print

Happiness Measures

Characteristics

Code:
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a
Focus:
Overall: Happiness in Life (O-HL)
Time frame:
time unspecified (u)
Mode:
1 question (sq)
Scale Type:
verbal scale (v)
Scale Range:
4

Description

Selfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, would you say you are.....?
4  very happy
3  quite happy
2  not very happy
1  not at all happy.

List of Studies Using this Measure

Study Population N Statistics Halman et al. (1987): study ZZ EU 10 1981 /1 18+ aged, general public, EU 10 nations, 1981 N = 12464
Halman et al. (1987): study ZZ EU 10 1981 /2 18+ aged, general public, EU 10, 1981 N = 12464
Fogarty (1985): study GB 1981 Adults, general public, Britain, 1981 N = 1231
Harding (1985): study GB 1981 18+ aged, general public, Great Britain, 1983 N = 1231
Mean
= 3.300
SD
= 0.550
Lerner (1958): study ZZ Middle East 1950 Adults, general public, 6 nations Middle East, 1950 N = 1600
Timmermans (1997): study NL 1990 18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1990 N = 1017
Mean
= 3.390
Timmermans (1997): study DK 1990 18+ aged, general public, Denmark, 1990 N = 1030
Mean
= 3.360
Timmermans (1997): study GB 1990 18+ aged, general public, Britain, 1990 N = 1484
Mean
= 3.280
Timmermans (1997): study DE West Germany 1990 18+ aged, general public, West Germany, 1990 N = 2201
Mean
= 3.030
Timmermans (1997): study IT 1990 18+ aged, general public, Italy, 1990 N = 2010
Mean
= 2.980
Timmermans (1997): study ZA 1990 18+ aged, general public, South Africa, 1990 N = 2736
Mean
= 2.820
Timmermans (1997): study HU 1990 18+ aged, general public, Hungary, 1990 N = 999
Mean
= 2.720
Timmermans (1997): study GB Northern Ireland 1990 18+ aged, general public, North Ireland, 1990 N = 304
Mean
= 3.290
Timmermans (1997): study US 1990 18+ aged, general public, USA, 1990 N = 1839
Mean
= 3.280
Timmermans (1997): study BE 1990 18+ aged, general public, Belgium, 1990 N = 2792
Mean
= 3.310
Timmermans (1997): study ES 1990 18+ aged, general public, Spain, 1990 N = 4147
Mean
= 3.040
Timmermans (1997): study IE 1990 18+ aged, general public, Ireland, 1990 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.360
Timmermans (1997): study CA 1990 18+ aged, general public, Canada, 1990 N = 1730
Mean
= 3.400
Timmermans (1997): study JP 1990 18+ aged, general public, Japan, 1990 N = 1011
Mean
= 3.000
Timmermans (1997): study MX 1990 18+ aged, general public, Mexico, 1990 N = 1531
Mean
= 2.950
Timmermans (1997): study SE 1990 18+ aged, general public, Sweden, 1990 N = 1047
Mean
= 3.360
Timmermans (1997): study NO 1990 18+ aged, general public, Norway, 1990 N = 1239
Mean
= 3.220
Timmermans (1997): study FI 1990 18+ aged, general public, Finland, 1990 N = 588
Mean
= 3.080
Timmermans (1997): study IS 1990 18+ aged, general public, Iceland 1990 N = 702
Mean
= 3.380
Timmermans (1997): study AR 1991 18+ aged, general public, Argentina, 1990 N = 1002
Mean
= 3.070
Timmermans (1997): study KR 1990 18+ aged, general public, South Korea, 1990 N = 1251
Mean
= 2.860
Timmermans (1997): study BR 1990 18+ aged, general public, Brazil 1990 N = 1782
Mean
= 2.930
Timmermans (1997): study IN 1990 18+ aged, general public, India, 1990 N = 2500
Mean
= 2.810
Timmermans (1997): study CH 1989 18+ aged, general public, Switzerland, 1999 N = 1400
Mean
= 3.300
Timmermans (1997): study PL 1989 18+ aged, general public, Poland, 1990 N = 938
Mean
= 2.970
Timmermans (1997): study CL 1990 18+ aged, general public, Chile, 1990 N = 1500
Mean
= 3.030
Timmermans (1997): study BY 1990 18+ aged, general public, Belarus, 1990 N = 1015
Mean
= 2.460
Timmermans (1997): study SI 1992 18+ aged, general public, Slovenia, 1990 N = 1035
Mean
= 2.620
Timmermans (1997): study NG 1990 18+ aged, general public, Nigeria, 1990 N = 1001
Mean
= 2.920
Timmermans (1997): study CZ 1990 18+ aged, general public, Czechoslovakia, 1990 N = 1396
Mean
= 2.670
Timmermans (1997): study BG 1990 18+ aged, general public, Bulgaria, 1990 N = 1034
Mean
= 2.330
Timmermans (1997): study RO 1993 18+ aged, general public, Romania, 1990 N = 1103
Mean
= 2.630
Timmermans (1997): study CN 1990 18+aged, general public, China, 1990 N = 1000
Mean
= 2.920
Timmermans (1997): study PT 1990 18+ aged, general public, Portugal, 1990 N = 1185
Mean
= 2.830
Timmermans (1997): study AT 1990 18+ aged, general public, Austria, 1990 N = 1460
Mean
= 3.190
Timmermans (1997): study TR 1991 18+ aged, general public, Turkey, 1990 N = 1030
Mean
= 3.080
Timmermans (1997): study LT 1990 18+ aged, general public, Lithuania, 1990 N = 1000
Mean
= 2.530
Timmermans (1997): study LV 1990 18+ aged, general public, Latvia, 1990 N = 903
Mean
= 2.520
Timmermans (1997): study EE 1990 18+ aged, general public, Estonia, 1990 N = 1008
Mean
= 2.580
Timmermans (1997): study RU 1991 18+ aged, general public, Russia, 1990 N = 1961
Mean
= 2.520
Timmermans (1997): study FR 1990 18+ aged, general public, France, 1990 N = 1002
Mean
= 3.160
Veenhoven & Timmermans (1998): study ZZ 1990 18+ aged, general public, 45 nations, 1990 N = 45000
Brinkerhoff & Jacob (1986): study ZZ Anglo-America 1983 'Back to the land' mini-farmers, West USA and Canada,198? N = 510
Brinkerhoff & Jacob (1987): study ZZ Anglo-America 1983 'Back to the land' mini farmers, West USA and Canada,1984 N = 554
VanEe & VanDijk (2005): study ZZ Western nations 2004 University students, USA and The Netherlands, 2004 N = 361
Mean
= 3.296
SD
= 0.572
Schyns (1998): study ZZ 1990 18+ aged, general public, 40 nations, early 1990s N = 400000
Peiro (2006): study ZZ 1995 16+ aged, general public, 16 nations, 1995 N = 16000
Mean
= 3.130
Gundelach & Kreiner (2004): study ZZ Western Europe 1999 18 + aged, general public, 9 nations in Western Europe, 1999 N = 10517
Veenhoven (1993b): study ZZ Western Europe 1980 /5 Adults, general public, 10 European nations, circa 1980 N = 10000
Veenhoven (1999a): study ZZ 1992 Adults, general public, 43 nations, early 1990's N = 50000
Veenhoven (1999): study ZZ 1990 Adults, general public, 48 nations, around 1990 N = 75000
Veenhoven (2000a): study ZZ 1992 Adults, general public, 44 nations, early 1990's N = 60000
Veenhoven (2000g): study ZZ 1980 Adults, general public, 41 nations, 1980-1990 N = 50000
Veenhoven (2003b): study ZZ Western Europe 1996 Adults, general public, 8 European nations, 1996 N = 10000
Veenhoven (2003b): study ZZ 1995 Adults, general public, 49 nations, mid 1990s N = 800000
Veenhoven (2003b): study ZZ 1995 /1 Adults, general public, 70 countries, mid 1990s N = 100000
Ovaska & Takashima (2006): study ZZ 1990 18+ aged, general public, 68 nations, 1990-2001. N = 120000
Mean
= 3.010
SD
= 0.270
Ouweneel (2000): study ZZ 1980 Adults, general public, 15 nations 1980, 39 nations 1990 N = 50000
Ouweneel (2002): study ZZ Developed nations 1980 Unemployed adults, 42 nations, 1980-90 N = 60000
Ouweneel (2002): study ZZ Developed nations 1980 /1 Employed and unemployed adults, 42 nations, 1980-90 N = 60000
Rehdanz & Maddison (2005): study ZZ 1972 Adults, general public, 67 nations, 1972-2000 N = 100000
Mean
= 2.990
SD
= 0.280
Welsch (2002a): study ZZ 1991 Adults, general public, 54 nations, 1990s N = 75000
Mean
= 2.730
SD
= 0.340
Sandoval & Guerrero (2001): study PH 1996 Adults, general public, Philippines, 1996-2001 N = 2000
Mean
= 3.290
SD
= 0.660
