Correlational findings

Study Biswas-Diener et al. (2005): study ZZ Developing nations 2001

Adults in 3 non-industrial cultures, 200?
N = 358
Non Response
Multiple assesment methods
Oral interviews, written questionnaires, peer reports. With the Maasai another measure was used based on memory-the degree to which the respondent could remember more positive than negative life events in two separate periods. With the Inughuit also the Experience Sampling Method was used (ESM) (see also BISWA 2005/2) Maasai: Oral interviewing in Maa language by outsider Maasai interviewers from another region which have no social connections. Material was translated and back. Amish: Written Surveys in English completed at home with investigator available to answer questions. Inughuit: Written material in Greenlandic. 2 in English and Danish. Completed in a quiet setting with investigators available to answer questions. Translated and back.


Authors's Label
Our Classification
Mean and SD stretched from range -6+6 to range -7+7 (for facilitating comparability with other indicators of wellbeing on range 1-7)
N = A: 127, B: 179, C: 52
Non-modern cultures
A: Maaasai, Kenya: isolated pastoral culture
B: Inughuit, Greenland: hunting culture
C: Amish, USA: anti-modern sub culture

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks A-BD2-cm-rdp-v-7-a DM =            Mean      SD   percent above neutral
Self report
Maasai     4.2       1.0  100
Amish      1.6       0.7  100
Inughuit   1.7       1.9   79
All        2,6       1,4
A-BD2-cm-rdp-v-7-a DM =
Peer report
Maasai     3.8       1.0  100
Amish      1.8       0.7   89
Inughuit   2.1       1.8   85
All        2,7       1,4