Findings on happiness in Biswas-Diener et al. (2005): study ZZ Developing nations 2001

Publication
Author(s)Biswas-Diener, R.; Diener, E.; Vitterso, J.
TitleMost People are Pretty Happy, but There is Cultural Variation:: The Inughuit, The Amish and the Maasai.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2005, Vol. 6, 205 - 226
DOIdoi:10.1007/s10902-005-5683-8
Investigation
PublicAdults in 3 non-industrial cultures, 200?
 Hunting culture: Inughuit in Greenland Isolated pastoral culture: Maasai in Kenya Anti-modern subculture: Amish in the US
 Years of data gathering not reported
Survey nameNot available
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
 127 Maasai from 10 villages in four locations in south western Kenya. 10-22 per village (total population max 30).Respondents recruited by word of mouth. 52 Amish from an older order Amish community in central Illinois and a new order Amish settlement in southern Illinois. Respondents recruited by word of mouth. 179 Inughuit from the Greenlandic villages of Qaanaaq ( total population 620 in 2000), Qeqertaq and Siorapaluk as well as in nearby hunting and fishing camps. Recruitment via bulletin board advertisements, radio announcements and word of mouth (100 % response). Travels to camps. (80 % response)
Respondents N =358
 127 Maasai, 52 Amish, 179 Inughuit
Non ResponseNot available
AssesmentMultiple methods
 Oral interviews, written questionnaires, peer reports. With the Maasai another measure was used based on memory-the degree to which the respondent could remember more positive than negative life events in two separate periods. With the Inughuit also the Experience Sampling Method was used (ESM) (see also BISWA 2005/2) Maasai: Oral interviewing in Maa language by outsider Maasai interviewers from another region which have no social connections. Material was translated and back. Amish: Written Surveys in English completed at home with investigator available to answer questions. Inughuit: Written material in Greenlandic. 2 in English and Danish. Completed in a quiet setting with investigators available to answer questions. Translated and back.
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on 8 questions: Using the scale below, indicate how much of the time during the PAST MONTH have you felt each emotion? A affectionate B joyful C sad D worried E irritable F guilty G happy H proud 1 never 2 slight amount (rare) 3 some of the time 4 about half the time 5 much of the time 6 almost always 7 always Computation: (A+B+G+H)-(C+D+E+F)/8 Name: Diener's 'Affect Balance'
ClassificationA-BD2-cm-mq-v-7-b
Author's labelAffect Balance emotions past month
Page in publication212-217
RemarksMean and standard deviations stretched from range -6+6 to range -7+7 (for facilitating comparison with other indicators of happiness on range 1-7) Mean SD percent above neutral Maasai 4.2 1.0 100 Amish 1.6 0.7 100 Inughuit 1,7 1,9 79% Mean score transformed linearly to scale 0-100 above neutral 0-10, 5 neutral (author's method) (our standard) Maasai 70 8,50 Amish 27 6,35 Inughuit 28 6,40 Average 7,14
Finding used in
nation ranks
Yes
 On original range -6 - 6On range 0 - 10
Mean2.577.14
Standard deviation1.41


Full textPeer rating of affect using 8 questions: Using the scale below, indicate how much of the time during the PAST MONTH has X felt each emotion? A affectionate B joyful C sad D worried E irritable F guilty G happy H proud 1 never 2 slight amount (rare) 3 some of the time 4 about half the time 5 much of the time 6 almost always 7 always Computation: (A+B+G+H)-(C+D+E+F) / 8 Name: Diener's 'Affect Balance'
ClassificationA-BD2-cm-rdp-v-7-a
Author's labelPeer reported affect balance
Page in publication215-217
RemarksMean and standard deviations stretched from range -6+6 to range -7+7 (for facilitating comparison with other indicators of happiness on range 1-7) M SD % >neutral Maasai 3.8 1.0 100 Amish 1.8 0.7 89 Inughuit 2.1 1.8 85 Mean score transformed linearly to scale 0-100 above neutral 0-10, 5 neutral (author's method) (our standard) Maasai 64 8,20 Inughuit 35 6,75 Average 7,35
Finding used in
nation ranks
Yes
 On original range -6 - 6On range 0 - 10
Mean2.667.35
Standard deviation1.36


Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Finding
Subject description
AgeA04abCurrent age (in years)
CultureE04ETHNICITY
Self report vs peer ratingI06aa03Method of interrogation
SexG01aaSex (male vs female)