Findings on happiness in DiTella & MacCulloch (2008): study ZZ Western nations 1975

Author(s)DiTella, R.; MacCulloch, R.J.
TitleGross National Happiness as an Answer to the Easterlin Paradox?
SourceJournal of Development Economics, 2008, Vol. 86, 22 - 42
DOIDOI: 10.1016/j.jdeveco.2007.06.2008
Public15+ aged, general public, OECD Nations, 1975-1997
Last assesment1997
 Data for the United States in years 1979, 1981, 1992, 1995, and 1997 not available, survey not conducted.
Survey nameEU-Eurobarometer combined waves
 -Euro-Barometer (3-38) Survey Series 1975-1997 (Europe) -General Social Survey (United States)
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Respondents N =371149
 Respondents from Europe (344,294) and United States (26,855)
Non ResponseNot available
 "Don't know" and "No answer" categories not included in study
AssesmentInterview: face-to-face
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on single question In general, would you say that you are satisfied with your life? Would you say that you are 4 very satisfied 3 fairly satisfied 2 not very satisfied 1 not at all satisfied
Author's labelLife Satisfaction
Page in publication29
Finding used in
nation ranks

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
AgeA04abCurrent age (in years)
Crime rateN08ab02Crime
Divorce rateN14ab03baDivorce rate
EducationE01ab02Level of school-education
Employment stateE02abCurrent employment status
Employment stateR12abCurrent status: retired or not, also classified as above ↑
Employment stateE01aaDevelopment of one's education, also classified as above ↑
Employment stateE02ab01Full-time home maker, also classified as above ↑
Employment stateE02aa02afOut of workforce, also classified as above ↑
Employment stateE02ae03Self employed, also classified as above ↑
GDP GrowthN04aa02aEconomic growth/decline in nation
GDP per CapitaN04ab01bPurchasing power (`real' gnp pc)
Hours workedW04ab17Work hours
Inflation rateN04ab04Inflation in nation
Life expectancyN09ab01acLife-expectancy in the nation
MaleG01aaSex (male vs female)
Marital statusM02aa01Married vs never married
Marital statusM02ab01fVs co-habiting, also classified as above ↑
Marital statusM02ab01cVs separated, also classified as above ↑
Marital statusM02ab01aVs widowed, also classified as above ↑
OpennessN04ab07Openness of economy in nation
Personal income postionI01ae03Relative to nation
Size of communityL14ab02Community size
SOx emissionsN05ab05Environmental quality
Unemployment benefitsN04ab13aeSocial security in nation
Unemployment rateN04ab05Unemployment in nation