Veenhoven (2001c): study ZZ 1990 /1 Adults, general public, 48 nations, around 1990 N = 75000
Selim (2008): study TR 1990 18+ aged, general public, Turkey, 1990-2001 N = 6338
Mean
= 3.155
SD
= 0.815
Welsch (2002a): study ZZ 1990 Adults, general public, 54 nations, 1990s N = 75000
Mean
= 2.764
SD
= 0.318
World Values Survey (2000): study ZA 1981 18+ aged, general public, South Africa, 1981 N = 1529
Mean
= 2.910
SD
= 0.849
World Values Survey (2000): study NG 1990 /1 18+ aged, general public, Nigeria, 1990 N = 1500
Mean
= 3.006
SD
= 1.027
World Values Survey (2000): study CA 1981 18+ aged, general public, Canada, 1981 N = 1500
Mean
= 3.309
SD
= 0.549
World Values Survey (2000): study CA 1990 18+ aged, general public, Canada, 1990 N = 1501
Mean
= 3.043
SD
= 0.800
World Values Survey (2000): study US 1981 /1 18+ aged, general public, United States, 1981 N = 1481
Mean
= 3.236
SD
= 0.617
World Values Survey (2000): study US 1990 18+ aged, general public, United States, 1990 N = 1499
Mean
= 3.279
SD
= 0.680
World Values Survey (2000): study CN 1990 /1 18+ aged, general public, China, 1990 N = 1000
Mean
= 2.907
SD
= 0.836
World Values Survey (2000): study IN 1990 /1 18+ aged, general public, India, 1990 N = 1509
Mean
= 2.822
SD
= 0.783
World Values Survey (2000): study KR 1990 18+ aged, general public, Korea,(South), 1990 N = 1501
Mean
= 2.862
SD
= 0.630
World Values Survey (2000): study AU 1981 18+ aged, general public, Australia, 1981 N = 1226
Mean
= 3.303
SD
= 0.565
World Values Survey (2000): study ZZ 1981 18+ aged, general public, Western nations, 1981 N = 12464
Mean
= 3.080
SD
= 0.604
Abrams (1985): study ZZ Northern Europe 1981 18+ aged, general public, Northern Europe, 1981 N = 6431
Mean
= 3.140
SD
= 0.593
Abrams (1985): study ZZ Latin Europe 1981 18+ aged, general public, Latin Europe, 1981 N = 4850
Mean
= 2.970
SD
= 0.630
Abrams (1985): study ZZ Scandinavia 1981 18+ aged, general public, Scandinavian nations, 1981 N = 4308
Mean
= 3.180
SD
= 0.560
World Values Survey (2000): study AT 1990 18+ aged, general public, Austria, 1990 N = 1504
Mean
= 3.195
SD
= 0.628
World Values Survey (2000): study BY 1990 18+ aged, general public, Belarus, 1990 N = 1506
Mean
= 2.460
SD
= 0.709
World Values Survey (2000): study BE 1981 18+ aged, general public, Belgium, 1981 N = 1500
Mean
= 3.282
SD
= 0.589
World Values Survey (2000): study BE 1990 18+ aged, general public, Belgium, 1990 N = 1502
Mean
= 3.310
SD
= 0.646
World Values Survey (2000): study GB 1981 18+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 1981 N = 1499
Mean
= 3.342
SD
= 0.569
World Values Survey (2000): study GB 1990 18+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 1990 N = 1484
Mean
= 3.276
SD
= 0.661
World Values Survey (2000): study BG 1990 18+ aged, general public, Bulgaria, 1990 N = 1499
Mean
= 2.329
SD
= 0.771
World Values Survey (2000): study CZ 1990 18+ aged, general public, Czech Republic, 1990 N = 1497
Mean
= 2.757
SD
= 0.597
World Values Survey (2000): study DK 1981 18+ aged, general public, Denmark, 1981 N = 1499
Mean
= 3.253
SD
= 0.511
World Values Survey (2000): study DK 1990 18+ aged, general public, Denmark, 1990 N = 1496
Mean
= 3.359
SD
= 0.621
World Values Survey (2000): study EE 1990 18+ aged, general public, Estonia, 1990 N = 1008
Mean
= 2.583
SD
= 0.656
World Values Survey (2000): study FI 1981 18+ aged, general public, Finland, 1981 N = 1505
Mean
= 3.097
SD
= 0.491
World Values Survey (2000): study FI 1990 18+ aged, general public, Finland, 1990 N = 1505
Mean
= 3.090
SD
= 0.576
World Values Survey (2000): study FR 1981 18+ aged, general public, France, 1981 N = 1500
Mean
= 3.110
SD
= 0.559
World Values Survey (2000): study FR 1990 18+ aged, general public, France, 1990 N = 1501
Mean
= 3.163
SD
= 0.572
World Values Survey (2000): study XZ Germany West 1981 18+ aged, general public, Germany-West (former), 1981 N = 1499
Mean
= 2.957
SD
= 0.532
World Values Survey (2000): study DE West Germany 1990 18+ aged, general public, West-Germany region, Germany, 1990 N = 1501
Mean
= 3.034
SD
= 0.554
World Values Survey (2000): study DE East Germany 1990 18+ aged, general public, East-Germany, Germany, 1990 N = 1336
Mean
= 2.961
SD
= 0.576
World Values Survey (2000): study HU 1981 18+ aged, general public, Hungary, 1981 N = 1500
Mean
= 2.853
SD
= 0.646
World Values Survey (2000): study HU 1990 18+ aged, general public, Hungary, 1990 N = 1499
Mean
= 2.716
SD
= 0.753
World Values Survey (2000): study IS 1981 18+ aged, general public, Iceland, 1981 N = 1501
Mean
= 3.400
SD
= 0.566
World Values Survey (2000): study IS 1990 18+ aged, general public, Iceland, 1990 N = 1502
Mean
= 3.381
SD
= 0.554
World Values Survey (2000): study IE 1981 18+ aged, general public, Ireland, 1981 N = 1207
Mean
= 3.354
SD
= 0.590
World Values Survey (2000): study IE 1990 18+ aged, general public, Ireland, 1990 N = 1481
Mean
= 3.359
SD
= 0.640
World Values Survey (2000): study IT 1981 18+ aged, general public, Italy, 1981 N = 1500
Mean
= 2.865
SD
= 0.634
World Values Survey (2000): study IT 1990 18+ aged, general public, Italy, 1990 N = 1499
Mean
= 2.991
SD
= 0.603
World Values Survey (2000): study LV 1990 18+ aged, general public, Latvia, 1990 N = 1499
Mean
= 2.519
SD
= 0.595
World Values Survey (2000): study LT 1990 18+ aged, general public, Lithuania, 1990 N = 1000
Mean
= 2.529
SD
= 0.623
World Values Survey (2000): study GB Northern Ireland 1981 18+ aged, general public, Northern Ireland region, United Kingdom, 1981 N = 500
Mean
= 3.330
SD
= 0.579
World Values Survey (2000): study GB Northern Ireland 1990 18+ aged, general public, Northern Ireland region, United Kingdom, 1990 N = 500
Mean
= 3.292
SD
= 0.625
World Values Survey (2000): study NO 1981 18+ aged, general public, Norway, 1981 N = 1498
Mean
= 3.206
SD
= 0.574
World Values Survey (2000): study NO 1990 18+ aged, general public, Norway, 1990 N = 1499
Mean
= 3.224
SD
= 0.577
World Values Survey (2000): study PL 1990 18+ aged, general public, Poland, 1990 N = 1500
Mean
= 2.966
SD
= 0.500
World Values Survey (2000): study PT 1990 18+ aged, general public, Portugal, 1990 N = 1500
Mean
= 2.832
SD
= 0.673
World Values Survey (2000): study RU 1990 18+ aged, general public, Russia, 1990 N = 1508
Mean
= 2.524
SD
= 0.675
World Values Survey (2000): study SI 1992 18+ aged, general public, Slovenia, 1992 N = 1035
Mean
= 2.623
SD
= 0.711
World Values Survey (2000): study ES 1981 18+ aged, general public, Spain, 1981 N = 1501
Mean
= 2.977
SD
= 0.675
World Values Survey (2000): study ES 1990 18+ aged, general public, Spain, 1990 N = 1499
Mean
= 3.042
SD
= 0.630
World Values Survey (2000): study SE 1982 18+ aged, general public, Sweden, 1982 N = 954
Mean
= 3.242
SD
= 0.538
World Values Survey (2000): study SE 1990 18+ aged, general public, Sweden, 1990 N = 1497
Mean
= 3.359
SD
= 0.578
World Values Survey (2000): study CH 1990 18+ aged, general public, Switzerland, 1990 N = 1494
Mean
= 3.298
SD
= 0.580
World Values Survey (2000): study AR 1991 18+ aged, general public, Argentina, 1991 N = 1503
Mean
= 3.066
SD
= 0.816
World Values Survey (2004): study BR 1990 18+ aged, general public, Brazil, 1990 N = 1502
Mean
= 2.943
SD
= 0.723
World Values Survey (2000): study CL 1990 /1 18+ aged, general public, Chile , 1990 N = 1500
Mean
= 3.033
SD
= 0.829
World Values Survey (2000): study MX 1981 /1 18+ aged, general public, Mexico, 1981 N = 1500
