = 9618
World Values Survey (2004): study FR 1999 18+ aged, general public, France, 1999 N = 1615
Mean
= 6.928
SD
= 2.027
World Values Survey (2004): study DE 1999 18+ aged, general public, Germany, 1999 N = 2036
Mean
= 7.609
SD
= 1.790
World Values Survey (2004): study GB 1999 18+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 1999 N = 994
Mean
= 7.399
SD
= 1.933
World Values Survey (2004): study IT 1999 18+ aged, general public, Italy, 1999 N = 2000
Mean
= 7.168
SD
= 2.113
World Values Survey (2004): study ES 1999 18+ aged, general public, Spain, 1999 N = 2409
Mean
= 7.046
SD
= 1.913
World Values Survey (2004): study PT 1999 18+ aged, general public, Portugal, 1999 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.988
SD
= 1.955
World Values Survey (2004): study GR 1999 18+ aged, general public, Greece, 1999 N = 1142
Mean
= 6.670
SD
= 2.191
World Values Survey (2004): study MT 1999 18+ aged, general public, Malta, 1999 N = 1001
Mean
= 8.210
SD
= 1.620
World Values Survey (2004): study BE 1999 18+ aged, general public, Belgium, 1999 N = 1912
Mean
= 7.560
SD
= 2.060
World Values Survey (2004): study NL 1999 18+ aged, general public, Netherlands, 1999 N = 1003
Mean
= 7.876
SD
= 1.326
World Values Survey (2004): study LU 1999 18+ aged, general public, Luxembourg, 1999 N = 1211
Mean
= 7.871
SD
= 1.852
World Values Survey (2004): study DK 1999 18+ aged, general public, Denmark, 1999 N = 1023
Mean
= 8.240
SD
= 1.820
World Values Survey (2004): study SE 1999 18+ aged, general public, Sweden, 1999 N = 1014
Mean
= 7.655
SD
= 1.846
World Values Survey (2004): study FI 2000 18+ aged, general public, Finland, 2000 N = 1038
Mean
= 7.872
SD
= 1.671
Inglehart (2004): study IS 1999 18+ aged, general public, Iceland, 1999 N = 968
Mean
= 8.050
SD
= 1.590
World Values Survey (2004): study IE 1999 18+ aged, general public, Ireland, 1999 N = 1012
Mean
= 8.163
SD
= 1.809
World Values Survey (2004): study GB Northern Ireland 1999 18+ aged, general public, Northern Ireland region, United Kingdom, 1999 N = 1000
Mean
= 8.069
SD
= 1.705
World Values Survey (2004): study EE 1999 18+ aged, general public, Estonia, 1999 N = 1005
Mean
= 5.895
SD
= 2.189
World Values Survey (2004): study LV 1999 18+ aged, general public, Latvia, 1999 N = 1013
Mean
= 5.267
SD
= 2.390
World Values Survey (2004): study LT 1999 18+ aged, general public, Lithuania, 1999 N = 1018
Mean
= 5.090
SD
= 2.635
World Values Survey (2004): study PL 1999 18+ aged, general public, Poland, 1999 N = 1095
Mean
= 6.372
SD
= 2.474
World Values Survey (2004): study CZ 1998 18+ aged, general public, Czech Republic, 1998 N = 1147
Mean
= 7.062
SD
= 1.946
World Values Survey (2004): study SK 1999 18+ aged, general public, Slovakia, 1999 N = 1512
Mean
= 6.025
SD
= 2.220
World Values Survey (2004): study HU 1999 18+ aged, general public, Hungary, 1999 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.696
SD
= 2.440
World Values Survey (2004): study RO 1999 18+ aged, general public, Romania, 1999 N = 1146
Mean
= 5.230
SD
= 2.770
World Values Survey (2004): study BG 1997 18+ aged, general public, Bulgaria, 1997 N = 1072
Mean
= 5.338
SD
= 2.686
World Values Survey (2004): study SI 1999 18+ aged, general public, Slovenia, 1999 N = 1006
Mean
= 7.230
SD
= 2.150
World Values Survey (2004): study HR 1999 18+ aged, general public, Croatia, 1999 N = 1003
Mean
= 6.463
SD
= 2.332
World Values Survey (2004): study BY 2000 18+ aged, general public, Belarus, 2000 N = 1000
Mean
= 4.810
SD
= 2.210
World Values Survey (2004): study UA 1999 18+ aged, general public, Ukraine, 1999 N = 1207
Mean
= 4.562
SD
= 2.596
World Values Survey (2004): study RU 1999 18+ aged, general public, Russia, 1999 N = 2500
Mean
= 4.735
SD
= 2.563
World Values Survey (2004): study AL 2002 18+ aged, general public, Albania, 2002 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.170
SD
= 2.250
World Values Survey (2004): study DZ 2002 18+ aged, general public, Algeria, 2002 N = 1282
Mean
= 5.670
SD
= 2.860
World Values Survey (2004): study AR 1999 18+ aged, general public, Argentina, 1999 N = 1280
Mean
= 7.328
SD
= 2.256
World Values Survey (2004): study BD 2002 18+ aged, general public, Bangladesh, 2002 N = 1499
Mean
= 5.770
SD
= 2.180
World Values Survey (2004): study AM 1997 18+ aged, general public, Armenia, 1997 N = 1500
Mean
= 4.320
SD
= 2.370
World Values Survey (2004): study CA 2000 18+ aged, general public, Canada, 2000 N = 1931
Mean
= 7.797
SD
= 1.860
World Values Survey (2004): study CL 2000 18+ aged, general public, Chile , 2000 N = 1200
Mean
= 7.121
SD
= 2.155
World Values Survey (2004): study CN 2001 18+ aged, general public, China, 2001 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.530
SD
= 2.470
World Values Survey (2004): study SV 1999 18+ aged, general public, El Salvador, 1999 N = 1254
Mean
= 7.500
SD
= 2.430
World Values Survey (2004): study ID 2001 18+ aged, general public, Indonesia, 2001 N = 1004
Mean
= 6.954
SD
= 2.063
World Values Survey (2004): study IR 2000 18+ aged, general public, Iran, 2000 N = 2532
Mean
= 6.375
SD
= 2.414
World Values Survey (2004): study IL 2001 18+ aged, general public, Israel, 2001 N = 1199
Mean
= 7.021
SD
= 2.179
World Values Survey (2004): study JP 2000 18+ aged, general public, Japan, 2000 N = 1362
Mean
= 6.480
SD
= 1.970
World Values Survey (2004): study JO 2001 18+ aged, general public, Jordan, 2001 N = 1223
Mean
= 5.646
SD
= 2.537
World Values Survey (2004): study KR 2001 /1 20+ aged, general public, Korea,(South), 2001 N = 1200
Mean
= 6.213
SD
= 2.323
World Values Survey (2004): study MX 2000 18+ aged, general public, Mexico, 2000 N = 1535
Mean
= 8.128
SD
= 2.402
World Values Survey (2004): study MD 2000 18+ aged, general public, Moldova, 2000 N = 1008
Mean
= 4.573
SD
= 2.316
World Values Survey (2004): study MA 2001 18+ aged, general public, Morocco, 2001 N = 2264
Mean
= 6.050
SD
= 2.556
World Values Survey (2004): study NG 2000 18+ aged, general public, Nigeria, 2000 N = 2022
Mean
= 6.870
SD
= 2.320
World Values Survey (2004): study PK 2001 18+ aged, general public, Pakistan, 2001 N = 2000
Mean
= 4.856
SD
= 1.472
World Values Survey (2004): study PE 2001 18+ aged, general public, Peru, 2001 N = 1501
Mean
= 6.442
SD
= 2.394
World Values Survey (2004): study PR 2001 18+ aged, general public, Puerto Rico, 2001 N = 720
Mean
= 8.492
SD
= 1.964
World Values Survey (2004): study SG 2002 18+ aged, general public, Singapore, 2002 N = 1512
Mean
= 7.131
SD
= 1.720
World Values Survey (2004): study VN 2001 18+ aged, general public, Viet Nam, 2001 N = 995
Mean
= 6.520
SD
= 2.060
World Values Survey (2004): study ZA 2001 18+ aged, general public, South Africa, 2001 N = 3000
Mean
= 5.812
SD
= 2.723
World Values Survey (2004): study ZW 2001 18+ aged, general public, Zimbabwe, 2001 N = 1002
Mean
= 3.938
SD
= 2.737
World Values Survey (2004): study TR 2000 18+ aged, general public, Turkey, 2000 N = 4607
Mean
= 5.625
SD
= 2.796
World Values Survey (2004): study UG 2001 18+ aged, general public, Uganda, 2001 N = 1002
Mean
= 5.618
SD
= 2.467
World Values Survey (2004): study MK 2001 18+ aged, general public, Macedonia, 2001 N = 1055
Mean
= 5.121
SD
= 2.712
World Values Survey (2004): study EG 2000 16+ aged, general public, Egypt, 2000 N = 3000
Mean
= 5.360
SD
= 3.350
World Values Survey (2004): study TZ 2001 18+ aged, general public, Tanzania, 2001 N = 1171
Mean
= 3.870
SD
= 3.220
World Values Survey (2004): study US 1999 18+ aged, general public, United States, 1999 N = 1200
Mean
= 7.657
SD
= 1.838
World Values Survey (2004): study VE 2000 18+ aged, general public, Venezuela, 2000 N = 1200
Mean
= 7.517
SD
= 2.495
World Values Survey (2004): study RS 2001 18+ aged, general public, Serbia, 2001 N = 1200
Mean
= 5.620
SD
= 2.470
World Values Survey (2004): study ME 2001 18+ aged, general public, Montenegro, 2001 N = 1060
Mean
= 5.643
SD
= 2.378
Wohlfahrtssurvey (2000): study DE West Germany 1999 18+ aged, general public, West-Germany region, Germany, 1999 N = 991
Mean
= 7.980
SD
= 1.700
Wohlfahrtssurvey (2000): study DE East Germany 1999 18+ aged, general public, East-Germany, Germany, 1999 N = 891
Mean
= 7.530
SD
= 2.030
World Values Survey (2000): study PH 1996 18+ aged, general public, Philippines, 1996 N = 1500
Mean
= 6.841
SD
= 2.345
World Values Survey (2000): study RO 1990 18+ aged, general public, Romania, 1990 N = 1103
Mean
= 5.879
SD
= 2.332
World Values Survey (2000): study KR 1990 18+ aged, general public, Korea,(South), 1990 N = 1501
Mean
= 6.685
SD
= 2.376
World Values Survey (2004): study PH 2001 18+ aged, general public, Philippines, 2001 N = 1200
Mean
= 6.670
SD
= 2.537
World Values Survey (2004): study CO 1997 18+ aged, general public, Colombia, 1997 N = 3029
Mean
= 8.189
SD
= 2.275
World Values Survey (2004): study GB 1998 18+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 1998 N = 1497
Mean
= 7.593
SD
= 1.928
World Values Survey (2000): study SK 1990 18+ aged, general public, Slovakia, 1990 N = 1491
Mean
= 6.151
SD
= 2.169
World Values Survey (2012): study IQ 2004 18+ aged, general public, Iraq, 2004 N = 2325
Mean
= 5.227
SD
= 2.403
World Values Survey (2004): study AL 1998 18+ aged, general public, Albania, 1998 N = 999
Mean
= 4.765
SD
= 1.820
World Values Survey (2004): study KG 2003 18+ aged, general public, Kyrgyzstan, 2003 N = 1043
Mean
= 6.484
SD
= 2.571
World Values Survey (2004): study SA 2003 18+ aged, general public, Saudi Arabia, 2003 N = 1502
Mean
= 7.278
SD
= 2.274
World Values Survey (2004): study AT 1999 18+ aged, general public, Austria, 1999 N = 1522
Mean
= 8.021
SD
= 1.905
World Values Survey (2004): study DE 1997 18+ aged, general public, Germany, 1997 N = 1017
Mean
= 7.609
SD
= 1.790
World Values Survey (2004): study HU 1998 18+ aged, general public, Hungary, 1998 N = 650
Mean
= 5.859
SD
= 2.273
World Values Survey (2004): study NZ 1998 18+ aged, general public, New Zealand, 1998 N = 1201
Mean
= 7.704
SD
= 2.028
World Values Survey (2004): study RO 1998 18+ aged, general public, Romania, 1998 N = 1239
Mean
= 4.859
SD
= 2.472
World Values Survey (2004): study SK 1998 18+ aged, general public, Slovakia, 1998 N = 1095
Mean
= 6.069
SD
= 2.238
Inglehart et al. (2008): study CO 2005 18+ aged, general public, Colombia, 2005 N = 3025
Mean
= 8.299
SD
= 1.947
Inglehart et al. (2008): study AR 2006 18+ aged, general public, Argentina, 2006 N = 995
Mean
= 7.787
SD
= 1.908
Inglehart et al. (2008): study AU 2005 18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2005 N = 1411
Mean
= 7.283
SD
= 1.812
Inglehart et al. (2008): study BR 2006 18+ aged, general public, Brazil, 2006 N = 1495
Mean
= 7.651
SD
= 2.097
Inglehart et al. (2008): study BG 2006 18+ aged, general public, Bulgaria, 2006 N = 1001
Mean
= 5.218
SD
= 2.274
Inglehart et al. (2008): study CL 2005 18+ aged, general public, Chile , 2005 N = 992
Mean
= 7.159
SD
= 2.035
Inglehart et al. (2008): study CN 2007 18+ aged, general public, China, 2007 N = 2015
Mean
= 6.757
SD
= 2.403
Inglehart et al. (2008): study FI 2005 18+ aged, general public, Finland, 2005 N = 1014
Mean
= 7.838
SD
= 1.746
Inglehart et al. (2008): study FR 2006 18+ aged, general public, France, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.911
SD
= 1.902
Inglehart et al. (2008): study EG 2006 18+ aged, general public, Egypt, 2006 N = 3050
Mean
= 5.742
SD
= 2.690
Inglehart et al. (2008): study DE West Germany 2006 18+ aged, general public, West-Germany, Germany, 2006 N = 1076
Mean
= 7.394
SD
= 1.666
Inglehart et al. (2008): study GB 2006 18+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 2006 N = 1038
Mean
= 7.598
SD
= 1.607
Inglehart et al. (2008): study IT 2005 18+ aged, general public, Italy, 2005 N = 1012
Mean
= 6.885
SD
= 1.742
Inglehart et al. (2008): study MX 2005 18+ aged, general public, Mexico, 2005 N = 1560
Mean
= 8.226
SD
= 2.052
Inglehart et al. (2008): study MD 2006 18+ aged, general public, Moldova, 2006 N = 1046
Mean
= 5.450
SD
= 2.262
Inglehart et al. (2008): study NL 2006 18+ aged, general public, Netherlands, 2006 N = 1049
Mean
= 7.755
SD
= 1.331
Inglehart et al. (2008): study PL 2005 18+ aged, general public, Poland, 2005 N = 989
Mean
= 7.022
SD
= 2.081
Inglehart et al. (2008): study RO 2005 18+ aged, general public, Romania, 2005 N = 1776
Mean
= 5.753
SD
= 2.383
Inglehart et al. (2008): study RU 2005 18+ aged, general public, Russia, 2005 N = 2033
Mean
= 6.098
SD
= 2.435
Inglehart et al. (2008): study RS 2006 18+ aged, general public, Serbia, 2006 N = 1220
Mean
= 6.006
SD
= 2.087
Inglehart et al. (2008): study SI 2005 18+ aged, general public, Slovenia, 2005 N = 1037
Mean
= 7.241
SD
= 1.953
Inglehart et al. (2008): study ZA 2007 18+ aged, general public, South Africa, 2007 N = 2988
Mean
= 7.024
SD
= 2.404
Inglehart et al. (2008): study KR 2005 18+ aged, general public, Korea,(South), 2005 N = 1198
Mean
= 6.354
SD
= 1.938
Inglehart et al. (2008): study ES 2007 18+ aged, general public, Spain, 2007 N = 1195
Mean
= 7.320
SD
= 1.502
Inglehart et al. (2008): study SE 2006 18+ aged, general public, Sweden, 2006 N = 1003
Mean
= 7.739
SD
= 1.603
Inglehart et al. (2008): study CH 2007 18+ aged, general public, Switzerland, 2007 N = 1241
Mean
= 8.008
SD
= 1.580
Inglehart et al. (2008): study TW 2006 18+ aged, general public, Taiwan, 2006 N = 1227
Mean
= 6.582
SD
= 2.063
Inglehart et al. (2008): study TR 2007 18+ aged, general public, Turkey, 2007 N = 1346
Mean
= 7.458
SD
= 2.229
Inglehart et al. (2008): study UA 2006 18+ aged, general public, Ukraine, 2006 N = 995
Mean
= 5.667
SD
= 2.358
Inglehart et al. (2008): study US 2006 18+ aged, general public, United States, 2006 N = 1249
Mean
= 7.320
SD
= 1.722
Inglehart et al. (2008): study BF 2005 18+ aged, general public, Burkina Faso, 2005 N = 1534
Mean
= 5.571
SD
= 2.181
Inglehart et al. (2008): study AD 2005 18+ aged, general public, Andorra, 2005 N = 1003
Mean
= 7.136
SD
= 1.621
Inglehart et al. (2008): study CY 2005 18+ aged, general public, Cyprus, 2005 N = 1050
Mean
= 7.371
SD
= 1.980
Inglehart et al. (2008): study ZM 2005 18+ aged, general public, Zambia, 2005 N = 1463
Mean
= 6.059
SD
= 2.494
Inglehart et al. (2008): study ET 2005 18+ aged, general public, Ethiopia, 2005 N = 1490
Mean
= 4.990
SD
= 2.010
Inglehart et al. (2008): study GH 2005 18+ aged, general public, Ghana, 2005 N = 1534
Mean
= 6.122
SD
= 2.629
Inglehart et al. (2008): study HK 2005 18+ aged, general public, Hong Kong, 2005 N = 1252