Mean
= 3.143
SD
= 0.742
World Values Survey (2000): study MX 1990 18+ aged, general public, Mexico, 1990 N = 1500
Mean
= 2.947
SD
= 0.789
World Values Survey (2000): study ZA 1990 18+ aged, general public, South Africa, 1990 N = 1538
Mean
= 2.818
SD
= 0.896
World Values Survey (2000): study RO 1990 18+ aged, general public, Romania, 1990 N = 1103
Mean
= 2.626
SD
= 0.683
World Values Survey (2000): study SE 1996 18+ aged, general public, Sweden, 1996 N = 1503
Mean
= 3.339
SD
= 0.596
World Values Survey (2004): study AU 1995 18+ aged, general public, Australia, 1995 N = 2048
Mean
= 3.365
SD
= 0.617
World Values Survey (2004): study CH 1996 18+ aged, general public, Switzerland, 1996 N = 1212
Mean
= 3.340
SD
= 0.596
World Values Survey (2004): study NO 1996 18+ aged, general public, Norway, 1996 N = 1127
Mean
= 3.237
SD
= 0.565
World Values Survey (2000): study GB 1998 16+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 1998 N = 1497
Mean
= 3.211
SD
= 0.675
World Values Survey (2000): study VE 1996 16+ aged, general public, Venezuela, 1996 N = 1500
Mean
= 3.476
SD
= 0.639
World Values Survey (2000): study US 1995 18+ aged, general public, United States, 1995 N = 1501
Mean
= 3.402
SD
= 0.614
World Values Survey (2004): study FI 1996 16+ aged, general public, Finland, 1996 N = 1499
Mean
= 3.152
SD
= 0.572
World Values Survey (2000): study PL 1997 16+ aged, general public, Poland, 1997 N = 1499
Mean
= 3.018
SD
= 0.633
World Values Survey (2000): study DE West Germany 1997 18+ aged, general public, West-Germany region, Germany, 1997 N = 1495
Mean
= 3.026
SD
= 0.660
World Values Survey (2000): study BD 1996 16+ aged, general public, Bangladesh, 1996 N = 1501
Mean
= 3.014
SD
= 0.617
World Values Survey (2004): study KR 1996 16+ aged, general public, Korea,(South), 1996 N = 1499
Mean
= 2.998
SD
= 0.510
World Values Survey (2000): study ES 1995 16+ aged, general public, Spain, 1995 N = 1503
Mean
= 3.047
SD
= 0.587
World Values Survey (2004): study UY 1996 16+ aged, general public, Uruguay, 1996 N = 1000
Mean
= 2.982
SD
= 0.693
World Values Survey (2000): study AR 1995 18+ aged, general public, Argentina, 1995 N = 1500
Mean
= 3.092
SD
= 0.728
World Values Survey (2004): study BR 1997 16+ aged, general public, Brazil, 1997 N = 1149
Mean
= 3.028
SD
= 0.674
World Values Survey (2004): study AZ 1996 18+ aged, general public, Azerbaijan, 1996 N = 2002
Mean
= 2.880
SD
= 0.597
World Values Survey (2000): study CL 1996 18+ aged, general public, Chile , 1996 N = 1500
Mean
= 3.064
SD
= 0.698
World Values Survey (2000): study CN 1995 18+ aged, general public, China, 1995 N = 1500
Mean
= 3.052
SD
= 0.660
World Values Survey (2004): study MX 1996 18+ aged, general public, Mexico, 1996 N = 2364
Mean
= 2.919
SD
= 0.834
World Values Survey (2000): study ZA 1995 16+ aged, general public, South Africa, 1995 N = 1495
Mean
= 3.024
SD
= 0.892
World Values Survey (2004): study DO 1996 18+ aged, general public, Dominican Republic, 1996 N = 417
Mean
= 3.051
SD
= 0.785
Inglehart (2004): study HU 1998 18+ aged, general public, Hungary, 1998 N = 650
Mean
= 2.881
SD
= 0.675
World Values Survey (2004): study NG 1995 18+ aged, general public, Nigeria, 1995 N = 1996
Mean
= 3.281
SD
= 0.791
World Values Survey (2004): study IN 1996 18+ aged, general public, India, 1996 N = 2040
Mean
= 3.046
SD
= 0.785
World Values Survey (2004): study GE 1996 18+ aged, general public, Georgia, 1996 N = 2008
Mean
= 2.720
SD
= 0.734
World Values Survey (2000): study LV 1996 16+ aged, general public, Latvia, 1996 N = 1200
Mean
= 2.726
SD
= 0.599
World Values Survey (2000): study EE 1996 16+ aged, general public, Estonia, 1996 N = 1021
Mean
= 2.643
SD
= 0.653
World Values Survey (2004): study AM 1995 16+ aged, general public, Armenia, 1995 N = 2000
Mean
= 2.555
SD
= 0.726
World Values Survey (2000): study LT 1996 16+ aged, general public, Lithuania, 1996 N = 1009
Mean
= 2.556
SD
= 0.664
World Values Survey (2004): study SK 1998 18+ aged, general public, Slovakia, 1998 N = 1095
Mean
= 2.747
SD
= 0.629
World Values Survey (2000): study UA 1996 16+ aged, general public, Ukraine, 1996 N = 1501
Mean
= 2.445
SD
= 0.726
World Values Survey (2000): study BY 1996 16+ aged, general public, Belarus, 1996 N = 1506
Mean
= 2.418
SD
= 0.716
World Values Survey (2000): study MD 1996 16+ aged, general public, Moldova, 1996 N = 1496
Mean
= 2.396
SD
= 0.685
World Values Survey (2004): study BG 1998 16+ aged, general public, Bulgaria, 1998 N = 1501
Mean
= 2.576
SD
= 0.781
World Values Survey (2004): study RU 1995 /1 16+ aged, general public, Russia, 1995 N = 1509
Mean
= 2.496
SD
= 0.728
World Values Survey (2000): study PR 1995 18+ aged, general public, Puerto Rico, 1995 N = 1498
Mean
= 3.332
SD
= 0.662
World Values Survey (2000): study DE East Germany 1997 18+ aged, general public, East-Germany, Germany, 1997 N = 1503
Mean
= 2.905
SD
= 0.688
World Values Survey (2000): study PK 1997 16+ aged, general public, Pakistan, 1997 N = 1969
Mean
= 3.030
SD
= 0.779
World Values Survey (2004): study TW 1995 18+ aged, general public, Taiwan, 1995 N = 780
Mean
= 3.195
SD
= 0.628
World Values Survey (2000): study PE 1996 16+ aged, general public, Peru, 1996 N = 1502
Mean
= 2.906
SD
= 0.823
World Values Survey (2004): study CO 1998 16+ aged, general public, Colombia, 1998 N = 2996
Mean
= 3.304
SD
= 0.752
World Values Survey (2000): study RS 1996 16+ aged, general public, Serbia, 1996 N = 1498
Mean
= 2.802
SD
= 0.729
World Values Survey (2004): study ME 1996 16+ aged, general public, Montenegro, 1996 N = 240
Mean
= 2.826
SD
= 0.677
World Values Survey (2000): study MK 1997 16+ aged, general public, Macedonia, 1997 N = 1502
Mean
= 2.736
SD
= 0.732
World Values Survey (2000): study HR 1995 16+ aged, general public, Croatia, 1995 N = 1498
Mean
= 2.753
SD
= 0.650
World Values Survey (2000): study BA 1997 18+ aged, general public, Bosnia Herzegovina, 1997 N = 1500
Mean
= 2.872
SD
= 0.671
Amarach (2004): study IE 2003 15+ aged, general public, Ireland, 2003 N = 1013
Mean
= 3.210
SD
= 0.588
Amarach (2004): study IE 2001 15+ aged, general public, Ireland, 2001 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.210
SD
= 0.588
World Values Survey (2004): study FR 1999 18+ aged, general public, France, 1999 N = 1615
Mean
= 3.214
SD
= 0.627
World Values Survey (2004): study IT 1999 18+ aged, general public, Italy, 1999 N = 2000
Mean
= 2.952
SD
= 0.693
World Values Survey (2004): study ES 1999 18+ aged, general public, Spain, 1999 N = 2409
Mean
= 3.062
SD
= 0.600
World Values Survey (2004): study PT 1999 18+ aged, general public, Portugal, 1999 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.004
SD
= 0.623
World Values Survey (2004): study GR 1999 18+ aged, general public, Greece, 1999 N = 1142
Mean
= 2.915
SD
= 0.723
World Values Survey (2004): study MT 1999 18+ aged, general public, Malta, 1999 N = 1001
Mean
= 3.159
SD
= 0.694
World Values Survey (2004): study BE 1999 18+ aged, general public, Belgium, 1999 N = 1912
Mean
= 3.332
SD
= 0.673
World Values Survey (2004): study LU 1999 18+ aged, general public, Luxembourg, 1999 N = 1211
Mean
= 3.293
SD
= 0.590
World Values Survey (2004): study DK 1999 18+ aged, general public, Denmark, 1999 N = 1023
Mean
= 3.394
SD
= 0.601
World Values Survey (2004): study SE 1999 18+ aged, general public, Sweden, 1999 N = 1014
Mean
= 3.289
SD
= 0.626