Mean
= 6.408
SD
= 1.928
Inglehart et al. (2008): study ID 2005 18+ aged, general public, Indonesia, 2005 N = 2015
Mean
= 6.908
SD
= 2.157
Inglehart et al. (2008): study DE East Germany 2005 18+ aged, general public,East-Germany, Germany, 2005 N = 1069
Mean
= 6.881
SD
= 2.009
Inglehart et al. (2008): study IQ 2005 18+ aged, general public, Iraq, 2005 N = 2701
Mean
= 4.461
SD
= 2.417
Inglehart et al. (2008): study JP 2005 18+ aged, general public, Japan, 2005 N = 1096
Mean
= 6.993
SD
= 1.807
Inglehart et al. (2008): study IR 2005 18+ aged, general public, Iran, 2005 N = 2667
Mean
= 6.424
SD
= 2.403
Inglehart et al. (2008): study MY 2005 18+ aged, general public, Malaysia, 2005 N = 1201
Mean
= 6.844
SD
= 1.784
Inglehart et al. (2008): study JO 2005 18+ aged, general public, Jordan, 2005 N = 1196
Mean
= 7.120
SD
= 2.864
Inglehart et al. (2008): study PE 2005 18+ aged, general public, Peru, 2005 N = 1489
Mean
= 7.037
SD
= 2.234
Inglehart et al. (2008): study TH 2005 18+ aged, general public, Thailand, 2005 N = 1534
Mean
= 7.214
SD
= 1.805
Inglehart et al. (2008): study TT 2005 18+ aged, general public, Trinidad and Tobago, 2005 N = 1002
Mean
= 7.324
SD
= 2.158
Inglehart et al. (2008): study MA 2005 18+ aged, general public, Morocco, 2005 N = 1197
Mean
= 5.244
SD
= 1.801
Inglehart et al. (2008): study ML 2005 18+ aged, general public, Mali, 2005 N = 1534
Mean
= 6.094
SD
= 2.593
Inglehart et al. (2008): study VN 2005 18+ aged, general public, Viet Nam, 2005 N = 1495
Mean
= 7.094
SD
= 1.891
Inglehart et al. (2008): study RW 2005 18+ aged, general public, Rwanda, 2005 N = 1507
Mean
= 4.966
SD
= 2.110
World Values Survey (2004): study DZ Alger 2002 18+ aged, general public, Alger region, Algeria, 2002 N = 351
Mean
= 5.347
SD
= 2.842
World Values Survey (2004): study DZ Oran 2002 18+ aged, general public, Oran region, Algeria, 2002 N = 173
Mean
= 5.837
SD
= 2.774
World Values Survey (2004): study DZ Tlemcen 2002 18+ aged, general public, Tlemcen region, Algeria, 2002 N = 119
Mean
= 5.891
SD
= 2.982
World Values Survey (2004): study DZ Batna 2002 18+ aged, general public, Batna region, Algeria, 2002 N = 133
Mean
= 5.236
SD
= 2.875
World Values Survey (2004): study DZ Setif 2002 18+ aged, general public, Setif region, Algeria, 2002 N = 187
Mean
= 5.065
SD
= 2.682
World Values Survey (2004): study AD Encamp 2005 18+ aged, general public, Encamp region, Andorra, 2005 N = 154
Mean
= 7.302
SD
= 1.484
World Values Survey (2004): study AD Andorra la Vella 2002 18+ aged, general public, La Vella region, Andorra, 2002 N = 366
Mean
= 6.941
SD
= 1.685
World Values Survey (2004): study AD Escaldes-Engordany 2005 18+ aged, general public, Escaldes-Engordany region, Andorra, 2005 N = 215
Mean
= 7.060
SD
= 1.711
World Values Survey (2004): study AL AL Center 1998 18+ aged, general public, Center Albania, 1998 N = 492
Mean
= 5.348
SD
= 2.129
World Values Survey (2004): study AL AL North 1998 18+ aged, general public, North Albania, 1998 N = 431
Mean
= 4.675
SD
= 2.047
World Values Survey (2004): study AL Tirana 1998 18+ aged, general public, Tirana, Albania, 1998 N = 314
Mean
= 5.009
SD
= 1.927
World Values Survey (2004): study AL AL South 1998 Region in nation, 18+ aged, general public, South, Albania, 1998 N = 710
Mean
= 4.869
SD
= 2.054
World Values Survey (2004): study AZ Baku 1997 18+ aged general public, Baku region, Azerbaijan, 1997 N = 640
Mean
= 5.429
SD
= 2.552
World Values Survey (2004): study AZ Giandja 1997 18+ aged general public, Giandja region, Azerbaijan, 1997 N = 207
Mean
= 4.643
SD
= 1.441
World Values Survey (2004): study AZ Kazakh 1997 18+ aged general public, Kazakh region, Azerbaijan, 1997 N = 206
Mean
= 5.512
SD
= 2.201
World Values Survey (2004): study AZ Sheki 1997 18+ aged general public, Sheki region, Azerbaijan, 1997 N = 212
Mean
= 4.609
SD
= 1.872
World Values Survey (2004): study AZ Shemakha 1997 18+ aged, general public, Shemakha region, Azerbaijan, 1997 N = 148
Mean
= 5.740
SD
= 1.236
World Values Survey (2004): study AZ AZ Lenkoran 1997 18+ aged general public, Lenkoran region,Azerbaijan, 1997 N = 267
Mean
= 5.121
SD
= 2.348
World Values Survey (2004): study AZ Saliani 1997 18+ aged general public, Saliani region, Azerbaijan, 1997 N = 165
Mean
= 6.621
SD
= 2.842
World Values Survey (2004): study AZ AZ Cuba 1997 18+ aged general public, Cuba region, Azerbaijan, 1997 N = 118
Mean
= 6.161
SD
= 1.678
World Values Survey (2004): study AR Buenos Aires 1981 18+ aged, general public, City of Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1981 N = 1288
Mean
= 6.787
SD
= 2.082
World Values Survey (2004): study AR Gran Buenos Aires 1981 18+ aged, general public, Gran Buenos Aires region, Argentina, 1981 N = 1315
Mean
= 7.224
SD
= 2.140
World Values Survey (2004): study AR 1981 18+ aged, general public, Argentina, 1981 N = 312
Mean
= 6.883
SD
= 2.071
World Values Survey (2004): study AR AR Rosario 1981 18+ aged general public, Rosario region, Argentina, 1981 N = 300
Mean
= 7.521
SD
= 2.128
World Values Survey (2004): study AR Mendosa 1981 18+ aged, general public, City of Mendosa, Argentina, 1981 N = 206
Mean
= 6.928
SD
= 2.669
World Values Survey (2004): study AR AR Interior 1981 18+ aged, general public, Interior region, Argentina, 1981 N = 497
Mean
= 7.898
SD
= 1.851
World Values Survey (2004): study AU New South Wales and ACT(Australian Capital Territory) 1981 18+ aged general public, New South Wales and ACT(Australian Capital Territory) region, Australia, 1981 N = 717
Mean
= 7.471
SD
= 1.918
World Values Survey (2004): study AU AU Victoria 1981 18+ aged general public, Victoria region, Australia, 1981 N = 878
Mean
= 7.315
SD
= 1.910
World Values Survey (2004): study AU Queensland 1981 18+ aged, general public, Queensland region, Australia, 1981 N = 573
Mean
= 7.497
SD
= 1.817
World Values Survey (2004): study AU South Australia 1981 18+ aged general public, South Australia region, Australia, 1981 N = 310
Mean
= 7.601
SD
= 1.748
World Values Survey (2004): study AU Western Australia 1981 18+ aged general public, Western Australia region, Australia, 1981 N = 358
Mean
= 7.482
SD
= 1.908
World Values Survey (2004): study AU New South Wales 1981 18+ aged general public, New South Wales region, Australia, 1981 N = 452
Mean
= 7.331
SD
= 1.782
World Values Survey (2004): study BD Dhaka (Dhaka bibhag) 1996 18+ aged general public, Dhaka (Dhaka bibhag) region, Bangladesh, 1996 N = 275
Mean
= 6.189
SD
= 2.168
World Values Survey (2004): study BD Chittagong (Chittagong bibhag) 1996 18+ aged general public, Chittagong (Chittagong bibhag) region, Bangladesh, 1996 N = 198
Mean
= 6.478
SD
= 2.239
World Values Survey (2004): study BD Barisal (Barisal bibhag) 1996 18+ aged general public, Barisal (Barisal bibhag) region, Bangladesh, 1996 N = 182
Mean
= 5.744
SD
= 1.733
World Values Survey (2004): study BD Mymensingh (Dhaka bibhag) 1996 18+ aged, general public, Mymensingh (Dhaka bibhag) region, Bangladesh, 1996 N = 196
Mean
= 5.272
SD
= 2.273
World Values Survey (2004): study BD Tangail (Dhaka bibhag) 1996 18+ aged, general public, Tangail (Dhaka bibhag) region, Bangladesh, 1996 N = 154
Mean
= 6.459
SD
= 2.821
World Values Survey (2004): study BD Faridpur (Dhaka bibhag) 1996 18+ aged general public, Faridpur (Dhaka bibhag) region, Bangladesh, 1996 N = 131
Mean
= 5.505
SD
= 1.698
World Values Survey (2004): study BD Kishorenganj (Dhaka bibhag) 1996 18+ aged, general public, Kishorenganj (Dhaka bibhag) region, Bangladesh, 1996 N = 141
Mean
= 6.560
SD
= 2.022
World Values Survey (2004): study BD Feni (Chittagong bibhag) 1996 18+ aged general public, Feni (Chittagong bibhag) region, Bangladesh, 1996 N = 234
Mean
= 6.112
SD
= 2.343
World Values Survey (2004): study BD Brahmanbaria (Chittagong bibhag) 1996 18+ aged general public, Brahmanbaria (Chittagong bibhag) region, Bangladesh, 1996 N = 148
Mean
= 7.107
SD
= 2.591
World Values Survey (2004): study BD Sylhet (Sylhet bibhag) 1996 18+ aged, general public, Sylhet (Sylhet bibhag) region, Bangladesh, 1996 N = 157
Mean
= 6.152
SD
= 1.758
World Values Survey (2004): study BD Rajshahi (Rajshahi bibhag) 1996 18+ aged, general public, Rajshahi (Rajshahi bibhag) region, Bangladesh, 1996 N = 129
Mean
= 6.297
SD
= 2.876
World Values Survey (2004): study BD Siragonj (Rajshahi bibhag) 1996 18+ aged, general public, Siragonj (Rajshahi bibhag) region, Bangladesh, 1996 N = 131
Mean
= 5.445
SD
= 2.214
World Values Survey (2004): study AM Erevan 1997 18+ aged, general public, Erevan region, Armenia, 1997 N = 664
Mean
= 4.102
SD
= 2.493
World Values Survey (2004): study AM Shirak Masrz 1997 18+ aged, general public, Shirak Masrz region, Armenia, 1997 N = 190
Mean
= 4.486
SD
= 2.161
World Values Survey (2004): study AM Lori Marz 1997 18+ aged, general public, Lori Marz region, Armenia, 1997 N = 205
Mean
= 4.092
SD
= 2.178
World Values Survey (2004): study AM Kotayk Marz 1997 18+ aged, general public, Kotayk Marz region, Armenia, 1997 N = 174
Mean
= 5.483
SD
= 2.143
World Values Survey (2004): study AM Ghegharkunic Marz 1997 18+ aged, general public, Ghegharkunic Marz region, Armenia, 1997 N = 147
Mean
= 3.572
SD
= 2.200
World Values Survey (2004): study AM Ararat Marz 1997 Region in nation, 18+ aged, general public, Ararat Marz, Armenia, 1997 N = 155
Mean
= 3.654
SD
= 2.635
World Values Survey (2004): study AM Armavir 1997 18+ aged general public, Armavir region, Armenia, 1997 N = 168
Mean
= 5.488
SD
= 2.021
World Values Survey (2004): study BA BA Srpska 1998 18+ aged general public, Srpska region, Bosnia Herzegovina, 1998 N = 799
Mean
= 4.970
SD
= 2.351
World Values Survey (2004): study BA BA Bosnia Federation 1998 18+ aged, general public, Bosnia Federation region, Bosnia Herzegovina, 1998 N = 1598
Mean
= 5.932
SD
= 2.219
World Values Survey (2004): study BR BR Sul, South 1998 18+ aged, general public, Sul, South region, Brazil, 1998 N = 414
Mean
= 7.370
SD
= 2.248
World Values Survey (2004): study BR 1998 18+ aged, general public, Brazil, 1998 N = 1471
Mean
= 7.271
SD
= 2.513
World Values Survey (2004): study BR BR Nordeste, North East 1998 18+ aged, general public, Nordeste, North East region, Brazil, 1998 N = 268
Mean
= 7.114
SD
= 2.872
World Values Survey (2004): study BR BR North West 1998 18+ aged, general public, North West region, Brazil, 1998 N = 523
Mean
= 7.469
SD
= 2.445
World Values Survey (2004): study BR Minas Gerais 1998 18+ aged, general public, Minas Gerais region, Brazil, 1998 N = 230
Mean
= 7.655
SD
= 1.841
World Values Survey (2004): study BR Rio de Janeiro 1998 18+ aged, general public, Rio de Janeiro region, Brazil, 1998 N = 190
Mean
= 7.704
SD
= 1.960
World Values Survey (2004): study BR São Paulo 1998 18+ aged, general public, São Paulo region, Brazil, 1998 N = 428
Mean
= 7.451
SD
= 2.273
World Values Survey (2004): study BG Varna 1990 18+ aged, general public, Varna region, Bulgaria, 1990 N = 213
Mean
= 5.005
SD
= 2.361
World Values Survey (2004): study BG Lovech 1990 18+ aged, general public, Lovech region, Bulgaria, 1990 N = 126
Mean
= 4.564
SD
= 2.292
World Values Survey (2004): study BG Montana 1990 18+ aged, general public, Montana region, Bulgaria, 1990 N = 150
Mean
= 4.560
SD
= 1.883
World Values Survey (2004): study BG Plovdiv 1990 18+ aged, general public, Plovdiv region, Bulgaria, 1990 N = 282
Mean
= 4.931
SD
= 2.495
World Values Survey (2004): study BG Sofia 2005 18+ aged, general public, City of Sofia, Bulgaria, 2005 N = 268
Mean
= 5.165
SD
= 2.111
World Values Survey (2004): study BG Haskovo 1990 18+ aged, general public, Hakovo region, Bulgaria, 1990 N = 216
Mean
= 5.286
SD
= 2.418
World Values Survey (2004): study BG Burgaska, Bourgas, Burgas 1990 18+ aged, general public, Burgaska, Bourgas region, Bulgaria, 1990 N = 203
Mean
= 4.684
SD
= 2.714
World Values Survey (2004): study BG Sofia Province 1990 18+ aged, general public, Sofia Province, Bulgaria, 1990 N = 228
Mean
= 4.946
SD
= 2.144
World Values Survey (2004): study BY Minsk and Minsk Oblast 1990 18+ aged, general public, Minsk and Minsk region, Belarus, 1990 N = 345
Mean
= 4.570
SD
= 2.268
World Values Survey (2004): study BY Minsk oblast 1990 18+ aged, general public, Minsk region, Belarus, 1990 N = 313
Mean
= 4.068
SD
= 2.080
World Values Survey (2004): study BY Brest oblast 1990 18+ aged, general public, Brest region, Belarus, 1990 N = 316
Mean
= 4.024
SD
= 1.776
World Values Survey (2004): study BY Vitebsk oblast 1990 18+ aged, general public, Vitebsk region, Belarus, 1990 N = 273
Mean
= 4.623
SD
= 2.326
World Values Survey (2004): study BY Gomel oblast 1990 18+ aged, general public, Gomel region, Belarus, 1990 N = 322
Mean
= 4.695
SD
= 2.379
World Values Survey (2004): study BY Grodno oblast 1990 18+ aged, general public, Grodno region, Belarus, 1990 N = 246
Mean
= 4.380
SD
= 2.339
World Values Survey (2004): study BY Mogilev oblast 1990 18+ aged, general public, Mogilev region, Belarus, 1990 N = 257
Mean
= 4.045
SD
= 1.998
World Values Survey (2004): study CA Nova Scotia 1982 18+ aged, general public, Nova Scotia region, Canada, 1982 N = 397
Mean
= 7.918
SD
= 1.650
World Values Survey (2004): study CA Quebec 1982 18+ aged, general public, Quebec, Canada, 1982-2005 N = 1038
Mean
= 7.774
SD
= 1.827
World Values Survey (2004): study CA Ontario 1982 18+ aged, general public, Ontario region, Canada, 1982 N = 991
Mean
= 7.757
SD
= 1.782
World Values Survey (2004): study CA Manitoba 1982 18+ aged, general public, Manitoba region, Canada, 1982 N = 131
Mean
= 7.966
SD
= 1.572
World Values Survey (2004): study CA Saskatchewan 1982 18+ aged, general public, Saskatchewan region, Canada, 1982 N = 134
Mean
= 7.744
SD
= 1.460
World Values Survey (2004): study CA Alberta 1982 18+ aged, general public, Alberta region, Canada, 1982 N = 316
Mean
= 7.711
SD
= 1.550
World Values Survey (2004): study CA British Columbia 1982 18+ aged, general public, British Columbia region, Canada, 1982 N = 430
Mean
= 7.755
SD
= 1.784
World Values Survey (2004): study CL CL Norte 1990 18+ aged, general public, Norte, Chile , 1990-2005 N = 466
Mean
= 6.943
SD
= 2.094
World Values Survey (2004): study CL CL Centro 1990 18+ aged, general public, Centro, Chile, 1990-2005 N = 448
Mean
= 7.290
SD
= 2.163
World Values Survey (2004): study CL CL Sur 1990 18+ aged, general public, Sur, Chile, 1990-2005 N = 692
Mean
= 7.034
SD
= 2.099
World Values Survey (2004): study CL Región Metropolitana de Santiago 1990 18+ aged, general public, Región Metropolitana de Santiago, Chile, 1990-2005 N = 2272
Mean
= 7.203
SD
= 2.155
World Values Survey (2004): study CL Valparaiso (V Región: Valparaíso. Quilpue, Villa Alemana, Viña del Mar) 1990 18+ aged, general public, Valparaiso, Chile, 1990-2005 N = 189
Mean
= 7.823
SD
= 2.016
World Values Survey (2004): study CN Beijing 1990 18+ aged, general public, Beijing, China, 1990-2005 N = 190
Mean
= 7.390
SD
= 1.930
World Values Survey (2004): study CN Hebei 1990 18+ aged, general public, Hebei, China, 1990-2005 N = 140
Mean
= 6.412
SD
= 2.306
World Values Survey (2004): study CN Liaoning 1990 18+ aged, general public, Liaoning, China, 1990-2005 N = 245
Mean
= 7.061
SD
= 2.439
World Values Survey (2004): study CN Jilin 1990 18+ aged, general public, Jilin, China, 1990-2005 N = 124
Mean
= 7.115
SD
= 2.191
World Values Survey (2004): study CN Heilongjiang 1990 18+ aged, general public, Heilongjiang, China, 1990-2005 N = 150
Mean
= 6.717
SD
= 2.580
World Values Survey (2004): study CN Shanghai 1990 18+ aged, general public, Shanghai, China, 1990-2005 N = 191
Mean
= 7.206
SD
= 2.007
World Values Survey (2004): study CN Jiangsu 1990 18+ aged, general public, Jiangsu, China, 1990-2005 N = 200
Mean
= 6.741
SD
= 2.542
World Values Survey (2004): study CN Anhui 1990 18+ aged, general public, Anhui, China, 1990-2005 N = 153
Mean
= 7.203
SD
= 2.381
World Values Survey (2004): study CN Fujian 1990 18+ aged, general public, Fujian, China, 1990-2005 N = 196
Mean
= 6.621
SD
= 2.069
World Values Survey (2004): study CN Jiangxi 1990 18+ aged, general public, Jiangxi, China, 1990-2005 N = 157
Mean
= 6.319
SD
= 2.286
World Values Survey (2004): study CN Shangdong 1990 18+ aged, general public, Shangdong, China, 1990-2005 N = 366
Mean
= 7.409
SD
= 2.211
World Values Survey (2004): study CN Henan 1990 18+ aged, general public, Henan, China, 1990-2005 N = 175
Mean
= 6.629
SD
= 2.423
World Values Survey (2004): study CN Hubei 1990 18+ aged, general public, Hubei, China, 1990-2005 N = 281
Mean
= 7.375
SD
= 2.085
World Values Survey (2004): study CN Guangdong 1990 18+ aged, general public, Guangdong, China, 1990-2005 N = 157
Mean
= 5.665
SD
= 2.428
World Values Survey (2004): study CN Guizhou 1990 18+ aged, general public, Guizhou, China, 1990-2005 N = 137
Mean
= 6.036
SD
= 2.562
World Values Survey (2004): study CN Yunnan 1990 18+ aged, general public, Yunnan, China, 1990-2005 N = 178
Mean
= 5.734
SD
= 2.736
World Values Survey (2004): study CN Shaanxi 1990 18+ aged, general public, Shaanxi, China, 1990-2005 N = 210
Mean
= 7.219
SD
= 2.172
World Values Survey (2004): study CN CN North 1990 18+ aged, general public, North hina, China, 1990-2005 N = 260
Mean
= 6.999
SD
= 2.524
World Values Survey (2004): study CN CN Center 1990 18+ aged, general public, Central China, China, 1990-2005 N = 134
Mean
= 7.095
SD
= 2.488
World Values Survey (2004): study CN CN South 1990 18+ aged, general public, South China, China, 1990-2005 N = 398
Mean
= 6.700
SD
= 2.271
World Values Survey (2004): study CN CN East 1990 18+ aged, general public, East China, China, 1990-2005 N = 314
Mean
= 6.479
SD
= 2.323
World Values Survey (2004): study CN Xinjiang (autonomous region) 1990 18+ aged, general public, Xinjiang, China, 1990-2005 N = 112
Mean
= 7.507
SD
= 1.930
World Values Survey (2004): study TW TW North 1994 18+ aged, general public, TW North, Taiwan, 1994 N = 659
Mean
= 6.718
SD
= 1.892
World Values Survey (2004): study TW TW Center 1994 18+ aged, general public, TW Center, Taiwan, 1994 N = 488
Mean
= 6.440
SD
= 2.208
World Values Survey (2004): study TW TW South 1994 18+ aged, general public, TW South, Taiwan, 1994 N = 650
Mean
= 6.464
SD
= 2.051
World Values Survey (2004): study TW TW East 1994 18+ aged, general public, TW East, Taiwan, 1994 N = 207
Mean
= 6.536
SD
= 2.137
World Values Survey (2004): study CO CO Atlántica 1997 18+ aged, general public, Atlántica, Colombia, 1997-2005 N = 1383
Mean
= 8.365
SD
= 1.871
World Values Survey (2004): study CO Centro Oriental 1997 18+ aged, general public, Centro Oriental region, Colombia, 1997 N = 1759
Mean
= 8.290
SD
= 1.804
World Values Survey (2004): study CO CO Central 1997 18+ aged, general public, , Colombia, 1997-2005 N = 722
Mean
= 8.623
SD
= 1.626
World Values Survey (2004): study CO CO Pacifica 1997 18+ aged, general public, Pacifica, Colombia, 1997-2005 N = 663
Mean
= 8.240
SD
= 1.856
World Values Survey (2004): study CO CO Bogotá 1997 18+ aged, general public, Bogotá, Colombia, 1997-2005 N = 688
Mean
= 8.251
SD
= 1.711
World Values Survey (2004): study CO CO Orinoquia 1997 18+ aged, general public, Orinoquia, Colombia, 1997-2005 N = 170
Mean
= 8.486
SD
= 1.723
World Values Survey (2004): study CO CO Amazonia 1997 18+ aged, general public, Amazonia, Colombia, 1997-2005 N = 142
Mean
= 8.067
SD
= 2.230
World Values Survey (2004): study CO CO Occodente 1997 18+ aged, general public, Occodente, Colombia, 1997-2005 N = 486
Mean
= 8.605
SD
= 1.852
World Values Survey (2004): study CZ Praha (Prague) 1990 18+ aged, general public, City of Prague, Czech Republic, 1990 N = 209
Mean
= 6.770
SD
= 1.879
World Values Survey (2004): study CZ Stredoceský kraj (Central Bohemia) 1990 18+ aged, general public, Støedoèeský kraj (Central Bohemia), Czech Republic, 1990-1999 N = 209
Mean
= 6.494
SD
= 1.953
World Values Survey (2004): study CZ Západoèeský kraj (West Bohemia) 1990 18+ aged, general public, Západoèeský kraj (West Bohemia), Czech Republic, 1990-1999 N = 204
Mean
= 6.480
SD
= 2.258
World Values Survey (2004): study CZ Východoèeský kraj (Visocina) (East Bohemia) 1990 18+ aged, general public, Východoèeský kraj (East Bohemia), Czech Republic, 1990 N = 226
Mean
= 6.347
SD
= 1.987
World Values Survey (2004): study CZ Jihoèeský kraj ( South Bohemia) 1990 18+ aged, general public, Jihoèeský kraj (South Bohemia), Czech Republic, 1990-199 N = 149
Mean
= 6.460
SD
= 2.092
World Values Survey (2004): study CZ Severoèeský kraj (North Bohemia) 1990 18+ aged, general public, Severoèeský kraj (North Bohemia), Czech Republic, 1990-1999 N = 242
Mean
= 6.262
SD
= 2.292
World Values Survey (2004): study CZ Jihomoravský kraj (South Moravia) 1990 18+ aged, general public, Jihomoravský kraj (South Moravia), Czech Republic, 1990-1999 N = 435
Mean
= 6.236
SD
= 2.024
World Values Survey (2004): study CZ Severomoravský kraj (North Moravia) 1990 18+ aged, general public, Severomoravský kraj (North Moravia), Czech Republic, 1990-1999 N = 387
Mean
= 6.284
SD
= 2.117
World Values Survey (2004): study DO DO Distrito Nacional 1996 18+ aged, general public, DO Distrito Nacional region, Dominican Republic, 1996 N = 272
Mean
= 7.169
SD
= 2.349
World Values Survey (2004): study SV SV La Libertad 1999 18+ aged, general public, SV La Libertad, El Salvador, 1999 N = 120
Mean
= 7.703
SD
= 2.238
World Values Survey (2004): study SV SV San Salvador 1999 18+ aged, general public, SV San Salvador, El Salvador, 1999 N = 379
Mean
= 7.496
SD
= 2.355
World Values Survey (2004): study ET Oromiya 2005 18+ aged, general public, Oromiya region, Ethiopia, 2005 N = 561
Mean
= 5.245
SD
= 1.986
World Values Survey (2004): study ET Amhara 2005 18+ aged, general public, Amhara region, Ethiopia, 2005 N = 438
Mean
= 4.774
SD
= 2.036
World Values Survey (2004): study ET ET SNNP Southern Nations, Nationalities and People's (South south-western) 2005 18+ aged, general public, SNNP Southern Nations, Nationalities and People's (South south-western) region, Ethiopia, 2005 N = 308
Mean
= 4.410
SD
= 1.987
World Values Survey (2004): study EE Talinn (Harjumaa) 1990 18+ aged, general public, Talinn (Harjumaa) region, Estonia, 1990-1999 N = 357
Mean
= 5.036
SD
= 2.421
World Values Survey (2004): study FI Uusimaa (region around Helsinki) 1990 18+ aged, general public, Finland, 1990-2005 N = 258
Mean
= 7.840
SD
= 1.843
World Values Survey (2004): study FI Uudenmaan (in Southern Finland) 1990 18+ aged, general public, Uudenmaan (in Southern Finland) region, Finland, 1990-2005 N = 231
Mean
= 7.778
SD
= 1.602
World Values Survey (2004): study FI Turun ja Porin 1990 18+ aged, general public, Turun ja Porin region, Finland, 1990-2005 N = 171
Mean
= 7.506
SD
= 1.842
World Values Survey (2004): study FI Hämeen (in Southern Finland, in Päijänne Tavastland) 1990 18+ aged, general public, Hämeen (in Southern Finland, in Päijänne Tavastland) region, Finland, 1990-2005 N = 141
Mean
= 7.753
SD
= 1.270
World Values Survey (2004): study FR FR Ouest, West 1981 18+ aged, general public, FR Ouest, West region, France, 1981-2005 N = 135
Mean
= 6.688
SD
= 1.902
World Values Survey (2004): study FR Île de France (Paris) 1981 18+ aged, general public, Île de France (Paris) region, France, 1981-2005 N = 186
Mean
= 6.999
SD
= 2.024
World Values Survey (2004): study GE Tblissi 1996 18+ aged, general public, Tblissi region, Georgia, 1996-2005 N = 911
Mean
= 4.830
SD
= 2.469
World Values Survey (2004): study GE Shida Karti 1996 18+ aged, general public, Shida Karti region, Georgia, 1996-2005 N = 308
Mean
= 4.954
SD
= 2.609
World Values Survey (2004): study GE Kvemo Kartli 1996 18+ aged, general public, Kvemo Kartli region, Georgia, 1996 N = 341
Mean
= 4.434
SD
= 2.326
World Values Survey (2004): study GE Kakheti 1996 18+ aged, general public, Kakheti region, Georgia, 1996-2005 N = 338
Mean
= 4.198
SD
= 2.377
World Values Survey (2004): study GE Imereti 1996 18+ aged, general public, Imereti region, Georgia, 1996-2005 N = 881
Mean
= 4.892
SD
= 2.702
World Values Survey (2004): study GE Samegreio 1996 18+ aged, general public, Samegreio region, Georgia, 1996-2005 N = 157
Mean
= 5.252
SD
= 2.157
World Values Survey (2004): study GE Imereti/Racha 1996 18+ aged, general public, Imereti/Racha region, Georgia, 1996-2005 N = 263
Mean
= 5.717
SD
= 2.107
World Values Survey (2004): study DE Niedersachsen 2005 18+ aged, general public, Niedersachsen region, Germany, 2005 N = 240
Mean
= 7.211
SD
= 1.718
World Values Survey (2004): study DE Nordrhein-Westfalen 2005 18+ aged, general public, Nordrhein-Westfalen region, Germany, 2005 N = 544
Mean
= 7.207
SD
= 1.887
World Values Survey (2004): study DE Hessen 2005 18+ aged, general public, Hessen region, Germany, 2005 N = 155
Mean
= 7.118
SD
= 1.899
World Values Survey (2004): study DE Rheinland -Pfalz 2005 18+ aged, general public, Rheinland -Pfalz region, Germany, 2005 N = 129
Mean
= 7.368
SD
= 1.566
World Values Survey (2004): study DE Baden-Wurttemberg 2005 18+ aged, general public, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany, 1981-2005 N = 309
Mean
= 7.378
SD
= 1.859
World Values Survey (2004): study DE Bayern 2005 18+ aged, general public, Bayern, Germany, 1981-2005 N = 356
Mean
= 7.242
SD
= 1.721
World Values Survey (2004): study DE Berlin 2005 18+ aged, general public, Berlin, Germany, 1981-2005 N = 101
Mean
= 7.362
SD
= 1.467
World Values Survey (2004): study DE Brandenburg 2005 18+ aged, general public, Brandenburg, Germany, 1981-2005 N = 370
Mean
= 6.813
SD
= 2.011
World Values Survey (2004): study DE Mecklenburg-Vorpommern 2005 18+ aged, general public, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern region, Germany, 2005 N = 274
Mean
= 6.817
SD
= 2.186
World Values Survey (2004): study DE Sachsen 2005 18+ aged, general public, Sachsen region, Germany, 2005 N = 608
Mean
= 6.871
SD
= 1.920
World Values Survey (2004): study DE Sachsen-Anhalt 2005 18+ aged, general public, Sachsen-Anhalt region, Germany, 2005 N = 344
Mean
= 6.633
SD
= 2.017
World Values Survey (2004): study DE Thueringen 2005 18+ aged, general public, Thueringen region, Germany, 2005 N = 340
Mean
= 6.575
SD
= 2.104
World Values Survey (2004): study GH Greater Accra 2005 18+ aged, general public, Greater Accra region, Ghana, 2005 N = 264
Mean
= 6.237
SD
= 2.273
World Values Survey (2004): study GH Ashanti 2005 18+ aged, general public, Ashanti region, Ghana, 2002 N = 294
Mean
= 6.248
SD
= 2.954
World Values Survey (2004): study GH Brong Ahafo 2005 18+ aged, general public, Brong Ahafo region, Ghana, 2002 N = 144
Mean
= 7.166
SD
= 2.264
World Values Survey (2004): study GH GH Western 2005 18+ aged, general public, GH Western region, Ghana, 2005 N = 150
Mean
= 6.800
SD
= 2.606
World Values Survey (2004): study GH GH Eastern 2005 18+ aged, general public, GH Eastern region, Ghana, 2005 N = 165
Mean
= 6.758
SD
= 2.269
World Values Survey (2004): study GH GH Central 2005 18+ aged, general public, GH Central region, Ghana, 2002 N = 132
Mean
= 5.649
SD
= 3.205
World Values Survey (2004): study GH Volta 2005 18+ aged, general public, Volta region, Ghana, 2005 N = 128
Mean
= 5.403
SD
= 1.866
World Values Survey (2004): study GH GH Northern 2005 18+ aged, general public, GH Northern region, Ghana, 2005 N = 134
Mean
= 4.841
SD
= 2.430
World Values Survey (2004): study GT Guatemala 2005 18+ aged, general public, Guatemala region, Guatemala, 2005 N = 310
Mean
= 7.940
SD
= 2.008
World Values Survey (2004): study GT Altiplano/Centro 2005 18+ aged, general public, Altiplano/Centro region, Guatemala, 2005 N = 335
Mean
= 8.016
SD
= 2.122
World Values Survey (2004): study GT GT Sur 2005 18+ aged, general public, GT Sur region, Guatemala, 2005 N = 130
Mean
= 8.816
SD
= 1.904
World Values Survey (2004): study GT Oriente/Izabal/Verapaces 2005 18+ aged, general public, Oriente/Izabal/Verapaces region, Guatemala, 2005 N = 224
Mean
= 7.361
SD
= 2.049
World Values Survey (2004): study HU Budapest 1982 18+ aged, general public, Budapest region, Hungary, 1982-1999 N = 137
Mean
= 5.948
SD
= 2.233
World Values Survey (2004): study HU East Hungary 1982 18+ aged, general public, East Hungary region, Hungary, 1982-1999 N = 119
Mean
= 6.041
SD
= 2.489
World Values Survey (2004): study IN Andrha Pradesh 1990 18+ aged, general public, Andrha Pradesh region, India, 1990-1999 N = 658
Mean
= 6.336
SD
= 2.291
World Values Survey (2004): study IN Bihar 1990 18+ aged, general public,Bihar region, India, 1990-1999 N = 826
Mean
= 5.961
SD
= 2.382
World Values Survey (2004): study IN Delhi 1990 18+ aged, general public, Delhi region, India, 1990-1999 N = 150
Mean
= 6.857
SD
= 2.557
World Values Survey (2004): study IN Gujarat 1990 18+ aged, general public, Gujarat region, India, 1990-1999 N = 422
Mean
= 6.489
SD
= 2.640