World Values Survey (2004): study FI 2000 18+ aged, general public, Finland, 2000 N = 1038
Mean
= 3.128
SD
= 0.609
World Values Survey (2004): study IS 1999 18+ aged, general public, Iceland, 1999 N = 968
Mean
= 3.436
SD
= 0.562
World Values Survey (2004): study IE 1999 18+ aged, general public, Ireland, 1999 N = 1012
Mean
= 3.380
SD
= 0.578
World Values Survey (2004): study GB Northern Ireland 1999 18+ aged, general public, Northern Ireland region, United Kingdom, 1999 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.416
SD
= 0.612
World Values Survey (2004): study EE 1999 18+ aged, general public, Estonia, 1999 N = 1005
Mean
= 2.703
SD
= 0.648
World Values Survey (2004): study LV 1999 18+ aged, general public, Latvia, 1999 N = 1013
Mean
= 2.606
SD
= 0.677
World Values Survey (2004): study LT 1999 18+ aged, general public, Lithuania, 1999 N = 1018
Mean
= 2.784
SD
= 0.568
World Values Survey (2004): study PL 1999 18+ aged, general public, Poland, 1999 N = 1095
Mean
= 2.928
SD
= 0.702
World Values Survey (2004): study CZ 1998 18+ aged, general public, Czech Republic, 1998 N = 1147
Mean
= 2.956
SD
= 0.538
World Values Survey (2004): study SK 1999 18+ aged, general public, Slovakia, 1999 N = 1512
Mean
= 2.737
SD
= 0.673
World Values Survey (2004): study HU 1999 18+ aged, general public, Hungary, 1999 N = 1000
Mean
= 2.814
SD
= 0.788
World Values Survey (2004): study RO 1999 18+ aged, general public, Romania, 1999 N = 1146
Mean
= 2.389
SD
= 0.742
World Values Survey (2004): study BG 1997 18+ aged, general public, Bulgaria, 1997 N = 1072
Mean
= 2.408
SD
= 0.809
World Values Survey (2004): study SI 1999 18+ aged, general public, Slovenia, 1999 N = 1006
Mean
= 2.912
SD
= 0.665
World Values Survey (2004): study BY 2000 18+ aged, general public, Belarus, 2000 N = 1000
Mean
= 2.688
SD
= 0.652
World Values Survey (2004): study UA 1999 18+ aged, general public, Ukraine, 1999 N = 1207
Mean
= 2.442
SD
= 0.754
World Values Survey (2004): study RU 1999 18+ aged, general public, Russia, 1999 N = 2500
Mean
= 2.460
SD
= 0.752
World Values Survey (2004): study AL 2002 18+ aged, general public, Albania, 2002 N = 1000
Mean
= 2.590
SD
= 0.798
World Values Survey (2004): study DZ 2002 18+ aged, general public, Algeria, 2002 N = 1282
Mean
= 2.965
SD
= 0.668
World Values Survey (2004): study AR 1999 18+ aged, general public, Argentina, 1999 N = 1280
Mean
= 3.128
SD
= 0.754
World Values Survey (2004): study BD 2002 18+ aged, general public, Bangladesh, 2002 N = 1499
Mean
= 2.901
SD
= 0.653
World Values Survey (2004): study BA 2001 18+ aged, general public, Bosnia Herzegovina, 2001 N = 1200
Mean
= 3.021
SD
= 0.680
World Values Survey (2004): study CA 2000 18+ aged, general public, Canada, 2000 N = 1931
Mean
= 3.392
SD
= 0.585
World Values Survey (2004): study CL 2000 18+ aged, general public, Chile , 2000 N = 1200
Mean
= 3.160
SD
= 0.742
World Values Survey (2004): study CN 2001 18+ aged, general public, China, 2001 N = 1000
Mean
= 2.868
SD
= 0.634
World Values Survey (2004): study HR 1999 18+ aged, general public, Croatia, 1999 N = 1003
Mean
= 2.895
SD
= 0.636
World Values Survey (2004): study SV 1999 18+ aged, general public, El Salvador, 1999 N = 1254
Mean
= 3.468
SD
= 0.670
World Values Survey (2004): study EG 2000 16+ aged, general public, Egypt, 2000 N = 3000
Mean
= 3.061
SD
= 0.574
World Values Survey (2004): study IN 2001 18+ aged, general public, India, 2001 N = 1980
Mean
= 2.953
SD
= 0.807
World Values Survey (2004): study ID 2001 18+ aged, general public, Indonesia, 2001 N = 1004
Mean
= 3.152
SD
= 0.492
World Values Survey (2004): study IR 2000 18+ aged, general public, Iran, 2000 N = 2532
Mean
= 2.813
SD
= 0.882
World Values Survey (2004): study IL 2001 18+ aged, general public, Israel, 2001 N = 1199
Mean
= 3.017
SD
= 0.788
World Values Survey (2004): study JO 2001 18+ aged, general public, Jordan, 2001 N = 1223
Mean
= 2.918
SD
= 0.647
Inglehart (2004): study KR 2001 20+ aged, general public, Korea,(South), 2001 N = 1200
Mean
= 2.955
SD
= 0.518
World Values Survey (2004): study MX 2000 18+ aged, general public, Mexico, 2000 N = 1535
Mean
= 3.477
SD
= 0.675
World Values Survey (2004): study MD 2000 18+ aged, general public, Moldova, 2000 N = 1008
Mean
= 2.528
SD
= 0.676
World Values Survey (2004): study MA 2001 18+ aged, general public, Morocco, 2001 N = 2264
Mean
= 3.047
SD
= 0.739
World Values Survey (2004): study NZ 1998 18+ aged, general public, New Zealand, 1998 N = 1201
Mean
= 3.275
SD
= 0.568
World Values Survey (2004): study NG 2000 18+ aged, general public, Nigeria, 2000 N = 2022
Mean
= 3.577
SD
= 0.666
World Values Survey (2004): study PK 2001 18+ aged, general public, Pakistan, 2001 N = 2000
Mean
= 2.938
SD
= 0.713
World Values Survey (2004): study PE 2001 18+ aged, general public, Peru, 2001 N = 1501
Mean
= 2.955
SD
= 0.832
World Values Survey (2004): study PR 1995 18+ aged, general public, Puerto Rico, 1995 N = 720
Mean
= 3.471
SD
= 0.623
World Values Survey (2004): study RS 2001 18+ aged, general public, Serbia, 2001 N = 1200
Mean
= 2.830
SD
= 0.675
World Values Survey (2004): study SG 2002 18+ aged, general public, Singapore, 2002 N = 1512
Mean
= 3.233
SD
= 0.543
World Values Survey (2004): study VN 2001 18+ aged, general public, Viet Nam, 2001 N = 995
Mean
= 3.411
SD
= 0.647
World Values Survey (2004): study ZA 2001 18+ aged, general public, South Africa, 2001 N = 3000
Mean
= 3.117
SD
= 0.851
World Values Survey (2004): study ZW 2001 18+ aged, general public, Zimbabwe, 2001 N = 1002
Mean
= 2.660
SD
= 0.900
World Values Survey (2004): study UG 2001 18+ aged, general public, Uganda, 2001 N = 1002
Mean
= 3.030
SD
= 0.730
World Values Survey (2004): study MK 2001 18+ aged, general public, Macedonia, 2001 N = 1055
Mean
= 2.892
SD
= 0.759
World Values Survey (2004): study TZ 2001 18+ aged, general public, Tanzania, 2001 N = 1171
Mean
= 3.504
SD
= 0.639
World Values Survey (2004): study US 1999 18+ aged, general public, United States, 1999 N = 1200
Mean
= 3.324
SD
= 0.605
World Values Survey (2004): study VE 2000 18+ aged, general public, Venezuela, 2000 N = 1200
Mean
= 3.423
SD
= 0.742
World Values Survey (2004): study ME 2001 18+ aged, general public, Montenegro, 2001 N = 1060
Mean
= 2.757
SD
= 0.633
Latinobarómetro (2010): study CO 2003 18+ aged, general public, Colombia, 2003 N = 1215
Mean
= 3.360
SD
= 0.755
World Values Survey (2000): study AR 1984 18+ aged, general public, Argentina, 1984 N = 1005
Mean
= 2.951
SD
= 0.649
World Values Survey (2000): study PH 1996 18+ aged, general public, Philippines, 1996 N = 1500
Mean
= 3.318
SD
= 0.639
World Values Survey (2000): study SK 1990 18+ aged, general public, Slovakia, 1990 N = 1491
Mean
= 2.508
SD
= 0.657
World Values Survey (2004): study PH 2001 18+ aged, general public, Philippines, 2001 N = 1200
Mean
= 3.255
SD
= 0.679
World Values Survey (2012): study IQ 2004 18+ aged, general public, Iraq, 2004 N = 2325
Mean
= 2.658
SD
= 0.838
World Values Survey (2004): study AL 1998 18+ aged, general public, Albania, 1998 N = 999
Mean
= 2.264
SD
= 0.696
World Values Survey (2004): study KG 2003 18+ aged, general public, Kyrgyzstan, 2003 N = 1043
Mean
= 3.039
SD
= 0.607
World Values Survey (2004): study SA 2003 18+ aged, general public, Saudi Arabia, 2003 N = 1502
Mean
= 3.353
SD
= 0.652
World Values Survey (2004): study DE 1997 18+ aged, general public, Germany, 1997 N = 1017