World Values Survey (2004): study IN Haryana 1990 18+ aged, general public, Haryana region, India, 1990-1999 N = 127
Mean
= 7.687
SD
= 2.458
World Values Survey (2004): study IN Karnataka 1990 18+ aged, general public,Karnataka region, India, 1990-1999 N = 465
Mean
= 5.237
SD
= 2.180
World Values Survey (2004): study IN Orrisa 1990 18+ aged, general public, Orrisa region, India, 1990-1999 N = 335
Mean
= 6.022
SD
= 2.660
World Values Survey (2004): study IN Punjab 1990 18+ aged, general public, Punjab region, India, 1990-1999 N = 169
Mean
= 6.794
SD
= 2.445
World Values Survey (2004): study IN Rajasthan 1990 18+ aged, general public, Rajasthan region, India, 1990-1999 N = 431
Mean
= 6.712
SD
= 2.239
World Values Survey (2004): study IN Tamil Nadu 1990 18+ aged, general public, Tamil Nadu region, India, 1990-1999 N = 657
Mean
= 6.876
SD
= 2.148
World Values Survey (2004): study IN Uttar Pradesh 1990 18+ aged, general public, Uttar Pradesh region, India, 1990-1999 N = 1387
Mean
= 6.016
SD
= 2.602
World Values Survey (2004): study IN West Bengal 1990 18+ aged, general public, West Bengal region, India, 1990-1999 N = 695
Mean
= 4.717
SD
= 2.543
World Values Survey (2004): study ID Jambi 2001 18+ aged, general public,Jambi region, Indonesia, 2001-2005 N = 197
Mean
= 7.117
SD
= 2.329
World Values Survey (2004): study ID Bengkulu 2001 18+ aged, general public, Bengkulu region, Indonesia, 2001-2005 N = 199
Mean
= 6.759
SD
= 1.957
World Values Survey (2004): study ID Jakarta 2001 18+ aged, general public, City of Jakarta, Indonesia, 2001 N = 197
Mean
= 6.781
SD
= 1.847
World Values Survey (2004): study ID West Java(Jawa Barat) 2001 18+ aged, general public, West Java(Jawa Barat) region, Indonesia, 2001-2005 N = 705
Mean
= 6.752
SD
= 2.367
World Values Survey (2004): study ID Central Java(Jawa Tengah) 2001 18+ aged, general public, Central Java(Jawa Tengah) region, Indonesia, 2001-2005 N = 626
Mean
= 7.005
SD
= 1.960
World Values Survey (2004): study ID East Java (Jawa Timur) 2001 18+ aged, general public, East Java (Jawa Timur) region, Indonesia, 2001-2005 N = 471
Mean
= 6.841
SD
= 2.210
World Values Survey (2004): study IR Gilan 2001 18+ aged, general public, Gilan region, Iran, 2001-2005 N = 193
Mean
= 6.379
SD
= 2.187
World Values Survey (2004): study IR Kerman 2001 18+ aged, general public, Kerman region, Iran, 2001-2005 N = 179
Mean
= 6.427
SD
= 2.067
World Values Survey (2004): study IR IR West Azerbayjan 2001 18+ aged, general public, IR West Azerbayjan region, Iran, 2001-2005 N = 215
Mean
= 6.692
SD
= 2.505
World Values Survey (2004): study IR IR East Azerbayjan 2001 18+ aged, general public, IR East Azerbayjan region, Iran, 2001-2005 N = 327
Mean
= 6.650
SD
= 2.583
World Values Survey (2004): study IR Kermanshah 2001 18+ aged, general public, Kermanshah region, Iran, 2001-2005 N = 153
Mean
= 5.806
SD
= 2.462
World Values Survey (2004): study IR Isfahan 2001 18+ aged, general public,Isfahan region, Iran, 2001-2005 N = 333
Mean
= 6.204
SD
= 2.393
World Values Survey (2004): study IR Khorasan 2001 18+ aged, general public, Khorasan region, Iran, 2001-2005 N = 439
Mean
= 6.402
SD
= 2.102
World Values Survey (2004): study IR Tehran 2001 18+ aged, general public, Tehran region, Iran, 2001-2005 N = 938
Mean
= 6.580
SD
= 2.348
World Values Survey (2004): study IR Hamadan 2001 18+ aged, general public, Hamadan region, Iran, 2001-2005 N = 150
Mean
= 6.303
SD
= 2.455
World Values Survey (2004): study IR Lorestan 2001 18+ aged, general public, Lorestan region, Iran, 2001-2005 N = 133
Mean
= 5.927
SD
= 2.355
World Values Survey (2004): study IR Golestan 2001 18+ aged, general public, Golestan region, Iran, 2001-2005 N = 135
Mean
= 6.922
SD
= 2.292
World Values Survey (2004): study IQ Baghdad 2004 18+ aged, general public, Baghdad region, Iraq, 2004 N = 1010
Mean
= 4.247
SD
= 2.492
World Values Survey (2004): study IQ Basrah 2004 18+ aged, general public, Basrah region, Iraq, 2004 N = 331
Mean
= 5.308
SD
= 2.304
World Values Survey (2004): study IQ Tekrit/Salahadin 2004 18+ aged, general public, Tekrit/Salahadin region, Iraq, 2004 N = 276
Mean
= 4.397
SD
= 2.379
World Values Survey (2004): study IQ Nasirria/Dhi Qar 2004 18+ aged, general public, Nasirria/Dhi Qar region, Iraq, 2004 N = 224
Mean
= 5.412
SD
= 2.399
World Values Survey (2004): study IQ Umara/Maysan 2004 18+ aged, general public, Umara/Maysan region, Iraq, 2004 N = 238
Mean
= 5.200
SD
= 1.229
World Values Survey (2004): study IQ Hilla/Babyl 2004 18+ aged, general public,Hilla/Babyl region, Iraq, 2004 N = 226
Mean
= 5.331
SD
= 1.443
World Values Survey (2004): study IQ Najaf 2004 18+ aged, general public, Najaf region,Iraq, 2004 N = 227
Mean
= 5.137
SD
= 1.831
World Values Survey (2004): study IQ Diwania/Qadisiyah 2004 18+ aged, general public, Diwania/Qadisiyah region, Iraq, 2004 N = 226
Mean
= 5.530
SD
= 2.137
World Values Survey (2004): study IQ Kut/ Wasit 2004 18+ aged, general public, Kut/ Wasit region, Iraq, 2004 N = 221
Mean
= 4.577
SD
= 1.413
World Values Survey (2004): study IQ Karbala 2004 18+ aged, general public, Karbala region, Iraq, 2004 N = 224
Mean
= 5.561
SD
= 2.130
World Values Survey (2004): study IQ Ramadi 2004 18+ aged, general public, Ramadi region, Iraq, 2004 N = 245
Mean
= 2.461
SD
= 2.042
World Values Survey (2004): study IQ Samawa/Muthana 2004 18+ aged, general public, Samawa/Muthana region, Iraq, 2004 N = 235
Mean
= 5.337
SD
= 2.918
World Values Survey (2004): study IQ Baquba/Diyala 2004 18+ aged, general public, Baquba/Diyala region, Iraq, 2004 N = 243
Mean
= 4.518
SD
= 2.960
World Values Survey (2004): study IQ Musil/ Ninewa 2004 18+ aged, general public, Musil/ Ninewa region, Iraq, 2004 N = 178
Mean
= 2.422
SD
= 2.082
World Values Survey (2004): study IQ Kirkuk 2004 18+ aged, general public, Kirkuk, Iraq, 2004 N = 233
Mean
= 4.524
SD
= 2.132
World Values Survey (2004): study IQ Sulaimania 2004 18+ aged, general public, Sulaimania region, Iraq, 2004 N = 291
Mean
= 6.285
SD
= 2.156
World Values Survey (2004): study IQ Ebril 2004 18+ aged, general public, Ebril, Iraq, 2004 N = 258
Mean
= 5.570
SD
= 1.665
World Values Survey (2004): study IL Jerusalem 2001 18+ aged, general public, Jerusalem, Israel, 2001 N = 141
Mean
= 7.419
SD
= 1.967
World Values Survey (2004): study IT Lombardia 1981 18+ aged, general public, Lombardia, Italy, 1981-2005 N = 154
Mean
= 7.026
SD
= 1.655
World Values Survey (2004): study JP Hokkaido&Tohoku 1981 18+ aged, general public, Hokkaido/Tohoku, Japan, 1981-2005 N = 736
Mean
= 6.463
SD
= 1.929
World Values Survey (2004): study JP Kanto 1981 18+ aged, general public, Kanto, Japan, 1981-2005 N = 1823
Mean
= 6.649
SD
= 1.843
World Values Survey (2004): study JP Chubu&Hokuriku 1981 18+ aged, general public, Chubu, Hokuriku, Japan, 1981-2005 N = 909
Mean
= 6.717
SD
= 1.826
World Values Survey (2004): study JP Kinki 1981 18+ aged, general public, Kinki, Japan, 1981-2005 N = 939
Mean
= 6.789
SD
= 1.802
World Values Survey (2004): study JP Chugoku&Shikoku 1981 18+ aged, general public, Chugoku, Shikoku, Japan, 1981-2005 N = 1130
Mean
= 6.637
SD
= 1.925
World Values Survey (2004): study JO Amman 2001 18+ aged, general public, Amman, Jordan, 2001-2005 N = 375
Mean
= 5.801
SD
= 2.474
World Values Survey (2004): study JO Irbid 2001 18+ aged, general public, Irbid, Jordan, 2001-2005 N = 182
Mean
= 5.294
SD
= 2.832
World Values Survey (2004): study KR Seoul 1982 18+ aged, general public, City of Seoul, Korea,(South), 1982 N = 603
Mean
= 6.709
SD
= 2.176
World Values Survey (2004): study KR Pusan/Busan 1982 18+ aged, general public, Pusan/Busan, Korea,(South), 1982-2005 N = 90
Mean
= 5.901
SD
= 1.962
World Values Survey (2004): study KR Taegu/Daedu 1982 18+ aged, general public, Taegu/Daedu, Korea,(South), 1982-2005 N = 60
Mean
= 5.979
SD
= 2.309
World Values Survey (2004): study KR Incheon 1982 18+ aged, general public, Incheon region, Korea,(South), 1982-2005 N = 60
Mean
= 6.346
SD
= 1.778
World Values Survey (2004): study KR Kangwon/Gangwon 1982 18+ aged, general public, Amman, Korea,(South), 1982-2005 N = 254
Mean
= 6.354
SD
= 2.029
World Values Survey (2004): study KR Jeonnam/South Jeolia 1982 18+ aged, general public, Jeonnam/South Jeolia, Korea,(South), 1982-2005 N = 60
Mean
= 6.401
SD
= 1.819
World Values Survey (2004): study KR Kyeongbuk/North Gyeongsang 1982 18+ aged, general public, Kyeongbuk/North Gyeongsang region, Korea,(South), 1982-2005 N = 60
Mean
= 6.437
SD
= 1.947
World Values Survey (2004): study KR Kyeongnam/South Gyeongsang 1982 18+ aged, general public, region, region, Korea,(South), 1982-2005 N = 75
Mean
= 6.339
SD
= 1.612
World Values Survey (2004): study KR Chungchong Do 1982 18+ aged, general public, Chungchong Do region, Korea,(South), 1982-2005 N = 172
Mean
= 6.444
SD
= 2.441
World Values Survey (2004): study KR Chunra Do 1982 18+ aged, general public, Chunra Do region, Korea,(South), 1982-2005 N = 262
Mean
= 6.693
SD
= 2.382
World Values Survey (2004): study KR Kyowy Sang Do 1982 18+ aged, general public, Kyowy Sang Do region, Korea,(South), 1982-2005 N = 350
Mean
= 6.659
SD
= 2.447
World Values Survey (2004): study KG Bishkek 2003 18+ aged, general public, City of Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 2003 N = 260
Mean
= 5.763
SD
= 2.611
World Values Survey (2004): study KG Batken oblast 2003 18+ aged, general public, Batken oblast region, Kyrgyzstan, 2003 N = 180
Mean
= 6.193
SD
= 2.293
World Values Survey (2004): study KG Jalal-Abad oblast 2003 18+ aged, general public, Jalal-Abad oblast, Kyrgyzstan, 2003 N = 147
Mean
= 7.267
SD
= 2.350
World Values Survey (2004): study KG Osh oblast 2003 18+ aged, general public, Osh oblast region, Kyrgyzstan, 2003 N = 219
Mean
= 7.936
SD
= 1.666
World Values Survey (2004): study KG Issyk-Kol 2003 18+ aged, general public, Issyk-Kol region, Kyrgyzstan, 2003 N = 124
Mean
= 5.871
SD
= 2.568
World Values Survey (2004): study LT Vilnius 1990 18+ aged, general public, Vilnius, Lithuania, 1990-1999 N = 272
Mean
= 5.212
SD
= 2.585
World Values Survey (2004): study LT Klaipeda 1990 18+ aged, general public, Klaipeda, Lithuania, 1990-1999 N = 201
Mean
= 5.045
SD
= 2.523
World Values Survey (2004): study LT Kaunas 1990 18+ aged, general public, Kaunas, Lithuania, 1990-1999 N = 243
Mean
= 4.813
SD
= 2.595
World Values Survey (2004): study LT Panevezys 1990 18+ aged, general public, Panevezys, Lithuania, 1990-1999 N = 226
Mean
= 4.847
SD
= 2.656
World Values Survey (2004): study MY Selangor 2005 18+ aged, general public, Selangor region, Malaysia, 2005 N = 306
Mean
= 6.900
SD
= 1.823
World Values Survey (2004): study MY Sabah 2005 18+ aged, general public, Sabah, Malaysia, 2005 N = 130
Mean
= 6.469
SD
= 2.106
World Values Survey (2004): study MY Johor 2005 18+ aged, general public, Johor region, Malaysia, 2005 N = 140
Mean
= 7.171
SD
= 1.490
World Values Survey (2004): study ML Kayes 2005 18+ aged, general public, Kayes region, Mali, 2005 N = 233
Mean
= 6.182
SD
= 2.608
World Values Survey (2004): study ML Bamako 2005 18+ aged, general public, Bamako region, Mali, 2005 N = 200
Mean
= 6.185
SD
= 2.361
World Values Survey (2004): study ML Segou 2005 18+ aged, general public, Segou region, Mali, 2005 N = 239
Mean
= 6.332
SD
= 2.731
World Values Survey (2004): study ML Mopti 2005 18+ aged, general public, Mopti region, Mali, 2005 N = 237
Mean
= 6.342
SD
= 2.352
World Values Survey (2004): study ML Sikasso 2005 18+ aged, general public, Sikasso region, Mali, 2005 N = 257
Mean
= 5.481
SD
= 2.925
World Values Survey (2004): study ML Koulikoro 2005 18+ aged, general public, Koulikoro region, Mali, 2005 N = 203
Mean
= 5.993
SD
= 2.186
World Values Survey (2004): study MX MX Norte 1996 18+ aged, general public, MX Norte region, Mexico, 1996-2005 N = 2213
Mean
= 7.751
SD
= 2.258
World Values Survey (2004): study MX MX: Centro occidente 1996 18+ aged, general public, MX: Centro occidente region, Mexico, 1996-2005 N = 984
Mean
= 8.212
SD
= 1.942
World Values Survey (2004): study MX MX Centro/DF 1996 18+ aged, general public, MX Centro/DF region, Mexico, 1996-2005 N = 2023
Mean
= 8.012
SD
= 2.083
World Values Survey (2004): study MX MX Sur 1996 18+ aged, general public, MX Sur region, Mexico, 1996-2005 N = 1865
Mean
= 7.686
SD
= 2.280
World Values Survey (2004): study MX MX Zona metropolitana 1996 18+ aged, general public, MX Zona metropolitana region, Mexico, 1996-2005 N = 1177
Mean
= 7.679
SD
= 1.950
World Values Survey (2004): study MD MD: North 1996 18+ aged, general public, MD: North region, Moldova, 1996-2005 N = 604
Mean
= 5.140
SD
= 2.337
World Values Survey (2004): study MD MD: Center 1996 18+ aged, general public, MD: Center region, Moldova, 1996-2005 N = 842
Mean
= 5.005
SD
= 2.332
World Values Survey (2004): study MD MD: South 1996 18+ aged, general public,MD: South region, Moldova, 1996-2005 N = 388
Mean
= 4.909
SD
= 2.415
World Values Survey (2004): study MD Kishinev (Chisinau) 1996 18+ aged, general public, City of Kishinev (Chisinau), Moldova, 1996 N = 361
Mean
= 4.900
SD
= 2.413
World Values Survey (2004): study MD Orgeevskij 1996 18+ aged, general public, Orgeevskij region, Moldova, 1996-2005 N = 140
Mean
= 2.629
SD
= 1.971
World Values Survey (2004): study MA Gharb-Chrarda 1999 18+ aged, general public, Gharb-Chrarda region, Morocco, 1999-2005 N = 234
Mean
= 5.482
SD
= 2.199
World Values Survey (2004): study MA Chaouia-Ouardigha 1999 18+ aged, general public, Chaouia-Ouardigha region, Morocco, 1999-2005 N = 125
Mean
= 5.341
SD
= 2.058
World Values Survey (2004): study MA Marrakech-Tensift 1999 18+ aged, general public, Marrakech-Tensift region, Morocco, 1999-2005 N = 418
Mean
= 5.632
SD
= 2.364
World Values Survey (2004): study MA Grand Casablanca 1999 18+ aged, general public, Grand Casablanca region, Morocco, 1999-2005 N = 636
Mean
= 5.813
SD
= 2.226
World Values Survey (2004): study MA Rabat-Salé-Zemmour 1999 18+ aged, general public, Rabat-Salé-Zemmour region, Morocco, 1999-2005 N = 314
Mean
= 5.700
SD
= 1.917
World Values Survey (2004): study MA Meknès-Tafilalet 1999 18+ aged, general public, Meknès-Tafilalet region, Morocco, 1999-2005 N = 231
Mean
= 5.388
SD
= 2.371
World Values Survey (2004): study MA Fès-Boulemane 1999 18+ aged, general public, Fès-Boulemane region, Morocco, 1999-2005 N = 202
Mean
= 5.357
SD
= 2.160
World Values Survey (2004): study MA Doukkla - Abda 1999 18+ aged, general public, Doukkla - Abda region, Morocco, 1999-2005 N = 228
Mean
= 5.386
SD
= 2.005
World Values Survey (2004): study NL Noord-Holland 1981 18+ aged, general public, Noord-Holland region, Netherlands, 1981-2005 N = 171
Mean
= 7.697
SD
= 1.283
World Values Survey (2004): study NL Zuid-Holland (South Holland) 1981 18+ aged, general public, Zuid-Holland region, Netherlands, 1981-2005 N = 231
Mean
= 7.747
SD
= 1.357
World Values Survey (2004): study NL Noord-Brabant 1981 18+ aged, general public, Noord-Brabant region, Netherlands, 1981-2005 N = 155
Mean
= 7.679
SD
= 1.271
World Values Survey (2004): study NL Gelderland 1981 18+ aged, general public, Gelderland region, Netherlands, 1981-2005 N = 116
Mean
= 7.881
SD
= 1.227
World Values Survey (2004): study NZ Auckland 1998 18+ aged, general public, Auckland, New Zealand, 1998 N = 558
Mean
= 7.621
SD
= 1.905
World Values Survey (2004): study NZ Bay of Plenty 1998 18+ aged, general public, Bay of Plenty, New Zealand, 1998 N = 131
Mean
= 7.738
SD
= 2.017
World Values Survey (2004): study NZ Waikato 1998 18+ aged, general public, Waikato, New Zealand, 1998 N = 155
Mean
= 7.807
SD
= 1.824
World Values Survey (2004): study NZ Wellington 1998 18+ aged, general public, Wellington, New Zealand, 1998 N = 199
Mean
= 7.817
SD
= 1.822
World Values Survey (2004): study NZ Canterbury 1998 18+ aged, general public, Canterbury, New Zealand, 1998 N = 260
Mean
= 8.190
SD
= 1.670
World Values Survey (2004): study NG Lagos 1990 18+ aged, general public, Lagos region, Nigeria, 1990-2000 N = 543
Mean
= 6.394
SD
= 2.346
World Values Survey (2004): study NG NG: West 1990 18+ aged, general public, West region, Nigeria, 1990-2000 N = 1151
Mean
= 6.798
SD
= 2.516
World Values Survey (2004): study NG NG: East 1990 18+ aged, general public, NG: East region, Nigeria, 1990-2000 N = 1172
Mean
= 6.606
SD
= 2.413
World Values Survey (2004): study NG NG: North East 1990 18+ aged, general public, Nort-East region, Nigeria, 1990-2000 N = 220
Mean
= 7.042
SD
= 2.297
World Values Survey (2004): study NG NG: North West 1990 18+ aged, general public, North-West region, Nigeria, 1990-2000 N = 394
Mean
= 7.170
SD
= 2.265
World Values Survey (2004): study NG NG: North 1990 18+ aged, general public, North region, Nigeria, 1990-2000 N = 428
Mean
= 6.958
SD
= 2.774
World Values Survey (2004): study NG NG: Middle belt 1990 18+ aged, general public, NG: Middle belt region, Nigeria, 1990-2000 N = 252
Mean
= 6.185
SD
= 2.506
World Values Survey (2004): study NO Oslo and Akershus 1982 18+ aged, general public, Oslo and Akershus region, Norway, 1982-1996, 2005 N = 247
Mean
= 8.015
SD
= 1.350
World Values Survey (2004): study NO South Eastern Norway 1982 18+ aged, general public, South Eastern Norway region, Norway, 1982-1996, 2005 N = 190
Mean
= 8.009
SD
= 1.316
World Values Survey (2004): study NO Rogaland 1982 18+ aged, general public, Rogaland region, Norway, 1982-1996, 2005 N = 123
Mean
= 8.084
SD
= 1.535
World Values Survey (2004): study NO Western Norway 1982 18+ aged, general public, Western Norway region, Norway, 1982-1996, 2005 N = 181
Mean
= 7.765
SD
= 1.633
World Values Survey (2004): study PK Urban Punjab 1997 18+ aged, general public, Urban Punjab region, Pakistan, 1997-2001 N = 548
Mean
= 5.109
SD
= 1.415
World Values Survey (2004): study PK Rural Punjab 1997 18+ aged, general public, Rural Punjab region, Pakistan, 1997-2001 N = 371
Mean
= 4.466
SD
= 1.503
World Values Survey (2004): study PK Urban Sindh 1997 18+ aged, general public, Urban Sindh region, Pakistan, 1997-2001 N = 190
Mean
= 5.346
SD
= 1.387
World Values Survey (2004): study PK North West Frontier Province (Khyber-Pakthunkhwa) 1997 18+ aged, general public, North-West frontier province, Pakistan, 1997-2001 N = 161
Mean
= 5.428
SD
= 1.393
World Values Survey (2004): study PK Rural NWFP (Northern Khyber Pakthunkhwa) 1997 18+ aged, general public, Northern Khyber region, Pakistan, 1997-2001 N = 118
Mean
= 4.796
SD
= 1.103
World Values Survey (2004): study PE Lima region 1996 18+ aged, general public, Lima region, Peru, 1996-2005 N = 498
Mean
= 6.388
SD
= 2.371
World Values Survey (2004): study PE Norte-Peru 1996 18+ aged, general public, Norte-Peru region, Peru, 1996-2005 N = 394
Mean
= 6.578
SD
= 2.297
World Values Survey (2004): study PE Centro-Peru 1996 18+ aged, general public, Centro-Peru region, Peru, 1996-2005 N = 204
Mean
= 6.512
SD
= 2.347
World Values Survey (2004): study PE Sur-Peru 1996 18+ aged, general public, Sur-Peru region, Peru, 1996-2005 N = 280
Mean
= 6.166
SD
= 2.346
World Values Survey (2004): study PE Lima 1996 18+ aged, general public, Lima region, Peru, 1996-2005 N = 1079
Mean
= 6.600
SD
= 2.288
World Values Survey (2004): study PE Arequipa 1996 18+ aged, general public, Arequipa region, Peru, 1996-2005 N = 184
Mean
= 6.947
SD
= 2.222
World Values Survey (2004): study PE Piura 1996 18+ aged, general public, Piura region, Peru, 1996-2005 N = 152
Mean
= 7.016
SD
= 2.623
World Values Survey (2004): study PE Cusco 1996 18+ aged, general public, Cusco region, Peru, 1996-2005 N = 123
Mean
= 6.494
SD
= 2.311
World Values Survey (2004): study PH NCR (National Capital Region) of the Phillppines 1996 18+ aged, general public, National Capital Region, Philippines, 1996-2001 N = 600
Mean
= 7.355
SD
= 2.104
World Values Survey (2004): study PH South-Luzon 1996 18+ aged, general public, South-Luzon region, Philippines, 1996-2001 N = 600
Mean
= 6.946
SD
= 2.404
World Values Survey (2004): study PH Balance -Visayas 1996 18+ aged, general public, Phillipines-Balance -Visayas region, Philippines, 1996-2001 N = 600
Mean
= 5.977
SD
= 2.592
World Values Survey (2004): study PH Mindanao 1996 18+ aged, general public, Mindanao region, Philippines, 1996-2001 N = 599
Mean
= 6.713
SD
= 2.427
World Values Survey (2004): study PL Katowice 1996 18+ aged, general public, Katowice region, Poland, 1996-2001 N = 103
Mean
= 7.503
SD
= 1.915
World Values Survey (2004): study PR Norte Puerto Rico 1995 18+ aged, general public, Norte Puerto Rico region, Puerto Rico, 1995-2001 N = 344
Mean
= 8.309
SD
= 2.134
World Values Survey (2004): study PR Sur Puerto Rico 1995 18+ aged, general public, Sur Puerto Rico region, Puerto Rico, 1995-2001 N = 245
Mean
= 8.369
SD
= 1.977
World Values Survey (2004): study PR Oeste Puerto Rico 1995 18+ aged, general public, Oeste Puerto Rico region, Puerto Rico, 1995-2001 N = 297
Mean
= 8.294
SD
= 2.051
World Values Survey (2004): study PR Este Puerto Rico 1995 18+ aged, general public, Este Puerto Rico region, Puerto Rico, 1995-2001 N = 340
Mean
= 8.116
SD
= 2.253
World Values Survey (2004): study PR Montana Puerto Rico 1995 18+ aged, general public, Montana Puerto Rico region, Puerto Rico, 1995-2001 N = 135
Mean
= 8.555
SD
= 1.660
World Values Survey (2004): study PR Centro Puerto Rico 1995 18+ aged, general public, Centro Puerto Rico region, Puerto Rico, 1995-2001 N = 315
Mean
= 8.299
SD
= 2.136
World Values Survey (2004): study PR Metropolitana Puerto Rico 1995 18+ aged, general public, Metropolitana Puerto Rico region, Puerto Rico, 1995-2001 N = 199
Mean
= 7.889
SD
= 2.376
World Values Survey (2004): study RO Bucuresti 1993 18+ aged, general public, City of Bucuresti, Romania, 1993 N = 301
World Values Survey (2004): study RO Mutenia 1993 18+ aged, general public, Mutenia region, Romania, 1993-2001 N = 238
Mean
= 4.107
SD
= 2.435
World Values Survey (2004): study RO Moldova 1993 18+ aged, general public, Moldova region, Romania, 1993-2001 N = 229
Mean
= 4.568
SD
= 2.102
World Values Survey (2004): study RO Transylvania 1993 18+ aged, general public, Transylvania region, Romania, 1993-2001 N = 243
Mean
= 5.422
SD
= 2.565
World Values Survey (2004): study RO Oltenia 1993 18+ aged, general public, Oltenia region, Romania, 1993-2001 N = 156
Mean
= 4.685
SD
= 2.348
World Values Survey (2004): study RU RU: North-Western 1990 18+ aged, general public, North-West region, Russia, 1990-2005 N = 381
Mean
= 5.450
SD
= 2.569
World Values Survey (2004): study RU RU Central 1990 18+ aged, general public, Central region, Russia, 1990-2005 N = 761
Mean
= 5.206
SD
= 2.624
World Values Survey (2004): study RU Volgo-Vyatki 1990 18+ aged, general public, City of Volgo-Vyatki, Russia, 1990 N = 115
Mean
= 4.230
SD
= 2.427
World Values Survey (2004): study RU Central Black Earth 1990 18+ aged, general public, Central Black Earth region, Russia, 1990-2005 N = 121
Mean
= 4.513
SD
= 2.304
World Values Survey (2004): study RU RU: North Caucasus 1990 18+ aged, general public, North Caucasus region, Russia, 1990-2005 N = 190
Mean
= 4.091
SD
= 2.246
World Values Survey (2004): study RU Volga; Povolzskij 1990 18+ aged, general public, Volga; Povolzskij region, Russia, 1990-2005 N = 115
Mean
= 5.279
SD
= 2.645
World Values Survey (2004): study RU Urals 1990 18+ aged, general public, Urals region, Russia, 1990-2005 N = 487
Mean
= 5.364
SD
= 2.685
World Values Survey (2004): study RU RU: Western Siberia 1990 18+ aged, general public, Western Siberia region, Russia, 1990-2005 N = 193
Mean
= 4.374
SD
= 2.519
World Values Survey (2004): study RU Eastern Siberia 1990 18+ aged, general public, Eastern Siberia region, Russia, 1990-2005 N = 88
Mean
= 4.715
SD
= 2.434
World Values Survey (2004): study RU RU: Far East 1990 18+ aged, general public, Far East region, Russia, 1990-2005 N = 240
Mean
= 4.995
SD
= 2.617
World Values Survey (2004): study RU RU: South 1990 18+ aged, general public, South region, Russia, 1990-2005 N = 589
Mean
= 6.002
SD
= 2.448
World Values Survey (2004): study RU Moscow 1990 18+ aged, general public, City of Moscow, Russia, 1990 N = 185
Mean
= 6.945
SD
= 2.088
World Values Survey (2004): study RW Ruhengeri 2005 18+ aged, general public, Ruhengeri region, Rwanda, 2005 N = 152
Mean
= 4.988
SD
= 2.142
World Values Survey (2004): study RW Gisenyi 2005 18+ aged, general public, Gisenyi region, Rwanda, 2005 N = 176
Mean
= 4.636
SD
= 1.905
World Values Survey (2004): study RW Gitarama 2005 18+ aged, general public, Gitarama region, Rwanda, 2005 N = 160
Mean
= 5.030
SD
= 2.110
World Values Survey (2004): study RW Kigali Ngali 2005 18+ aged, general public, Kigali Ngali region, Rwanda, 2005 N = 146
Mean
= 5.157
SD
= 2.075
World Values Survey (2004): study RW Butare 2005 18+ aged, general public, Butare region, Rwanda, 2005 N = 132
Mean
= 4.582
SD
= 1.968
World Values Survey (2004): study RW Byumba 2005 18+ aged, general public, Byumba, Rwanda, 2005 N = 128
Mean
= 5.191
SD
= 2.411
World Values Survey (2004): study RW Kibungo 2005 18+ aged, general public, Kibungo region, Rwanda, 2005 N = 133
Mean
= 4.884
SD
= 2.109
World Values Survey (2004): study RW Kigali 2005 18+ aged, general public, City of Kigali, Rwanda, 2005 N = 111
Mean
= 5.851
SD
= 2.029
World Values Survey (2004): study SA Jeddah 2003 18+ aged, general public, City of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, 2003 N = 300
Mean
= 7.306
SD
= 2.462
World Values Survey (2004): study SA Makkah 2003 18+ aged, general public, Makkah region, Saudi Arabia, 2003 N = 100
Mean
= 8.080
SD
= 1.988
World Values Survey (2004): study SA Riyad 2003 18+ aged, general public, Riyad region, Saudi Arabia, 2003 N = 343
Mean
= 7.427
SD
= 2.141
World Values Survey (2004): study SA Ash Sharqīyah (Eastern Province) Damman, Khobar 2003 18+ aged, general public, Ash Sharqīyah (Eastern Province) Damman, Khobar region, Saudi Arabia, 2003 N = 226
Mean
= 7.645
SD
= 2.036
World Values Survey (2004): study SK Northern Slowakia 1990 18+ aged, general public, Northern Slowakia region, Slovakia, 1990-1999 N = 353
Mean
= 6.029
SD
= 2.299
World Values Survey (2004): study SK Central Slowakia 1990 18+ aged, general public, Central Slowakia region, Slovakia, 1990-2005 N = 483
Mean
= 6.099
SD
= 2.088
World Values Survey (2004): study SK Eastern Slovakia 1990 18+ aged, general public, Eastern Slovakia region, Slovakia, 1990-2005 N = 424
Mean
= 6.147
SD
= 2.318
World Values Survey (2004): study SK West Slowakia 1990 18+ aged, general public, West Slowakia region, Slovakia, 1990-2005 N = 158
Mean
= 5.987
SD
= 2.149
World Values Survey (2004): study SK Bratislavský kraj 1990 18+ aged, general public, Bratislavský kraj region, Slovakia, 1990-2005 N = 138
Mean
= 6.152
SD
= 2.263
World Values Survey (2004): study VN VN: red river delta 2001 18+ aged, general public, VN: red river delta, Viet Nam, 2001-2005 N = 487
Mean
= 6.857
SD
= 1.871
World Values Survey (2004): study VN VN: North east 2001 18+ aged, general public, VN: North east, Viet Nam, 1990-2005 N = 321
Mean
= 6.690
SD
= 2.059
World Values Survey (2004): study VN VN: North central 2001 18+ aged, general public, VN: North central, Viet Nam, 1990-2005 N = 274
Mean
= 6.907
SD
= 1.876
World Values Survey (2004): study VN VN: central coast 2001 18+ aged, general public, VN: central coast, Viet Nam, 1990-2005 N = 257
Mean
= 6.374
SD
= 2.038
World Values Survey (2004): study VN VN: central highland 2001 18+ aged, general public, VN: central highland, Viet Nam,1990-2005 N = 158
Mean
= 6.374
SD
= 2.038
World Values Survey (2004): study VN VN: southeast 2001 18+ aged, general public, VN: southeast, Viet Nam, 1990-2005 N = 333
Mean
= 6.336
SD
= 1.737
World Values Survey (2004): study VN VN: mekong river delta 2001 18+ aged, general public, VN: mekong river delta, Viet Nam, 1990-2005 N = 534
Mean
= 7.489
SD
= 1.993
World Values Survey (2004): study SI Podravska 1992 18+ aged, general public, Podravska region, Slovenia, 1992-2005 N = 152
Mean
= 7.231
SD
= 1.830
World Values Survey (2004): study SI Savinjska 1992 18+ aged, general public, Savinjska region, Slovenia, 1992-2005 N = 158
Mean
= 7.120
SD
= 2.011
World Values Survey (2004): study SI Osrednja Slovenska 1992 18+ aged, general public, Osrednja Slovenska region, Slovenia, 1992-2005 N = 233
Mean
= 7.310
SD
= 1.873
World Values Survey (2004): study ZA Northern Province/Limpopo 1990 18+ aged, general public, Northern Province/Limpopo, South Africa, 1990-2005 N = 511
Mean
= 4.736
SD
= 2.532
World Values Survey (2004): study ZA KwaZulu/ Natal 1990 18+ aged, general public, KwaZulu/ Natal, South Africa, 1990-2005 N = 1802
Mean
= 5.853
SD
= 2.624
World Values Survey (2004): study ZA Gauteng 1990 18+ aged, general public, Gauteng, South Africa, 1990-2005 N = 2485
Mean
= 5.825
SD
= 2.722