Mean
= 3.001
SD
= 0.667
World Values Survey (2004): study RO 1998 18+ aged, general public, Romania, 1998 N = 1239
Mean
= 2.550
SD
= 0.704
World Values Survey (2004): study SI 1995 18+ aged, general public, Slovenia, 1995 N = 1007
Mean
= 2.852
SD
= 0.673
Eurobarometer (2011d): study DE 2006 15+ aged, general public, Germany, 2006 N = 1504
Mean
= 3.030
SD
= 0.714
Inglehart et al. (2008): study CO 2005 18+ aged, general public, Colombia, 2005 N = 3025
Mean
= 3.350
SD
= 0.722
Inglehart et al. (2008): study MD 2006 18+ aged, general public, Moldova, 2006 N = 1046
Mean
= 2.486
SD
= 0.845
Inglehart et al. (2008): study MX 2005 18+ aged, general public, Mexico, 2005 N = 1560
Mean
= 3.487
SD
= 0.677
Inglehart et al. (2008): study IT 2005 18+ aged, general public, Italy, 2005 N = 1012
Mean
= 3.070
SD
= 0.568
Inglehart et al. (2008): study IN 2006 18+ aged, general public, India, 2006 N = 2001
Mean
= 3.019
SD
= 0.784
Inglehart et al. (2008): study GB 2006 18+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 2006 N = 1038
Mean
= 3.432
SD
= 0.649
Inglehart et al. (2008): study DE West Germany 2006 18+ aged, general public, West-Germany, Germany, 2006 N = 1076
Mean
= 3.089
SD
= 0.604
Inglehart et al. (2008): study DE East Germany 2006 18+ aged, general public,East-Germany, Germany, 2006 N = 1076
Mean
= 2.961
SD
= 0.662
Inglehart et al. (2008): study AD 2006 18+ aged, general public, Andorra, 2006 N = 1003
Mean
= 3.200
SD
= 0.582
Inglehart et al. (2008): study FI 2005 18+ aged, general public, Finland, 2005 N = 1014
Mean
= 3.204
SD
= 0.607
Inglehart et al. (2008): study CN 2007 18+ aged, general public, China, 2007 N = 2015
Mean
= 2.938
SD
= 0.750
Inglehart et al. (2008): study CL 2005 18+ aged, general public, Chile , 2005 N = 992
Mean
= 3.083
SD
= 0.746
Inglehart et al. (2008): study BG 2006 18+ aged, general public, Bulgaria, 2006 N = 1001
Mean
= 2.604
SD
= 0.794
Inglehart et al. (2008): study BR 2006 18+ aged, general public, Brazil, 2006 N = 1495
Mean
= 3.240
SD
= 0.629
Inglehart et al. (2008): study ZA 2007 18+ aged, general public, South Africa, 2007 N = 2988
Mean
= 3.149
SD
= 0.900
Inglehart et al. (2008): study FR 2005 18+ aged, general public, France, 2005 N = 1001
Mean
= 3.250
SD
= 0.674
Inglehart et al. (2008): study US 2006 18+ aged, general public, United States, 2006 N = 1249
Mean
= 3.272
SD
= 0.592
Inglehart et al. (2008): study UA 2006 18+ aged, general public, Ukraine, 2006 N = 995
Mean
= 2.832
SD
= 0.689
Inglehart et al. (2008): study TR 2007 18+ aged, general public, Turkey, 2007 N = 1346
Mean
= 3.193
SD
= 0.776
Inglehart et al. (2008): study TW 2006 18+ aged, general public, Taiwan, 2006 N = 1227
Mean
= 3.039
SD
= 0.671
Inglehart et al. (2008): study CH 2007 18+ aged, general public, Switzerland, 2007 N = 1241
Mean
= 3.360
SD
= 0.601
Inglehart et al. (2008): study SE 2006 18+ aged, general public, Sweden, 2006 N = 1003
Mean
= 3.389
SD
= 0.576
Inglehart et al. (2008): study ES 2007 18+ aged, general public, Spain, 2007 N = 1195
Mean
= 3.049
SD
= 0.496
Inglehart et al. (2008): study KR 2005 18+ aged, general public, Korea,(South), 2005 N = 1198
Mean
= 2.994
SD
= 0.531
Inglehart et al. (2008): study SI 2005 18+ aged, general public, Slovenia, 2005 N = 1037
Mean
= 2.966
SD
= 0.665
Inglehart et al. (2008): study RS 2006 18+ aged, general public, Serbia, 2006 N = 1220
Mean
= 2.689
SD
= 0.728
Inglehart et al. (2008): study RU 2005 18+ aged, general public, Russia, 2005 N = 2033
Mean
= 2.757
SD
= 0.697
Inglehart et al. (2008): study RO 2005 18+ aged, general public, Romania, 2005 N = 1776
Mean
= 2.556
SD
= 0.737
Inglehart et al. (2008): study PL 2005 18+ aged, general public, Poland, 2005 N = 989
Mean
= 3.122
SD
= 0.576
Gallup (2008a): study AU 2005 18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2005 N = 1421
Mean
= 3.266
SD
= 0.622
Inglehart et al. (2008): study BF 2005 18+ aged, general public, Burkina Faso, 2005 N = 1534
Mean
= 3.005
SD
= 0.749
Inglehart et al. (2008): study CY 2005 18+ aged, general public, Cyprus, 2005 N = 1050
Mean
= 3.213
SD
= 0.723
Inglehart et al. (2008): study EG 2005 18+ aged, general public, Egypt, 2005 N = 3051
Mean
= 2.908
SD
= 0.562
Inglehart et al. (2008): study GH 2005 18+ aged, general public, Ghana, 2005 N = 1534
Mean
= 3.246
SD
= 0.881
Inglehart et al. (2008): study ET 2005 18+ aged, general public, Ethiopia, 2005 N = 1490
Mean
= 2.881
SD
= 0.900
Inglehart et al. (2008): study HK 2005 18+ aged, general public, Hong Kong, 2005 N = 1252
Mean
= 2.905
SD
= 0.485
Inglehart et al. (2008): study IQ 2005 18+ aged, general public, Iraq, 2005 N = 2701
Mean
= 2.423
SD
= 0.849
Inglehart et al. (2008): study IR 2005 18+ aged, general public, Iran, 2005 N = 2667
Mean
= 2.942
SD
= 0.716
Inglehart et al. (2008): study JO 2005 18+ aged, general public, Jordan, 2005 N = 1196
Mean
= 3.145
SD
= 0.688
Inglehart et al. (2008): study ID 2005 18+ aged, general public, Indonesia, 2005 N = 2015
Mean
= 3.185
SD
= 0.550
Inglehart et al. (2008): study ML 2005 18+ aged, general public, Mali, 2005 N = 1534
Mean
= 3.203
SD
= 0.774
Inglehart et al. (2008): study NZ 2005 18+ aged, general public, New Zealand, 2005 N = 954
Mean
= 3.357
SD
= 0.535
Inglehart et al. (2008): study PE 2005 18+ aged, general public, Peru, 2005 N = 1489
Mean
= 2.939
SD
= 0.809
Inglehart et al. (2008): study MY 2005 18+ aged, general public, Malaysia, 2005 N = 1201
Mean
= 3.310
SD
= 0.572
Inglehart et al. (2008): study TT 2005 18+ aged, general public, Trinidad and Tobago, 2005 N = 1002
Mean
= 3.367
SD
= 0.752
Inglehart et al. (2008): study AR 2005 18+ aged, general public, Argentina, 2005 N = 1002
Mean
= 3.199
SD
= 0.667
Inglehart et al. (2008): study TH 2005 18+ aged, general public, Thailand, 2005 N = 1534
Mean
= 3.324
SD
= 0.624
Inglehart et al. (2008): study ZM 2005 18+ aged, general public, Zambia, 2005 N = 1463
Mean
= 2.775
SD
= 0.755
Inglehart et al. (2008): study VN 2005 18+ aged, general public, Viet Nam, 2005 N = 1495
Mean
= 3.145
SD
= 0.546
Inglehart et al. (2008): study MA 2005 18+ aged, general public, Morocco, 2005 N = 1197
Mean
= 3.027
SD
= 0.721
Inglehart et al. (2008): study RW 2005 18+ aged, general public, Rwanda, 2005 N = 1507
Mean
= 2.951
SD
= 0.577
Labucay (2005): study PH 1998 15+ aged, general public, Philippines, 1998 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.030
SD
= 0.754
Labucay (2005): study PH 2001 15+ aged, general public, Philippines, 2001 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.101
SD
= 0.759
Labucay (2005): study PH 2001 /1 15+ aged, general public, Philippines, 2001 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.170
SD
= 0.749
Labucay (2005): study PH 2002 15+ aged, general public, Philippines, 2002 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.140
SD
= 0.749
Labucay (2005): study PH 2003 15+ aged, general public, Philippines, 2003 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.130
SD
= 0.783
Labucay (2005): study PH 2004 15+ aged, general public, Philippines, 2004 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.040
SD
= 0.761
Labucay (2005): study PH South-Luzon 2004 18+ aged general public, South Luzon, Philippines, 2004 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.050
SD
= 0.740
Labucay (2005): study PH Balance -Visayas 2004 18+ aged general public, Balance-Visayas region, Philippines, 2004 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.120
SD
= 0.816
Labucay (2005): study PH Mindanao 2004 18+ aged general public, Mindanao, Philippines, 2004 N = 1000
Mean
= 2.970
SD
= 0.741
Eurobarometer (2011d): study FR 2006 15+ aged, general public, France, 2006 N = 1002
Mean
= 3.210
SD
= 0.636
Eurobarometer (2011d): study BE 2006 15+ aged, general public, Belgium, 2006 N = 1009
Mean
= 3.328
SD
= 0.609
Eurobarometer (2011d): study NL 2006 15+ aged, general public, Netherlands, 2006 N = 1020
Mean
= 3.378
SD
= 0.596
Eurobarometer (2011d): study XZ Germany West 2006 15+ aged, general public, Germany-West (former), 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.071
SD
= 0.700
Eurobarometer (2011d): study IT 2006 15+ aged, general public, Italy, 2006 N = 1038
Mean
= 2.980
SD
= 0.615
Eurobarometer (2011d): study LU 2006 15+ aged, general public, Luxembourg, 2006 N = 502
Mean
= 3.303
SD
= 0.629
Eurobarometer (2011d): study GB 2006 15+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 2006 N = 1014
Mean
= 3.311
SD
= 0.612
Eurobarometer (2011d): study IE 2006 15+ aged, general public, Ireland, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.402
SD
= 0.616
Eurobarometer (2011d): study GB Northern Ireland 2006 15+ aged, general public, Northern Ireland region, United Kingdom, 2006 N = 301
Mean
= 3.368
SD
= 0.591
Eurobarometer (2011d): study GR 2006 15+ aged, general public, Greece, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 2.965
SD
= 0.739
Eurobarometer (2011d): study ES 2006 15+ aged, general public, Spain, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.119
SD
= 0.592
Eurobarometer (2011d): study PT 2006 15+ aged, general public, Portugal, 2006 N = 1004
Mean
= 3.007
SD
= 0.624
Eurobarometer (2011d): study DE East Germany 2006 15+ aged, general public, East-Germany, Germany, 2006 N = 504
Mean
= 2.929
SD
= 0.707
Eurobarometer (2011d): study FI 2006 15+ aged, general public, Finland, 2006 N = 1028
Mean
= 3.212
SD
= 0.563
Eurobarometer (2011d): study SE 2006 15+ aged, general public, Sweden, 2006 N = 1014
Mean
= 3.326
SD
= 0.589
Eurobarometer (2011d): study AT 2006 15+ aged, general public, Austria, 2006 N = 1029
Mean
= 3.029
SD
= 0.628
Eurobarometer (2011d): study CY 2006 15+ aged, general public, Cyprus, 2006 N = 504
Mean
= 3.074
SD
= 0.661
Eurobarometer (2011d): study CZ 2006 15+ aged, general public, Czech Republic, 2006 N = 1150
Mean
= 3.016
SD
= 0.575
Eurobarometer (2011d): study EE 2006 15+ aged, general public, Estonia, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 2.848
SD
= 0.636
Eurobarometer (2011d): study HU 2006 15+ aged, general public, Hungary, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 2.774
SD
= 0.821
Eurobarometer (2011d): study LV 2006 15+ aged, general public, Latvia, 2006 N = 1019
Mean
= 2.817
SD
= 0.676
Eurobarometer (2011d): study LT 2006 15+ aged, general public, Lithuania, 2006 N = 1025
Mean
= 2.818
SD
= 0.697
Eurobarometer (2011d): study MT 2006 15+ aged, general public, Malta, 2006 N = 500
Mean
= 3.133
SD
= 0.662
Eurobarometer (2011d): study PL 2006 15+ aged, general public, Poland, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.055
SD
= 0.585
Eurobarometer (2011d): study SK 2006 15+ aged, general public, Slovakia, 2006 N = 1003
Mean
= 2.856
SD
= 0.612
Eurobarometer (2011d): study SI 2006 15+ aged, general public, Slovenia, 2006 N = 1019
Mean
= 3.141
SD
= 0.623
Eurobarometer (2011d): study BG 2006 15+ aged, general public, Bulgaria, 2006 N = 1023
Mean
= 2.338
SD
= 0.837
Eurobarometer (2011d): study RO 2006 15+ aged, general public, Romania, 2006 N = 1000
Mean
= 2.628
SD
= 0.760
World Values Survey (2000): study NL 1981 18+ aged, general public, Netherlands, 1981 N = 1221
Mean
= 3.302
SD
= 0.538
World Values Survey (2000): study NL 1990 18+ aged, general public, Netherlands, 1990 N = 1017
Mean
= 3.379
SD
= 0.644
World Values Survey (2004): study NL 1999 18+ aged, general public, Netherlands, 1999 N = 1003
Mean
= 3.406
SD
= 0.601
World Values Survey (2012): study NL 2006 18+ aged, general public, Netherlands, 2006 N = 1050
Mean
= 3.355
SD
= 0.606
World Values Survey (2012): study NL 2008 18+ aged, general public, Netherlands, 2008 N = 1552
Mean
= 3.525
SD
= 0.573
Halman et al. (1987): study ZZ EU 10 1981 18+ aged, general public, EU 10 nations, 1981 N = 12464
Bartolini et al. (2009a): study ZZ 1986 18+ aged, general public, 19 countries, 1986-2008 N = 40000
Mean
= 3.167
Orizo (1991): study ES 1990 18+ aged. Spain, 1990. N = 1510
Mean
= 3.050
SD
= 0.630
Orizo & Sanchez-Fernandez (1991): study ES Cataluna 1991 18+ aged, Catalonia. Spain, 1990. N = 500
Mean
= 3.100
SD
= 0.610
Appleton & Song (2008): study CN 1990 18+ aged general public, China, 1990-2000 N = 0
Kemmerling (2014): study ZZ 2005 18+ aged, general public, 54 nations, 2005 N = 100000
World Values Survey (2012): study DZ 2012 18+ aged, general public, Algeria, 2012 N = 1166
Mean
= 2.945
SD
= 0.711
World Values Survey (2012): study AZ 2012 18+ aged, general public, Azerbaijan, 2012 N = 1002
Mean
= 3.052
SD
= 0.736
World Values Survey (2012): study AU 2012 18+ aged, general public, Australia, 2012 N = 1477
Mean
= 3.279
SD
= 0.597
World Values Survey (2012): study AM 2012 18+ aged, general public, Armenia, 2012 N = 1100
Mean
= 3.091
SD
= 0.796
World Values Survey (2012): study BY 2012 18+ aged, general public, Belarus, 2012 N = 1535
Mean
= 2.749
SD
= 0.697
World Values Survey (2012): study CL 2012 18+ aged, general public, Chile , 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.084
SD
= 0.644
World Values Survey (2012): study CN 2012 18+ aged, general public, China, 2012 N = 2300
Mean
= 3.002
SD
= 0.581
World Values Survey (2012): study TW 2012 18+ aged, general public, Taiwan, 2012 N = 1238
Mean
= 3.158
SD
= 0.608
World Values Survey (2012): study CO 2012 18+ aged, general public, Colombia, 2012 N = 1512
Mean
= 3.476
SD
= 0.662
World Values Survey (2012): study CY 2012 18+ aged, general public, Cyprus, 2012 N = 996
Mean
= 3.045
SD
= 0.737
World Values Survey (2012): study DE 2012 18+ aged, general public, Germany, 2012 N = 2046
Mean
= 3.068
SD
= 0.652
World Values Survey (2012): study EC 2012 18+ aged, general public, Ecuador, 2012 N = 1200
Mean
= 3.502
SD
= 0.645
World Values Survey (2012): study EE 2012 18+ aged, general public, Estonia, 2012 N = 1533
Mean
= 2.888
SD
= 0.629
World Values Survey (2012): study PL 2012 18+ aged, general public, Poland, 2012 N = 996
Mean
= 2.795
SD
= 0.693
World Values Survey (2012): study EG 2012 18+ aged, general public, Egypt, 2012 N = 1523
Mean
= 1.873
SD
= 0.918
World Values Survey (2012): study ES 2012 18+ aged, general public, Spain, 2012 N = 1189
Mean
= 3.011
SD
= 0.567
World Values Survey (2012): study GH 2012 18+ aged, general public, Ghana, 2012 N = 1552
Mean
= 3.285
SD
= 0.848
World Values Survey (2012): study IQ 2012 18+ aged, general public, Iraq, 2012 N = 1200
Mean
= 2.744
SD
= 0.707
World Values Survey (2012): study JO 2012 18+ aged, general public, Jordan, 2012 N = 1200
Mean
= 3.020
SD
= 0.697
World Values Survey (2012): study KG 2012 18+ aged, general public, Kyrgyzstan, 2012 N = 1500
Mean
= 3.319
SD
= 0.556
World Values Survey (2012): study KR 2012 18+ aged, general public, Korea (South), 2012 N = 1200
Mean
= 3.046
SD
= 0.520
World Values Survey (2012): study KZ 2012 18+ aged, general public, Kazakhstan, 2012 N = 1502