World Values Survey (2004): study ZA Mpumalanga 1990 18+ aged, general public, Mpumalanga, South Africa, 1990-2005 N = 387
Mean
= 5.766
SD
= 2.712
World Values Survey (2004): study ZA ZA: Eastern Cape 1990 18+ aged, general public, ZA: Eastern Cape, South Africa, 1990-2005 N = 1074
Mean
= 5.078
SD
= 2.666
World Values Survey (2004): study ZA ZA: Western Cape 1990 18+ aged, general public, ZA: Western Cape, South Africa, 1990-2005 N = 1360
Mean
= 6.875
SD
= 2.700
World Values Survey (2004): study ZA ZA: Free State 1990 18+ aged, general public, ZA: Free State, South Africa, 1990-2005 N = 520
Mean
= 6.451
SD
= 2.839
World Values Survey (2004): study ZA ZA: North West 1990 18+ aged, general public, South Africa, 1990-2005 N = 530
Mean
= 5.028
SD
= 2.811
World Values Survey (2004): study ZW Harare 2001 18+ aged, general public, Harare, Zimbabwe, 2001 N = 161
Mean
= 3.807
SD
= 2.773
World Values Survey (2004): study ZW Mashonaland West 2001 18+ aged, general public,Mashonaland West, Zimbabwe, 2001 N = 96
Mean
= 4.541
SD
= 2.449
World Values Survey (2004): study ZW Manicaland 2000 18+ aged, general public, Manicaland, Zimbabwe, 2000 N = 138
Mean
= 3.631
SD
= 2.631
World Values Survey (2004): study ES Andalucia 1981 18+ aged, general public, Andalucia region,Spain, 1981-2005 N = 889
Mean
= 6.846
SD
= 1.844
World Values Survey (2004): study ES Aragon 1981 18+ aged, general public, Aragon region, Spain, 1981-2005 N = 154
Mean
= 7.708
SD
= 1.583
World Values Survey (2004): study ES Asturias 1981 18+ aged, general public, Asturias region, Spain, 1981-2005 N = 146
Mean
= 7.121
SD
= 1.963
World Values Survey (2004): study ES Canarias 1981 18+ aged, general public, Canarias region, Spain, 1981-2005 N = 348
Mean
= 6.571
SD
= 1.833
World Values Survey (2004): study ES Castilla-Mancha 1981 18+ aged, general public, Castilla-Mancha region, Spain, 1981-2005 N = 236
Mean
= 7.130
SD
= 2.136
World Values Survey (2004): study ES Castilla Leon 1981 18+ aged, general public, Castilla Leon region, Spain, 1981-2005 N = 266
Mean
= 7.286
SD
= 1.655
World Values Survey (2004): study ES Cataluna 1981 18+ aged, general public, Cataluna region, Spain, 1981-2005 N = 655
World Values Survey (2004): study ES Valenciano 1981 18+ aged, general public, Valenciano region, Spain, 1981-2005 N = 516
Mean
= 6.959
SD
= 1.878
World Values Survey (2004): study ES Extremadura 1981 18+ aged, general public, Extremadura region, Spain, 1981-2005 N = 131
Mean
= 7.045
SD
= 1.650
World Values Survey (2004): study ES Galicia 1981 18+ aged, general public, Galicia region, Spain, 1981-2005 N = 367
Mean
= 7.101
SD
= 2.041
World Values Survey (2004): study ES Madrid 1981 18+ aged, general public, Madrid region, Spain, 1981-2005 N = 669
Mean
= 7.123
SD
= 1.698
World Values Survey (2004): study ES Murcia 1981 18+ aged, general public, Murcia region, Spain, 1981-2005 N = 137
Mean
= 6.414
SD
= 1.775
World Values Survey (2004): study ES Pais Vasco 1981 18+ aged, general public, Pais Vasco region, Spain, 1981-2005 N = 283
Mean
= 7.088
SD
= 1.780
World Values Survey (2004): study SE Stockholm 1982 18+ aged, general public, Stockholm region, Sweden, 1982-2005 N = 257
Mean
= 7.760
SD
= 1.376
World Values Survey (2004): study SE Skåne 1982 18+ aged, general public, Skåne region, Sweden, 1982-2005 N = 135
Mean
= 7.661
SD
= 1.828
World Values Survey (2004): study SE Västra Götalands län 1982 18+ aged, general public, Västra Götalands län region, Sweden, 1982-2005 N = 217
Mean
= 7.739
SD
= 1.700
World Values Survey (2004): study CH Bern 1989 18+ aged, general public, Bern, Switzerland, 1989-2005 N = 138
Mean
= 8.738
SD
= 1.622
World Values Survey (2004): study CH Switserland German 1989 18+ aged, general public, German speaking regions, Switzerland, 1989-2005 N = 630
Mean
= 8.129
SD
= 1.545
World Values Survey (2004): study CH Switserland French 1989 18+ aged, general public, French speaking regions, Switzerland, 1989-2005 N = 406
Mean
= 7.689
SD
= 1.540
World Values Survey (2004): study TH Thailand North 2005 18+ aged, general public, Thailand North region, Thailand, 2005 N = 205
Mean
= 7.590
SD
= 1.944
World Values Survey (2004): study TH Thailand Central 2005 18+ aged, general public, Thailand Central region, Thailand, 2005 N = 583
Mean
= 7.340
SD
= 1.862
World Values Survey (2004): study TH Thailand South 2005 18+ aged, general public, Thailand South region, Thailand, 2005 N = 196
Mean
= 7.688
SD
= 1.603
World Values Survey (2004): study TH Thailand North-East 2005 18+ aged, general public, Thailand North-East region, Thailand, 2005 N = 535
Mean
= 6.757
SD
= 1.669
World Values Survey (2004): study TR Istanbul 1990 18+ aged, general public, Istanbul region, Turkey, 1990-2005 N = 259
Mean
= 7.482
SD
= 2.293
World Values Survey (2004): study TR Turkey Aegean 1990 18+ aged, general public, Turkey Aegean region, Turkey, 1990-2005 N = 159
Mean
= 7.178
SD
= 1.693
World Values Survey (2004): study TR Turkey Mediterranean 1990 18+ aged, general public, Turkey Mediterranean region, Turkey, 1990-2005 N = 163
Mean
= 7.109
SD
= 2.280
World Values Survey (2004): study TR South East Anatolia 1990 18+ aged, general public, Turkey South East Anatolia region, Turkey, 1990-2005 N = 137
Mean
= 6.060
SD
= 2.590
World Values Survey (2004): study UA Crimea, Autonomy Republic, Krim 1996 18+ aged, general public, Krim region, Ukraine, 1996-2005 N = 121
Mean
= 3.580
SD
= 2.395
World Values Survey (2004): study UA Dnipropetrovsk oblast 1996 18+ aged, general public, Dnipropetrovsk oblast region, Ukraine, 1996-2005 N = 186
Mean
= 3.092
SD
= 2.168
World Values Survey (2004): study UA Donetsk oblast 1996 18+ aged, general public, Donetsk oblast region, Ukraine, 1996-2005 N = 260
Mean
= 4.141
SD
= 2.413
World Values Survey (2004): study UA Kyiv city 1996 18+ aged, general public, Kyiv oblast region, Ukraine, 1996-2005 N = 160
Mean
= 3.507
SD
= 2.432
World Values Survey (2004): study UA Luhansk oblast 1996 18+ aged, general public, Luhansk oblast region, Ukraine, 1996-2005 N = 144
Mean
= 3.425
SD
= 2.152
World Values Survey (2004): study UA Lviv oblast 1996 18+ aged, general public, Lviv oblast region, Ukraine, 1996-2005 N = 137
Mean
= 4.454
SD
= 2.473
World Values Survey (2004): study UA Odessa 1996 18+ aged, general public, Odessa region, Ukraine, 1996-2005 N = 124
Mean
= 3.373
SD
= 2.260
World Values Survey (2004): study UA Kharkiv oblast 1996 18+ aged, general public, Kharkiv oblast region, Ukraine, 1996-2005 N = 172
Mean
= 3.769
SD
= 2.255
World Values Survey (2004): study UA Ukraine Western 1996 18+ aged, general public, Ukraine Western region, Ukraine, 1996-2005 N = 220
Mean
= 6.261
SD
= 2.252
World Values Survey (2004): study UA Eastern Ukraine 1996 18+ aged, general public, Eastern Ukraine region, Ukraine, 1996-2005 N = 332
Mean
= 5.165
SD
= 2.281
World Values Survey (2004): study UA Central Ukraine 1996 18+ aged, general public, Central Ukraine region, Ukraine, 1996-2005 N = 297
Mean
= 5.492
SD
= 2.379
World Values Survey (2004): study UA Ukraine Southern 1996 18+ aged, general public, Ukraine Southern region, Ukraine, 1996-2005 N = 151
Mean
= 6.240
SD
= 2.329
World Values Survey (2004): study MK Skopski 1998 18+ aged, general public, Skopski region, Macedonia, 1998-2001 N = 568
Mean
= 5.589
SD
= 2.453
World Values Survey (2004): study MK Pelagoniski, Bitola 1998 18+ aged, general public, Pelagoniski, Bitola region, Macedonia, 1998-2001 N = 252
Mean
= 5.458
SD
= 2.509
World Values Survey (2004): study MK Ohrid 1998 18+ aged, general public, Ohrid region, Macedonia, 1998-2001 N = 228
Mean
= 5.788
SD
= 2.356
World Values Survey (2004): study MK Poloski 1998 18+ aged, general public, Poloski region, Macedonia, 1998-2001 N = 295
Mean
= 5.603
SD
= 2.583
World Values Survey (2004): study MK Povardarski, Povardari 1998 18+ aged, general public, Povardarski, Povardari region, Macedonia, 1998-2001 N = 225
Mean
= 5.676
SD
= 2.290
World Values Survey (2004): study MK Kumanovo 1998 18+ aged, general public, Kumanovo region, Macedonia, 1998-2001 N = 159
Mean
= 4.294
SD
= 2.687
World Values Survey (2004): study MK Bregalnicki 1998 18+ aged, general public, Bregalnicki region, Macedonia, 1998-2001 N = 304
Mean
= 4.906
SD
= 2.365
World Values Survey (2004): study EG Cairo (Al Qāhirah) 1999 18+ aged, general public, Cairo (Al Qāhirah) region, Egypt, 1999-2005 N = 776
Mean
= 5.707
SD
= 2.932
World Values Survey (2004): study EG Alexandria (Al Iskandarīyah) 1999 18+ aged, general public, Alexandria (Al Iskandarīyah) region, Egypt, 1999-2005 N = 401
Mean
= 5.101
SD
= 2.871
World Values Survey (2004): study EG Lower egypt 1999 18+ aged, general public, Lower Egypt, Egypt, 1999-2005 N = 1128
Mean
= 5.464
SD
= 3.353
World Values Survey (2004): study EG Upper egypt 1999 18+ aged, general public, Upper egypt region, Egypt, 1999-2005 N = 992
Mean
= 5.397
SD
= 3.320
World Values Survey (2004): study EG EG: Canal zone 1999 18+ aged, general public, EG: Canal zone region, Egypt, 1999-2005 N = 174
Mean
= 5.016
SD
= 3.358
World Values Survey (2004): study EG Dakahlia (Ad Daqahlīyah) 1999 18+ aged, general public, Dakahlia (Ad Daqahlīyah) region, Egypt, 1999-2005 N = 250
Mean
= 5.706
SD
= 2.768
World Values Survey (2004): study EG Sharkia (Ash Sharqīyah) 1999 18+ aged, general public, Sharkia (Ash Sharqīyah) region, Egypt, 1999 N = 225
Mean
= 5.921
SD
= 2.764
World Values Survey (2004): study EG Qalubia (Al Qalyūbīyah) 1999 18+ aged, general public, Qalubia (Al Qalyūbīyah) region, Egypt, 1999-2005 N = 199
Mean
= 4.755
SD
= 3.234
World Values Survey (2004): study EG Gharbia (Al Gharbīyah) 1999 18+ aged, general public, Gharbia (Al Gharbīyah) region, Egypt, 1999-2005 N = 175
Mean
= 4.347
SD
= 2.775
World Values Survey (2004): study EG Menofia (Al Minūfīyah) 1999 18+ aged, general public, Menofia (Al Minūfīyah) region, Egypt, 1999-2005 N = 125
Mean
= 5.594
SD
= 2.419
World Values Survey (2004): study EG Behaira (Al Buḩayrah) 1999 18+ aged, general public, Behaira (Al Buḩayrah) region, Egypt, 1999-2005 N = 200
Mean
= 7.031
SD
= 2.064
World Values Survey (2004): study EG Giza (Al Jīzah) 1999 18+ aged, general public, Giza (Al Jīzah) region, Egypt, 1999-2005 N = 275
Mean
= 5.713
SD
= 2.886
World Values Survey (2004): study EG Menya 1999 18+ aged, general public, Menya region, Egypt, 1999-2005 N = 150
Mean
= 5.776
SD
= 2.579
World Values Survey (2004): study EG Assyut 1999 18+ aged, general public, Assyut region, Egypt, 1999-2005 N = 125
Mean
= 6.385
SD
= 2.499
World Values Survey (2004): study EG Sohag (Suhaj) 1999 18+ aged, general public, Sohag (Suhaj) region, Egypt, 1999 N = 125
Mean
= 5.296
SD
= 2.769
World Values Survey (2004): study GB GB North-West 1981 18+ aged, general public, GB North-West region, United Kingdom, 1981-2005 N = 185
Mean
= 7.766
SD
= 1.791
World Values Survey (2004): study GB York, Humberside 1981 18+ aged, general public, York, Humberside region, United Kingdom, 1981-2005 N = 181
Mean
= 7.569
SD
= 1.748
World Values Survey (2004): study GB East-Midlands 1981 18+ aged, general public, East-Midlands region, United Kingdom, 1981-2005 N = 157
Mean
= 7.663
SD
= 1.638
World Values Survey (2004): study GB GB West Midlands 1981 18+ aged, general public, GB West Midlands region, United Kingdom, 1981-2005 N = 221
Mean
= 7.376
SD
= 2.004
World Values Survey (2004): study GB Greater London 1981 18+ aged, general public, Greater London region, United Kingdom, 1981-2002 N = 183
Mean
= 7.463
SD
= 1.692
World Values Survey (2004): study GB GB South-East 1981 18+ aged, general public, GB South-East region, United Kingdom, 1981-2005 N = 416
Mean
= 7.467
SD
= 1.812
World Values Survey (2004): study GB GB South-West 1981 18+ aged, general public, GB South-West region, United Kingdom, 1981 N = 215
Mean
= 7.601
SD
= 1.703
World Values Survey (2004): study GB Wales 1981 18+ aged, general public, Wales region, United Kingdom, 1981 N = 101
Mean
= 7.809
SD
= 1.720
World Values Survey (2004): study GB Scotland 1981 18+ aged, general public, Scotland region, United Kingdom, 1981 N = 229
Mean
= 7.770
SD
= 1.745
World Values Survey (2004): study GB GB North 1981 18+ aged, general public, GB North region, United Kingdom, 1981-2005 N = 158
Mean
= 7.804
SD
= 1.759
World Values Survey (2004): study US US Middle Atlantic States 1982 18+ aged, general public, US Middle Atlantic States, United States, 1982-2005 N = 651
Mean
= 7.479
SD
= 1.830
World Values Survey (2004): study US US South Atlantic 1982 18+ aged, general public, US South Atlantic, United States, 1982-2005 N = 551
Mean
= 7.578
SD
= 1.735
World Values Survey (2004): study US US East South Central 1982 18+ aged, general public, US East South Central, United States, 1982-2005 N = 335
Mean
= 7.468
SD
= 2.014
World Values Survey (2004): study US West South Central 1982 18+ aged, general public, West South Central, United States, 1982-2005 N = 424
Mean
= 7.721
SD
= 1.861
World Values Survey (2004): study US US East North Central 1982 18+ aged, general public, US East North Central, United States, 1982-2005 N = 245
Mean
= 7.592
SD
= 1.868
World Values Survey (2004): study US West North Central 1982 18+ aged, general public, West North Central, United States, 1982-2005 N = 245
Mean
= 7.696
SD
= 1.776
World Values Survey (2004): study US US North West 1982 18+ aged, general public, US North West, United States, 1982-2005 N = 155
Mean
= 7.870
SD
= 1.635
World Values Survey (2004): study US California 1982 18+ aged, general public, California region, United States, 1982-2005 N = 439
Mean
= 7.345
SD
= 1.933
World Values Survey (2004): study BF BF Centre 2005 18+ aged, general public, Centre region, Burkina Faso, 2005 N = 148
Mean
= 5.396
SD
= 1.899
World Values Survey (2004): study BF Boucle du Mouhoun 2005 18+ aged, general public, Boucle du Mouhoun region, Burkina Faso, 2005 N = 150
Mean
= 4.999
SD
= 1.680
World Values Survey (2004): study BF BF Centre-Est 2005 18+ aged, general public, Centre-Est region, Burkina Faso, 2005 N = 141
Mean
= 5.362
SD
= 1.439
World Values Survey (2004): study BF BF Centre-Ouest 2005 18+ aged, general public, Centre-Ouest region, Burkina Faso, 2005 N = 127
Mean
= 5.419
SD
= 1.904
World Values Survey (2004): study BF BF Centre Nord 2005 18+ aged, general public, Centre Nord region, Burkina Faso, 2005 N = 128
Mean
= 6.036
SD
= 2.388
World Values Survey (2004): study BF BF Hauts-Bassins 2005 18+ aged, general public, Hauts-Bassins region, Burkina Faso, 2005 N = 158
Mean
= 6.490
SD
= 2.666
World Values Survey (2004): study BF BF Region Nord 2005 18+ aged, general public, Region Nord, Burkina Faso, 2005 N = 131
Mean
= 5.230
SD
= 2.558
World Values Survey (2004): study BF Sahel, Oudalan 2005 18+ aged, general public, Sahel, Oudalan region, Burkina Faso, 2000 N = 102
Mean
= 5.618
SD
= 1.561
World Values Survey (2004): study UY Montevideo region 1996 18+ aged, general public, Montevideo region, Uruguay, 1996-2005 N = 931
Mean
= 7.251
SD
= 2.126
World Values Survey (2004): study UY Paysandú region 1996 18+ aged, general public, Paysandú, Uruguay, 1996-2005 N = 132
Mean
= 6.568
SD
= 2.312
World Values Survey (2004): study UY Las Piedras 1996 18+ aged, general public, Las Piedras, Uruguay, 1996-2005 N = 113
Mean
= 7.055
SD
= 2.632
World Values Survey (2004): study VE VE: Distrito Capital 1996 18+ aged, general public, VE: Distrito Capital, Venezuela, 1996-2000 N = 177
Mean
= 7.363
SD
= 2.316
World Values Survey (2004): study VE Carabobo, Lara 1996 18+ aged, general public, Carabobo, Lara, Venezuela, 1996-2000 N = 237
Mean
= 7.755
SD
= 2.545
World Values Survey (2004): study VE Zulia 1996 18+ aged, general public, Zulia, Venezuela, 1996-2000 N = 180
Mean
= 7.353
SD
= 2.969
World Values Survey (2004): study VE Miranda 1996 18+ aged, general public, Miranda, Venezuela, 1996-2000 N = 296
Mean
= 7.280
SD
= 2.645
World Values Survey (2004): study VE Zulia/Falcón 1996 18+ aged, general public, Zulia/Falcón, Venezuela, 1996-2000 N = 180
Mean
= 6.919
SD
= 3.228
World Values Survey (2004): study VE Sucre,Monagas,Espar.,Amazon 1996 18+ aged, general public, Sucre,Monagas,Espar.,Amazon, Venezuela, 1996-2000 N = 219
Mean
= 6.130
SD
= 2.321
World Values Survey (2004): study VE Andes, Mérida, Táchira, Trujillo 1996 18+ aged, general public, Andes, Mérida, Táchira, Trujillo, Venezuela, 1996-2000 N = 118
Mean
= 7.506
SD
= 2.469
World Values Survey (2004): study VE Llanos: Apure,Barinas,Portuguesa,Cojedes,Guárico,Yaracu 1996 18+ aged, general public, Llanos: Apure,Barinas,Portuguesa,Cojedes,Guárico,Yaracu, Venezuela, 1996-2000 N = 137
Mean
= 5.733
SD
= 4.047
World Values Survey (2004): study RS Beograd area (Belgrad) 1996 18+ aged, general public, Belgrad region, Serbia, 1996-2005 N = 276
Mean
= 6.042
SD
= 2.322
World Values Survey (2004): study RS Vojvodina 1996 18+ aged, general public, Vojvodina region, Serbia, 1996-2005 N = 296
Mean
= 5.574
SD
= 2.387
World Values Survey (2004): study RS Central Serbia 1996 18+ aged, general public, Central Serbia region, Serbia, 1996-2005 N = 593
Mean
= 5.674
SD
= 2.394
World Values Survey (2004): study RS Central West Serbia 1996 18+ aged, general public, Central West Serbia region, Serbia, 1996-2005 N = 300
Mean
= 6.047
SD
= 2.083
World Values Survey (2004): study RS South-East Serbia 1996 18+ aged, general public, South-East Serbia region, Serbia, 1996-2005 N = 303
Mean
= 5.606
SD
= 2.238
World Values Survey (2004): study ZM ZM: Southern Province 2005 18+ aged, general public, ZM: Southern Province, Zambia, 2005 N = 206
Mean
= 5.354
SD
= 2.561
World Values Survey (2004): study ZM ZM: Central Province 2005 18+ aged, general public, ZM: Central Province, Zambia, 2005 N = 150
Mean
= 7.179
SD
= 2.249
World Values Survey (2004): study ZM ZM: Eastern Province 2005 18+ aged, general public, ZM: Eastern Province, Zambia, 2005 N = 147
Mean
= 6.519
SD
= 1.932
World Values Survey (2004): study ZM ZM: Northern Province 2005 18+ aged, general public, ZM: Northern Province, Zambia, 2005 N = 138
Mean
= 6.288
SD
= 2.321
World Values Survey (2004): study ZM Lusaka Province 2005 18+ aged, general public, Lusaka Province, Zambia, 2005 N = 326
Mean
= 6.106
SD
= 2.401
World Values Survey (2004): study ZM Copperbelt Province 2005 18+ aged, general public, Copperbelt Province, Zambia, 2005 N = 275
Mean
= 6.016
SD
= 2.872
World Values Survey (2004): study CY Famagusta (Ammochostos) 2005 18+ aged, general public, Famagusta (Ammochostos), Cyprus, 2005 N = 167
Mean
= 7.041
SD
= 1.825
World Values Survey (2004): study CY Nicosia (Lefkosia) 2005 18+ aged, general public, Nicosia (Lefkosia), Cyprus, 2005 N = 413
Mean
= 7.027
SD
= 1.925
World Values Survey (2004): study CY Limassol (Lemesos) 2005 18+ aged, general public,Limassol (Lemesos), Cyprus, 2005 N = 121
Mean
= 7.900
SD
= 2.013
World Values Survey (2004): study EE Ida-Virumaa (Isa-Virumaa, Kirde) 1990 18+ aged, general public, Ida-Virumaa (Isa-Virumaa) region, Estonia, 1990-1999 N = 148
Mean
= 5.011
SD
= 2.366
World Values Survey (2004): study LV Riga 1990 18+ aged, general public, Riga region, Latvia, 1990 N = 69
Mean
= 5.200
SD
= 2.427
World Values Survey (2004): study LV Vidzeme 1990 18+ aged, general public, Vidzeme region, Latvia, 19901999 N = 103
Mean
= 4.471
SD
= 2.167
World Values Survey (2004): study LV Latgale 1990 18+ aged, general public, Latgale region, Latvia, 1990 N = 105
Mean
= 4.866
SD
= 2.140
World Values Survey (2004): study ZA ZA Northern cape 1990 18+ aged, general public, ZA Northern cape, South Africa, 1990-2005 N = 230
Mean
= 6.544
SD
= 2.607
World Values Survey (2004): study ZA Johannesburg 1990 18+ aged, general public, City of Johannesburg, South Africa, 1990-2005 N = 213
Mean
= 7.311
SD
= 2.070
World Values Survey (2004): study ZA Reaf/Vaal 1990 18+ aged, general public, Reaf/Vaal, South Africa, 1990-2005 N = 241
Mean
= 7.580
SD
= 1.794
World Values Survey (2004): study ZA Cape Town 1990 18+ aged, general public, City of Cape Town, South Africa, 1990-2005 N = 105
Mean
= 7.823
SD
= 1.630
World Values Survey (2004): study CH Ticino 1989 18+ aged, general public, Ticino, Switzerland, 1989-2005 N = 201
Mean
= 7.971
SD
= 1.918
World Values Survey (2004): study CH Switserland Italian 1989 18+ aged, general public, Italian speaking regions, Switzerland, 1989-2005 N = 196
Mean
= 7.754
SD
= 1.872
World Values Survey (2004): study CH Zürich 1989 18+ aged, general public, Zürich, Switzerland, 1989-2005 N = 101
Mean
= 8.253
SD
= 1.612
World Values Survey (2004): study UG Kampala 1989 18+ aged, general public, Kampala region, Uganda, 1989-2005 N = 144
Mean
= 5.799
SD
= 2.205
World Values Survey (2004): study ZW Mashonaland East 2001 18+ aged, general public, Mashonaland East, Zimbabwe, 2001 N = 101
Mean
= 3.885
SD
= 2.930
World Values Survey (2004): study ZW Masvingo 2001 18+ aged, general public, Masvingo, Zimbabwe, 2001 N = 113
Mean
= 3.685
SD
= 2.450
World Values Survey (2004): study ZW Midlands 2001 18+ aged, general public, Midlands, Zimbabwe, 2001 N = 118
Mean
= 4.098
SD
= 2.952
Inglehart et al. (2008): study NZ 2004 18+ aged, general public, New Zealand, 2004 N = 954
Mean
= 7.886
SD
= 1.867
World Values Survey (2004): study RS 1996 18+ aged, general public, Serbia, 1996 N = 1265
Mean
= 5.560
SD
= 2.447
Healy (2005): study IE 1981 18+ aged, general public, Ireland, 1981-2002 N = 988
Mean
= 8.150
SD
= 1.857
Oishi et al. (2007a): study DE 1984 16+ aged, general population, Germany, 1984-2003 N = 3000
Okulicz-Kozaryn (2010a): study ZZ World samples 1999 18+ aged, general public, 70 nations, 1999-2008, N = 36460
Okulicz-Kozaryn (2011): study ZZ 1999 18+ aged, general public, 70 nations, 1999-2008 N = 21486
World Values Survey (2004): study BA 2001 18+ aged, general public, Bosnia Herzegovina, 2001 N = 1200
Mean
= 5.770
SD
= 2.383
Bartolini et al. (2009a): study ZZ 1986 18+ aged, general public, 19 countries, 1986-2008 N = 40000
Mean
= 7.342
Gökdemir & Dumludag (2012): study NL 2010 Adults, Turkish and Moroccan immigrants, The Netherlands, 2010 N = 207
Mean
= 7.220
Orizo (1991): study ES 1990 18+ aged. Spain, 1990. N = 1510
Mean
= 7.150
SD
= 1.920
Orizo & Sanchez-Fernandez (1991): study ES Cataluna 1991 18+ aged, Catalonia. Spain, 1990. N = 500
Mean
= 7.210
SD
= 1.910
Daly et al. (2011): study ZZ Western nations 2005 Adults, general public, Western Countries, 2005-2008 N = 0
Mean
= 6.708
SD
= 2.336
World Values Survey (2012): study DZ 2012 18+ aged, general public, Algeria, 2012 N = 1166
Mean
= 6.297
SD
= 2.407
World Values Survey (2012): study AZ 2012 18+ aged, general public, Azerbaijan, 2012 N = 1002
Mean
= 6.669
SD
= 2.239
World Values Survey (2012): study AU 2012 18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2012 N = 1477
Mean
= 7.202
SD
= 2.050
World Values Survey (2012): study AM 2012 18+ aged, general public, Armenia, 2012 N = 1100
Mean
= 5.240
SD
= 2.547
World Values Survey (2012): study BY 2012 18+ aged, general public, Belarus, 2012 N = 1535
Mean
= 5.777
SD
= 2.122
World Values Survey (2012): study CL 2012 18+ aged, general public, Chile , 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.269
SD
= 1.820
World Values Survey (2012): study CO 2012 18+ aged, general public, Colombia, 2012 N = 1512
Mean
= 8.384
SD
= 1.788
World Values Survey (2012): study CY 2012 18+ aged, general public, Cyprus, 2012 N = 996
Mean
= 7.168
SD
= 2.037
World Values Survey (2012): study EC 2012 18+ aged, general public, Ecuador, 2012 N = 1200
Mean
= 7.921
SD
= 1.735
World Values Survey (2012): study EE 2012 18+ aged, general public, Estonia, 2012 N = 1533
Mean
= 6.250
SD
= 2.070
World Values Survey (2012): study PS 2012 18+ aged, general public, Palestina, 2012 N = 995
Mean
= 5.622
SD
= 2.491
World Values Survey (2012): study DE 2012 18+ aged, general public, Germany, 2012 N = 2046
Mean
= 7.365
SD
= 1.958
World Values Survey (2012): study GH 2012 18+ aged, general public, Ghana, 2012 N = 1552
Mean
= 6.141
SD
= 2.404
World Values Survey (2012): study IQ 2012 18+ aged, general public, Iraq, 2012 N = 1200
Mean
= 5.919
SD
= 2.182
World Values Survey (2012): study JP 2012 18+ aged, general public, Japan, 2012 N = 2443
Mean
= 6.912
SD
= 1.978
World Values Survey (2012): study KZ 2012 18+ aged, general public, Kazakhstan, 2012 N = 1502
Mean
= 7.235
SD
= 2.103
World Values Survey (2012): study JO 2012 18+ aged, general public, Jordan, 2012 N = 1200
Mean
= 6.608
SD
= 2.237
World Values Survey (2012): study KR 2012 18+ aged, general public, Korea (South), 2012 N = 1200
Mean
= 6.508
SD
= 1.818
World Values Survey (2012): study KG 2012 18+ aged, general public, Kyrgyzstan, 2012 N = 1500
Mean
= 6.966
SD
= 2.166
World Values Survey (2012): study LB 2012 18+ aged, general public, Lebanon, 2012 N = 1200
Mean
= 6.506
SD
= 2.117
World Values Survey (2012): study LY 2012 18+ aged, general public, Libya, 2012 N = 2131
Mean
= 7.247
SD
= 2.545
World Values Survey (2012): study MY 2012 18+ aged, general public, Malaysia, 2012 N = 1300
Mean
= 7.134
SD
= 1.803
World Values Survey (2012): study MX 2012 18+ aged, general public, Mexico, 2012 N = 2000
Mean
= 8.502
SD
= 1.942
World Values Survey (2012): study MA 2012 18+ aged, general public, Morocco, 2012 N = 1200
Mean
= 5.940
SD
= 2.481
World Values Survey (2012): study NL 2012 18+ aged, general public, Netherlands, 2012 N = 1902
Mean
= 7.494
SD
= 1.352
World Values Survey (2012): study NZ 2012 18+ aged, general public, New Zealand, 2012 N = 841
Mean
= 7.641
SD
= 1.945
World Values Survey (2012): study NG 2012 18+ aged, general public, Nigeria, 2012 N = 1759
Mean
= 6.252
SD
= 2.377
World Values Survey (2012): study PK 2012 18+ aged, general public, Pakistan, 2012 N = 1200
Mean
= 7.543
SD
= 2.098
World Values Survey (2012): study PE 2012 18+ aged, general public, Peru, 2012 N = 1206
Mean
= 7.137
SD
= 2.193
World Values Survey (2012): study PH 2012 18+ aged, general public, Philippines, 2012 N = 1200
Mean
= 7.328
SD
= 2.840
World Values Survey (2012): study PL 2012 18+ aged, general public, Poland, 2012 N = 996
Mean
= 7.088
SD
= 1.966
World Values Survey (2012): study QA 2012 18+ aged, general public, Qatar, 2012 N = 1060
Mean
= 8.000
SD
= 1.929
World Values Survey (2012): study RO 2012 18+ aged, general public, Romania, 2012 N = 1503
Mean
= 6.686
SD
= 2.391
World Values Survey (2012): study RU 2012 18+ aged, general public, Russia, 2012 N = 2500
Mean
= 6.174
SD
= 2.181
World Values Survey (2012): study RW 2012 18+ aged, general public, Rwanda, 2012 N = 1527
Mean
= 6.462
SD
= 1.611
World Values Survey (2012): study SG 2012 18+ aged, general public, Singapore, 2012 N = 1972
Mean
= 6.959
SD
= 1.632
World Values Survey (2012): study SI 2012 18+ aged, general public, Slovenia, 2012 N = 1069
Mean
= 7.358
SD
= 1.934
World Values Survey (2012): study ZW 2012 18+ aged, general public, Zimbabwe, 2012 N = 1499
Mean
= 5.806
SD
= 2.285
World Values Survey (2012): study ES 2012 18+ aged, general public, Spain, 2012 N = 1189
Mean
= 6.794
SD
= 1.753
World Values Survey (2012): study SE 2012 18+ aged, general public, Sweden, 2012 N = 1206
Mean
= 7.549
SD
= 1.705
World Values Survey (2012): study TT 2012 18+ aged, general public, Trinidad and Tobago, 2012 N = 999
Mean
= 7.466
SD
= 2.110
World Values Survey (2012): study TN 2012 18+ aged, general public, Tunisia, 2012 N = 1205
Mean
= 5.580
SD
= 2.596
World Values Survey (2012): study TR 2012 18+ aged, general public, Turkey, 2012 N = 1605
Mean
= 7.243
SD
= 2.102
World Values Survey (2012): study UA 2012 18+ aged, general public, Ukraine, 2012 N = 1500
Mean
= 5.906
SD
= 2.464
World Values Survey (2012): study EG 2012 18+ aged, general public, Egypt, 2012 N = 1523
Mean
= 4.854
SD
= 2.845
World Values Survey (2012): study US 2012 18+ aged, general public, United States, 2012 N = 2232
Mean
= 7.373
SD
= 1.925
World Values Survey (2012): study UY 2012 18+ aged, general public, Uruguay, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.600
SD
= 2.021
World Values Survey (2012): study UZ 2012 18+ aged, general public, Uzbekistan, 2012 N = 1500
Mean
= 7.889
SD
= 1.861
World Values Survey (2012): study YE 2012 18+ aged, general public, Yemen, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 5.887
SD
= 2.661
World Values Survey (2012): study CN 2012 18+ aged, general public, China, 2012 N = 2300
Mean
= 6.852
SD
= 1.980
World Values Survey (2012): study TW 2012 18+ aged, general public, Taiwan, 2012 N = 1238
Mean
= 6.895
SD
= 2.061
Benesch et al. (2007): study ZZ World samples 1995 /1 15+ aged, general public, 45 nations, 1995-2003 N = 72012
Mean
= 6.650
SD
= 2.440
BCS (2010): study ZZ World samples 2005 18+ aged, general public, World, 2005 N = 35000
Rodriguez-Pose & Maslauskaite (2011): study ZZ 1999 15+ aged, general public, 10 Central and Eastern European Nations, 1999, 2008 N = 25000
Flavin et al. (2011): study ZZ Developed nations 2005 15+ aged, general public, 15 Industrialized Democracies, 2005-2009. N = 10405