Mean
= 3.193
SD
= 0.634
World Values Survey (2012): study LB 2012 18+ aged, general public, Lebanon, 2012 N = 1200
Mean
= 2.945
SD
= 0.675
World Values Survey (2012): study LY 2012 18+ aged, general public, Libya, 2012 N = 2131
Mean
= 3.242
SD
= 0.731
World Values Survey (2012): study MA 2012 18+ aged, general public, Morocco, 2012 N = 1200
Mean
= 2.940
SD
= 0.768
World Values Survey (2012): study MX 2012 18+ aged, general public, Mexico, 2012 N = 2000
Mean
= 3.611
SD
= 0.611
World Values Survey (2012): study MY 2012 18+ aged, general public, Malaysia, 2012 N = 1300
Mean
= 3.527
SD
= 0.572
World Values Survey (2012): study NL 2012 18+ aged, general public, Netherlands, 2012 N = 1902
Mean
= 3.249
SD
= 0.587
World Values Survey (2012): study NZ 2012 18+ aged, general public, New Zealand, 2012 N = 841
Mean
= 3.287
SD
= 0.580
World Values Survey (2012): study NG 2012 18+ aged, general public, Nigeria, 2012 N = 1759
Mean
= 3.287
SD
= 0.580
World Values Survey (2012): study PK 2012 18+ aged, general public, Pakistan, 2012 N = 1200
Mean
= 3.264
SD
= 0.815
World Values Survey (2012): study PE 2012 18+ aged, general public, Peru, 2012 N = 1206
Mean
= 3.110
SD
= 0.777
World Values Survey (2012): study PH 2012 18+ aged, general public, Philippines, 2012 N = 1200
Mean
= 3.378
SD
= 0.702
World Values Survey (2012): study QA 2012 18+ aged, general public, Qatar, 2012 N = 1060
Mean
= 3.541
SD
= 0.548
World Values Survey (2012): study RO 2012 18+ aged, general public, Romania, 2012 N = 1503
Mean
= 2.791
SD
= 0.721
World Values Survey (2012): study RU 2012 18+ aged, general public, Russia, 2012 N = 2500
Mean
= 2.901
SD
= 0.660
World Values Survey (2012): study RW 2012 18+ aged, general public, Rwanda, 2012 N = 1527
Mean
= 3.301
SD
= 0.664
World Values Survey (2012): study SG 2012 18+ aged, general public, Singapore, 2012 N = 1972
Mean
= 3.316
SD
= 0.613
World Values Survey (2012): study SI 2012 18+ aged, general public, Slovenia, 2012 N = 1069
Mean
= 3.017
SD
= 0.642
World Values Survey (2012): study ZW 2012 18+ aged, general public, Zimbabwe, 2012 N = 1499
Mean
= 3.157
SD
= 0.810
World Values Survey (2012): study SE 2012 18+ aged, general public, Sweden, 2012 N = 1206
Mean
= 3.348
SD
= 0.591
World Values Survey (2012): study TT 2012 18+ aged, general public, Trinidad and Tobago, 2012 N = 999
Mean
= 3.413
SD
= 0.720
World Values Survey (2012): study TN 2012 18+ aged, general public, Tunisia, 2012 N = 1205
Mean
= 2.915
SD
= 0.712
World Values Survey (2012): study TR 2012 18+ aged, general public, Turkey, 2012 N = 1605
Mean
= 3.181
SD
= 0.785
World Values Survey (2012): study UA 2012 18+ aged, general public, Ukraine, 2012 N = 1500
Mean
= 2.843
SD
= 0.748
World Values Survey (2012): study US 2012 18+ aged, general public, United States, 2012 N = 2232
Mean
= 3.250
SD
= 0.661
World Values Survey (2012): study UY 2012 18+ aged, general public, Uruguay, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.187
SD
= 0.713
World Values Survey (2012): study UZ 2012 18+ aged, general public, Uzbekistan, 2012 N = 1500
Mean
= 3.611
SD
= 0.562
World Values Survey (2012): study YE 2012 18+ aged, general public, Yemen, 2012 N = 1000
Mean
= 2.865
SD
= 0.738
Sarracino (2008): study ZZ World samples 1990 18+ aged, general public, 39 nations, 1990-2001 N = 267870
Mean
= 3.010
SD
= 0.740
Bray & Gunnell (2006): study ZZ 1999 Adults,, general public, Europe, Multiple nations, 1999 N = 32678
World Values Survey (2012): study PS 2012 18+ aged, general public, Palestina, 2012 N = 995
Mean
= 2.795
SD
= 0.693
World Values Survey (2012): study AR 2012 18+ aged, general public, Argentina, 2012 N = 1030
Mean
= 3.199
SD
= 0.674
World Values Survey (2012): study KW 2012 18+ aged, general public, Kuwait, 2012 N = 1303
Mean
= 3.335
SD
= 0.638
World Values Survey (2012): study TH 2012 18+ aged, general public, Thailand, 2012 N = 1200
Mean
= 3.312
SD
= 0.646
World Values Survey (2012): study ZA 2012 18+ aged, general public, South Africa, 2012 N = 3531
Mean
= 3.104
SD
= 0.886
Halman et al. (1987): study FR 1981 18+ aged, general public, France, 1981 N = 1200
Halman et al. (1987): study GB 1981 18+ aged, general public, Great Britain, 1981 N = 1231
Halman et al. (1987): study DE West Germany 1981 18+ aged, general public, West Germany, 1981 N = 1305
Halman et al. (1987): study IT 1981 18+ aged, general public, Italy, 1981 N = 1348
Halman et al. (1987): study NL 1981 18+ aged, general public, Netherlands, 1981 N = 1221
Halman et al. (1987): study DK 1981 18+ aged, general public, Denmark, 1981 N = 1182
Halman et al. (1987): study BE 1981 18+ aged, general public, Belgium, 1981 N = 1145
Halman et al. (1987): study ES 1981 18+ aged, general public, Spain, 1981 N = 2303
Halman et al. (1987): study IE 1981 18+ aged, general public, Ireland, 1981 N = 1217
Halman et al. (1987): study GB Northern Ireland 1981 /1 18+ aged, general public, Northern Ireland, 1981 N = 312
Gehring (2013): study ZZ World samples 1981 18+ aged, 79 countries, 1981-2007 N = 200000
Mean
= 2.051
SD
= 0.269
Welsch (2002): study ZZ World samples 2000 18+ aged, general public, 54 countries, 2000 N = 55000
Mean
= 2.764
SD
= 0.318
Stanca (2016): study ZZ 1981 15+ aged, general public, 100 nations 1981-2014 N = 400894
Mean
= 3.050
SD
= 0.740
Stevenson & Wolfers (2008): study ZZ World samples 1981 18+ aged general public, 61 nations, 1981-2004 N = 250000
Sacks et al. (2010): study ZZ World samples 1981 18+ aged general public, 79 nations, 1981-2004 N = 300000
Slag (2017): study KR 1981 /1 18+ aged general public, South Korea, 1981-2010 N = 5000
Mean
= 2.970
Delhey & Kroll (2012): study ZZ OECD member states 2008 18+ aged, general public, OECD member states, 2008 N = 340000
Lönnqvist & Itkonen (2014): study FI 2012 18+ aged, students, Finland N = 4701
Mean
= 3.080
SD
= 0.590
World Values Survey (2020): study AU 2018 18+ aged general public, Australia 2018 N = 1813
Mean
= 3.150
SD
= 0.626
World Values Survey (2020): study AL 2018 18+ aged general public, Albania, 2018 N = 1454
Mean
= 2.872
SD
= 0.743
World Values Survey (2020): study AR 2018 18+ aged general public, Argentina, 2018 N = 1003
Mean
= 3.184
SD
= 0.677
World Values Survey (2020): study AM 2018 18+ aged general public, Armenia, 2018 N = 1501
Mean
= 3.064
SD
= 0.689
World Values Survey (2020): study AT 2018 18+ aged general public, Austria, 2018 N = 1651
Mean
= 3.218
SD
= 0.641
World Values Survey (2020): study AZ 2018 18+ aged general public, Azerbaijan, 2018 N = 1817
Mean
= 3.028
SD
= 0.645
World Values Survey (2020): study BD 2018 18+ aged general public, Bangladesh, 2018 N = 1200
Mean
= 3.166
SD
= 0.597
World Values Survey (2020): study BY 2018 18+ aged general public, Belarus, 2018 N = 1548
Mean
= 3.122
SD
= 0.570
World Values Survey (2020): study BO 2018 18+ aged general public, Bolivia, 2018 N = 2067
Mean
= 3.089
SD
= 0.827
World Values Survey (2020): study BA 2018 18+ aged general public, Bosnia Herzegovina 2018 N = 1735
Mean
= 3.141
SD
= 0.697
World Values Survey (2020): study BR 2018 18+ aged general public, Brazil, 2018 N = 1762
Mean
= 3.174
SD
= 0.611
World Values Survey (2020): study BG 2018 18+ aged general public, Bulgaria, 2018 N = 1566
Mean
= 2.676
SD
= 0.839
World Values Survey (2020): study CO 2018 18+ aged general public, Colombia, 2018 N = 1520
Mean
= 3.454
SD
= 0.715
World Values Survey (2020): study HR 2018 18+ aged general public, Croatia, 2018 N = 1493
Mean
= 2.985
SD
= 0.662
World Values Survey (2020): study CY 2018 18+ aged general public, Cyprus, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.053
SD
= 0.732
World Values Survey (2020): study CL 2018 18+ aged general public, Chile, 2018 N = 1000
Mean
= 3.096
SD
= 0.664
World Values Survey (2020): study CN 2018 18+ aged general public, China, 2018 N = 3036
Mean
= 3.149
SD
= 0.638
World Values Survey (2020): study EC 2018 18+ aged general public, Ecuador, 2018 N = 1200
Mean
= 3.498
SD
= 0.716
World Values Survey (2020): study EG 2018 18+ aged general public, Egypt, 2018 N = 1200
Mean
= 2.726
SD
= 0.661
World Values Survey (2020): study EE 2018 18+ aged general public, Estonia, 2018 N = 1304
Mean
= 3.020
SD
= 0.603
World Values Survey (2020): study ET 2018 18+ aged general public, Ethiopia, 2018 N = 1230
Mean
= 3.183
SD
= 0.698
World Values Survey (2020): study FI 2018 18+ aged general public, Finland, 2018 N = 1220
Mean
= 3.100
SD
= 0.582
World Values Survey (2020): study FR 2018 18+ aged general public, France, 2018 N = 1880
Mean
= 3.231
SD
= 0.642
World Values Survey (2020): study GE 2018 18+ aged general public, Georgia, 2018 N = 2212
Mean
= 3.090
SD
= 0.794
World Values Survey (2020): study DE 2018 18+ aged general public, Germany, 2018 N = 1528
Mean
= 3.159
SD
= 0.625
World Values Survey (2020): study GR 2018 18+ aged general public, Greece, 2018 N = 1200
Mean
= 2.788
SD
= 0.813
World Values Survey (2020): study GT 2018 18+ aged general public, Guatemala, 2018 N = 1203
Mean
= 3.409
SD
= 0.690
World Values Survey (2020): study HK 2018 18+ aged general public, Hong Kong, 2018 N = 2075
Mean
= 2.910
SD
= 0.617
World Values Survey (2020): study HU 2018 18+ aged general public, Hungary, 2018 N = 1519
Mean
= 2.999
SD
= 0.677
World Values Survey (2020): study IS 2018 18+ aged general public, Iceland, 2018 N = 1633
Mean
= 3.394
SD
= 0.606
World Values Survey (2020): study IR 2018 18+ aged general public, Iran, 2018 N = 1499
Mean
= 3.370
SD
= 0.632
World Values Survey (2020): study ID 2018 18+ aged general public, Indonesia,2018 N = 3200
Mean
= 3.370
SD
= 0.632
World Values Survey (2020): study IQ 2018 18+ aged general public, Iraq 2018 N = 1200
Mean
= 2.786
SD
= 0.856
World Values Survey (2020): study IT 2018 18+ aged general public, Italy, 2018 N = 2282
Mean
= 2.984
SD
= 0.658
World Values Survey (2020): study JP 2018 18+ aged general public, Japan, 2019 N = 1353
Mean
= 3.200
SD
= 0.620
World Values Survey (2020): study JO 2018 18+ aged general public, Jordan, 2018 N = 1203
Mean
= 3.076
SD
= 0.681
World Values Survey (2020): study KZ 2018 18+ aged general public, Kazakhstan,2018 N = 1276
Mean
= 3.186
SD
= 0.627
World Values Survey (2020): study KG 2018 18+ aged general public, Kyrgyszstan. 2019 N = 1199
Mean
= 3.646
SD
= 0.568
World Values Survey (2020): study LB 2018 18+ aged general public, Lebanon, 2018 N = 1200
Mean
= 3.030
SD
= 0.612
World Values Survey (2020): study LT 2018 18+ aged general public, Lithuania, 2018 N = 1453
Mean
= 2.915
SD
= 0.536
World Values Survey (2020): study MO 2018 18+ aged general public, Macao, 2019 N = 1023
World Values Survey (2020): study MY 2018 18+ aged general public, Malaysia, 2018 N = 1313
Mean
= 3.028
SD
= 0.603
World Values Survey (2020): study MX 2018 18+ aged general public, Mexico, 2018 N = 1739
Mean
= 3.505
SD
= 0.659
World Values Survey (2020): study ME 2018 18+ aged general public, Montenegro, 2018 N = 1004
Mean
= 3.260
SD
= 0.612
World Values Survey (2020): study MM 2018 18+ aged general public, Myanmar, 2020 N = 1200
Mean
= 3.175
SD
= 0.727
World Values Survey (2020): study NL 2018 18+ aged general public, Netherlands,2018 N = 2409
Mean
= 3.291
SD
= 0.621
World Values Survey (2020): study NZ 2018 18+ aged general public, New Zealand, 2019 N = 1057
Mean
= 3.265
SD
= 0.583
World Values Survey (2020): study NI 2018 18+ aged general public, Nicaragua, 2019 N = 1200
Mean
= 3.334
SD
= 0.768
World Values Survey (2020): study NG 2018 18+ aged general public, Nigeria, 2018 N = 1237
Mean
= 3.106
SD
= 0.995
World Values Survey (2020): study MK 2018 18+ aged general public, North Macedonia, 2018 N = 1118
Mean
= 3.225
SD
= 0.681
World Values Survey (2020): study NO 2018 18+ aged general public, Norway, 2018 N = 1123
Mean
= 3.348
SD
= 0.599
World Values Survey (2020): study PK 2018 18+ aged general public, Pakistan, 2018 N = 1995
Mean
= 3.346
SD
= 0.735
World Values Survey (2020): study PE 2018 18+ aged general public, Peru, 2018 N = 1400
Mean
= 3.161
SD
= 0.732
World Values Survey (2020): study PH 2018 18+ aged general public, Philippines, 2019 N = 1200
Mean
= 3.440
SD
= 0.665
World Values Survey (2020): study PL 2018 18+ aged general public, Poland, 2018 N = 1358
Mean
= 3.223
SD
= 0.612
World Values Survey (2020): study PR 2018 18+ aged general public, Puerto Rico, 2018 N = 1127
Mean
= 3.398
SD
= 0.697
World Values Survey (2020): study RO 2018 18+ aged general public, Romania, 2018 N = 1616
Mean
= 2.975
SD
= 0.728
World Values Survey (2020): study RO 2018 /1 18+ aged general public, Romania, 2017 N = 1257
Mean
= 2.940
SD
= 0.694
World Values Survey (2020): study RU 2018 /1 18+ aged general public, Russia, 2018 N = 1838
Mean
= 2.930
SD
= 0.635
World Values Survey (2020): study RU 2018 18+ aged general public, Russia, 2017 N = 1810
Mean
= 2.978
SD
= 0.596
World Values Survey (2020): study RS 2018 18+ aged general public, Serbia, 2017 N = 1046
Mean
= 2.956
SD
= 0.642
World Values Survey (2020): study SK 2018 18+ aged general public, Slovakia, 2018 N = 1436
Mean
= 3.088
SD
= 0.560
World Values Survey (2020): study SI 2018 18+ aged general public, Slovenia, 2018 N = 1080
Mean
= 3.041
SD
= 0.624
World Values Survey (2020): study KR 2018 18+ aged general public, South Korea 2018 N = 1245
Mean
= 2.931
SD
= 0.385
World Values Survey (2020): study ES 2018 18+ aged general public, Spain, 2018 N = 1210
Mean
= 3.096
SD
= 0.596
World Values Survey (2020): study SE 2018 18+ aged general public, Sweden, 2018 N = 1198
Mean
= 3.326
SD
= 0.606
World Values Survey (2020): study CH 2018 18+ aged general public, Switzerland, 2018 N = 3181
Mean
= 3.272
SD
= 0.596
World Values Survey (2020): study TW 2018 18+ aged general public, Taiwan, 2019 N = 1223
Mean
= 3.149
SD
= 0.617
World Values Survey (2020): study TJ 2018 18+ aged general public, Tajikistan, 2020 N = 1200
Mean
= 3.568
SD
= 0.603
World Values Survey (2020): study TH 2018 18+ aged general public, Thailand, 2018 N = 1500
Mean
= 3.148
SD
= 0.704
World Values Survey (2020): study TN 2018 Id=17295 18+ aged general public, Tunisia, 2019 N = 1208
Mean
= 2.886
SD
= 0.690
World Values Survey (2020): study TR 2018 18+ aged general public, Turkey, 2018 N = 2415
Mean
= 3.056
SD
= 0.654
World Values Survey (2020): study GB 2018 18+ aged general public, United Kingdom, 2018 N = 1794
Mean
= 3.332
SD
= 0.629
World Values Survey (2020): study US 2018 18+ aged general public, United States of America 2017 N = 2596
Mean
= 3.154
SD
= 0.647
World Values Survey (2020): study VN 2018 18+ aged general public, Vietnam, 2020 N = 1200
Mean
= 3.447
SD
= 0.567
World Values Survey (2020): study ZW 2018 18+ aged general public, Zimbabwe, 2018 N = 1215
Mean
= 2.537
SD
= 0.961
World Values Survey (2020): study RS 2018 /1 18+ aged general public, Serbia, 2018 N = 1520
Mean
= 2.942
SD
= 0.621