Mean
= 7.480
SD
= 1.870
Helliwell & Huang (2006): study ZZ 1981 15+ aged, general public, 72 nations, 1981-2000 N = 163000
Mean
= 6.720
SD
= 1.100
Leite Mota & Trigo Pereira (2008): study ZZ OECD member states 1981 15+ aged, general public, 32 OECD member states, 1981-2001. N = 31904
Radcliff (2005): study ZZ 1990 15+ aged, general public, 17 developed nations, 1990 N = 17000
Bray & Gunnell (2006): study ZZ 1999 Adults,, general public, Europe, Multiple nations, 1999 N = 32678
Fleche et al. (2011): study ZZ OECD member states 1994 18+ aged, general public, 32 OECD member states,1994-2008 N = 92338
Mean
= 7.200
World Values Survey (2012): study AR 2012 18+ aged, general public, Argentina, 2012 N = 1030
Mean
= 7.491
SD
= 1.622
World Values Survey (2012): study KW 2012 18+ aged, general public, Kuwait, 2012 N = 1303
Mean
= 7.211
SD
= 2.280
World Values Survey (2012): study TH 2012 18+ aged, general public, Thailand, 2012 N = 1200
Mean
= 7.567
SD
= 1.936
World Values Survey (2012): study ZA 2012 18+ aged, general public, South Africa, 2012 N = 3531
Mean
= 6.628
SD
= 2.315
Fischer (2008a): study ZZ 1997 18+ aged general public, 60 nations, 1997-2001 N = 79064
Mean
= 6.680
SD
= 2.570
Gehring (2013): study ZZ World samples 1981 18+ aged, 79 countries, 1981-2007 N = 200000
Mean
= 6.715
SD
= 1.024
Tsai (2009): study ZZ World samples 1990 18+ aged, 76 countries, 1990s N = 80000
Mean
= 6.830
SD
= 0.800
Verme (2008): study ZZ World samples 1981 18+ aged, general public, 74 countries, 1981-2004 N = 267870
Elliott & Hayward (2009): study ZZ World samples 1999 18+aged, general public, 65 countries, 1999-2004 N = 93142
Mean
= 6.370
SD
= 2.580
Helliwell & Huang (2010): study CA 2002 Workers, Canada, 2002-2003. N = 1862
Welzel & Inglehart (2010): study ZZ World samples 1995 18+ aged, general public, 89 nations, 1995-2005 N = 250000
Rode (2013): study ZZ World samples 1995 18+ years, general public, 87 countries, 1995-2005 N = 180000
Mean
= 6.600
SD
= 1.050
Stanca (2016): study ZZ 1981 15+ aged, general public, 100 nations 1981-2014 N = 400894
Mean
= 6.700
SD
= 2.400
Fleche et al. (2011): study AU 1994 18+ aged, general public, Australia,1994-2008 N = 2925
Fleche et al. (2011): study AT 1981 18+ aged, general public, Austria, 1981-2008 N = 1186
Fleche et al. (2011): study BE 1981 18+ aged, general public, Belgium, 1981-2008 N = 1385
Fleche et al. (2011): study CA 1994 18+ aged, general public, Canada,1994-2008 N = 3358
Fleche et al. (2011): study CZ 1981 18+ aged, general public, Czech Republic, 1981-2008 N = 1603
Fleche et al. (2011): study DK 1981 18+ aged, general public, Denmark, 1981-2008 N = 767
Fleche et al. (2011): study EE 1981 18+ aged, general public, Estonia, 1981-2008 N = 816
Fleche et al. (2011): study FI 1994 18+ aged, general public, Finland, 1994-2008 N = 1743
Easterlin (2016): study ZZ World samples 1981 18+ aged general public in 58 nations, followed 1981-2010 N = 400000
Easterlin et al. (2010): study ZZ World samples 1971 18+ aged general public, 37 nations followed 12-34 years, 1971-2005 N = 240000
Sacks et al. (2010): study ZZ World samples 1981 /1 18+ general public, 61 countries, 1981-2004 N = 116527
Sacks et al. (2010): study ZZ World samples 1981 18+ aged general public, 79 nations, 1981-2004 N = 300000
Layard et al. (2009): study ZZ Western Europe 1973 18+ aged general public, 16 EU countries, 1973-2007 N = 1350000
Goff et al. (2016): study ZZ 1989 18+ aged, general public, 160 nations, 2008-2014 N = 1430000
Mean
= 6.580
SD
= 2.190
Easterlin (2014a): study ZZ Developing nations 1990 18+ aged, general public, urban areas, developing nations, 1990-2010 N = 7000
Easterlin (2014a): study RU 1988 18+ aged, general public, Russia,1988-2005 N = 200000
Mean
= 6.090
Easterlin (2014a): study BY 1984 18+ aged, general public,Belarus, 1984-1999 N = 200000
Mean
= 4.810
Easterlin (2014a): study HU 1982 18+ aged, general public, Hungary, 1982-2005 N = 200000
Mean
= 6.300
Dumludag (2014): study ZZ 2010 18+ aged, general public, 35 nations in Europe and Asia, 2010 N = 38864
Easterlin & Angelescu McVey (2009): study ZZ World samples 1981 18+ aged, general public, World samples, 1981-2004 N = 195
Ekici & Koydemir (2014a): study TR 1999 15+ aged, general public, Turkey, 1999 N = 1205
Delhey & Kroll (2012): study ZZ OECD member states 2008 18+ aged, general public, OECD member states, 2008 N = 340000
Beja Jr. (2013): study ZZ 2000 Married women, 44 nations, 2000 N = 14013
Helliwell & Huang (2010): study CA 2002 /1 18+ aged, general public, Canada, 2002-2003 N = 1862
Ekici & Koydemir (2014): study TR 2008 15+ aged, general public, Turkey, 2008 N = 2381
Altman et al. (2016): study ZZ OECD member states 1981 18+ aged, general public, OECD member states, 1981-2008 N = 63046
Mean
= 7.490
SD
= 1.900
Nikolova (2016a): study ZZ EU 27 1994 18+ aged general public, 27 EU member states, 1994-2013 N = 90181
Abbott et al. (2016): study CN 2012 18-75 aged, general public, China, 2012-13 N = 2300
Pénard et al. (2011): study LU 2008 18+ aged, general public, Luxemburg, 2008 N = 1332
Mean
= 7.850
SD
= 2.039
Gainer (2013): study ZZ OECD member states 18+ aged, general public, OECD member states, Multiple nations, N = 23000
Davidson et al. (2013): study ZZ OECD member states 1981 18+ aged, general public, OECD member states, Multiple nations, 1981 - 2009 N = 60000
World Values Survey (2020): study AU 2018 18+ aged general public, Australia 2018 N = 1813
Mean
= 7.279
SD
= 1.841
World Values Survey (2020): study AL 2018 18+ aged general public, Albania, 2018 N = 1454
Mean
= 7.194
SD
= 2.467
World Values Survey (2020): study AR 2018 18+ aged general public, Argentina, 2018 N = 1003
Mean
= 7.692
SD
= 1.799
World Values Survey (2020): study AM 2018 18+ aged general public, Armenia, 2018 N = 1501
Mean
= 6.390
SD
= 2.218
World Values Survey (2020): study AT 2018 18+ aged general public, Austria, 2018 N = 1651
Mean
= 7.872
SD
= 1.820
World Values Survey (2020): study AZ 2018 18+ aged general public, Azerbaijan, 2018 N = 1817
Mean
= 6.360
SD
= 2.101
World Values Survey (2020): study BD 2018 18+ aged general public, Bangladesh, 2018 N = 1200
Mean
= 7.597
SD
= 1.859
World Values Survey (2020): study BY 2018 18+ aged general public, Belarus, 2018 N = 1548
Mean
= 6.848
SD
= 2.049
World Values Survey (2020): study BO 2018 18+ aged general public, Bolivia, 2018 N = 2067
Mean
= 7.470
SD
= 2.060
World Values Survey (2020): study BA 2018 18+ aged general public, Bosnia Herzegovina 2018 N = 1735
Mean
= 7.726
SD
= 2.201
World Values Survey (2020): study BR 2018 18+ aged general public, Brazil, 2018 N = 1762
Mean
= 7.540
SD
= 2.331
World Values Survey (2020): study BG 2018 18+ aged general public, Bulgaria, 2018 N = 1566
Mean
= 6.203
SD
= 2.568
World Values Survey (2020): study CO 2018 18+ aged general public, Colombia, 2018 N = 1520
Mean
= 8.188
SD
= 2.153
World Values Survey (2020): study HR 2018 18+ aged general public, Croatia, 2018 N = 1493
Mean
= 7.457
SD
= 2.170
World Values Survey (2020): study CY 2018 18+ aged general public, Cyprus, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 6.909
SD
= 2.139
World Values Survey (2020): study CL 2018 18+ aged general public, Chile, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 7.012
SD
= 2.056
World Values Survey (2020): study CN 2018 18+ aged general public, China, 2018 N = 3036
Mean
= 7.367
SD
= 2.038
World Values Survey (2020): study EC 2018 18+ aged general public, Ecuador, 2018 N = 1200
Mean
= 7.780
SD
= 2.348
World Values Survey (2020): study EG 2018 18+ aged general public, Egypt, 2018 N = 1200
Mean
= 5.866
SD
= 2.312
World Values Survey (2020): study EE 2018 18+ aged general public, Estonia, 2018 N = 1304
Mean
= 7.234
SD
= 1.886
World Values Survey (2020): study ET 2018 18+ aged general public, Ethiopia, 2018 N = 1230
Mean
= 5.776
SD
= 2.835
World Values Survey (2020): study FI 2018 18+ aged general public, Finland, 2018 N = 1220
Mean
= 7.898
SD
= 1.672
World Values Survey (2020): study FR 2018 18+ aged general public, France, 2018 N = 1880
Mean
= 7.261
SD
= 1.950
World Values Survey (2020): study GE 2018 18+ aged general public, Georgia, 2018 N = 2212
Mean
= 6.714
SD
= 2.794
World Values Survey (2020): study DE 2018 18+ aged general public, Germany, 2018 N = 1528
Mean
= 7.739
SD
= 1.685
World Values Survey (2020): study GR 2018 18+ aged general public, Greece, 2018 N = 1200
Mean
= 6.166
SD
= 2.072
World Values Survey (2020): study GT 2018 18+ aged general public, Guatemala, 2018 N = 1203
Mean
= 7.521
SD
= 2.130
World Values Survey (2020): study HK 2018 18+ aged general public, Hong Kong, 2018 N = 2075
Mean
= 6.655
SD
= 1.890
World Values Survey (2020): study HU 2018 18+ aged general public, Hungary, 2018 N = 1519
Mean
= 7.144
SD
= 2.135
World Values Survey (2020): study IS 2018 18+ aged general public, Iceland, 2018 N = 1633
Mean
= 8.056
SD
= 1.649
World Values Survey (2020): study IR 2018 18+ aged general public, Iran, 2018 N = 1499
Mean
= 6.198
SD
= 2.624
World Values Survey (2020): study ID 2018 18+ aged general public, Indonesia,2018 N = 3200
Mean
= 7.564
SD
= 2.382
World Values Survey (2020): study IQ 2018 18+ aged general public, Iraq 2018 N = 1200
Mean
= 4.468
SD
= 1.901
World Values Survey (2020): study IT 2018 18+ aged general public, Italy, 2018 N = 2282
Mean
= 7.277
SD
= 1.829
World Values Survey (2020): study JP 2018 18+ aged general public, Japan, 2019 N = 1353
Mean
= 6.763
SD
= 1.921
World Values Survey (2020): study JO 2018 18+ aged general public, Jordan, 2018 N = 1203
Mean
= 6.864
SD
= 2.422
World Values Survey (2020): study KZ 2018 18+ aged general public, Kazakhstan,2018 N = 1276
Mean
= 6.916
SD
= 2.132
World Values Survey (2020): study KG 2018 18+ aged general public, Kyrgyszstan. 2019 N = 1199
Mean
= 8.397
SD
= 2.282
World Values Survey (2020): study LB 2018 18+ aged general public, Lebanon, 2018 N = 1200
Mean
= 6.683
SD
= 1.562
World Values Survey (2020): study LT 2018 18+ aged general public, Lithuania, 2018 N = 1453
Mean
= 6.753
SD
= 2.053
World Values Survey (2020): study MO 2018 18+ aged general public, Macao, 2019 N = 1023
Mean
= 6.456
SD
= 1.696
World Values Survey (2020): study MY 2018 18+ aged general public, Malaysia, 2018 N = 1313
Mean
= 6.995
SD
= 1.741
World Values Survey (2020): study MX 2018 18+ aged general public, Mexico, 2018 N = 1739
Mean
= 8.146
SD
= 2.057
World Values Survey (2020): study ME 2018 18+ aged general public, Montenegro, 2018 N = 1004
Mean
= 7.535
SD
= 2.012
World Values Survey (2020): study MM 2018 18+ aged general public, Myanmar, 2020 N = 1200
Mean
= 7.203
SD
= 2.594
World Values Survey (2020): study NL 2018 18+ aged general public, Netherlands,2018 N = 2409
Mean
= 7.839
SD
= 1.532
World Values Survey (2020): study NZ 2018 18+ aged general public, New Zealand, 2019 N = 1057
Mean
= 7.550
SD
= 1.870
World Values Survey (2020): study NI 2018 18+ aged general public, Nicaragua, 2019 N = 1200
Mean
= 7.944
SD
= 2.295
World Values Survey (2020): study NG 2018 18+ aged general public, Nigeria, 2018 N = 1237
Mean
= 5.581
SD
= 2.702
World Values Survey (2020): study MK 2018 18+ aged general public, North Macedonia, 2018 N = 1118
Mean
= 7.285
SD
= 2.380
World Values Survey (2020): study NO 2018 18+ aged general public, Norway, 2018 N = 1123
Mean
= 8.008
SD
= 1.679
World Values Survey (2020): study PK 2018 18+ aged general public, Pakistan, 2018 N = 1995
Mean
= 7.659
SD
= 2.411
World Values Survey (2020): study PE 2018 18+ aged general public, Peru, 2018 N = 1400
Mean
= 7.650
SD
= 1.809
World Values Survey (2020): study PH 2018 18+ aged general public, Philippines, 2019 N = 1200
Mean
= 7.400
SD
= 2.482
World Values Survey (2020): study PL 2018 18+ aged general public, Poland, 2018 N = 1358
Mean
= 7.559
SD
= 1.962
World Values Survey (2020): study PR 2018 18+ aged general public, Puerto Rico, 2018 N = 1127
Mean
= 8.407
SD
= 2.130
World Values Survey (2020): study RO 2018 18+ aged general public, Romania, 2018 N = 1616
Mean
= 7.509
SD
= 2.323
World Values Survey (2020): study RO 2018 /1 18+ aged general public, Romania, 2017 N = 1257
Mean
= 7.145
SD
= 2.156
World Values Survey (2020): study RU 2018 /1 18+ aged general public, Russia, 2018 N = 1838
Mean
= 6.371
SD
= 2.239
World Values Survey (2020): study RU 2018 18+ aged general public, Russia, 2017 N = 1810
Mean
= 6.576
SD
= 2.082
World Values Survey (2020): study RS 2018 18+ aged general public, Serbia, 2017 N = 1046
Mean
= 6.704
SD
= 1.998
World Values Survey (2020): study SK 2018 18+ aged general public, Slovakia, 2018 N = 1436
Mean
= 7.303
SD
= 1.905
World Values Survey (2020): study SI 2018 18+ aged general public, Slovenia, 2018 N = 1080
Mean
= 7.670
SD
= 1.701
World Values Survey (2020): study KR 2018 18+ aged general public, South Korea 2018 N = 1245
Mean
= 6.725
SD
= 1.258
World Values Survey (2020): study ES 2018 18+ aged general public, Spain, 2018 N = 1210
Mean
= 7.488
SD
= 1.668
World Values Survey (2020): study SE 2018 18+ aged general public, Sweden, 2018 N = 1198
Mean
= 7.642
SD
= 1.768
World Values Survey (2020): study CH 2018 18+ aged general public, Switzerland, 2018 N = 3181
Mean
= 7.973
SD
= 1.785
World Values Survey (2020): study TW 2018 18+ aged general public, Taiwan, 2019 N = 1223
Mean
= 7.026
SD
= 2.056
World Values Survey (2020): study TJ 2018 18+ aged general public, Tajikistan, 2020 N = 1200
Mean
= 7.954
SD
= 1.870
World Values Survey (2020): study TH 2018 18+ aged general public, Thailand, 2018 N = 1500
Mean
= 6.584
SD
= 2.154
World Values Survey (2020): study TN 2018 Id=17295 18+ aged general public, Tunisia, 2019 N = 1208
Mean
= 5.520
SD
= 2.492
World Values Survey (2020): study TR 2018 18+ aged general public, Turkey, 2018 N = 2415
Mean
= 6.521
SD
= 1.907
World Values Survey (2020): study GB 2018 18+ aged general public, United Kingdom, 2018 N = 1794
Mean
= 7.714
SD
= 1.779
World Values Survey (2020): study US 2018 18+ aged general public, United States of America 2017 N = 2596
Mean
= 7.268
SD
= 1.972
World Values Survey (2020): study VN 2018 18+ aged general public, Vietnam, 2020 N = 1200
Mean
= 8.034
SD
= 1.527
World Values Survey (2020): study ZW 2018 18+ aged general public, Zimbabwe, 2018 N = 1215
Mean
= 4.951
SD
= 3.323
World Values Survey (2020): study RS 2018 /1 18+ aged general public, Serbia, 2018 N = 1520
Mean
= 6.701
SD
= 2.255