Correlational findings

Study Biswas-Diener et al. (2005): study ZZ Developing nations 2001

Adults in 3 non-industrial cultures, 200?
N = 358
Non Response
Multiple assesment methods
Oral interviews, written questionnaires, peer reports. With the Maasai another measure was used based on memory-the degree to which the respondent could remember more positive than negative life events in two separate periods. With the Inughuit also the Experience Sampling Method was used (ESM) (see also BISWA 2005/2) Maasai: Oral interviewing in Maa language by outsider Maasai interviewers from another region which have no social connections. Material was translated and back. Amish: Written Surveys in English completed at home with investigator available to answer questions. Inughuit: Written material in Greenlandic. 2 in English and Danish. Completed in a quiet setting with investigators available to answer questions. Translated and back.


Authors's Label
Self report vs peer rating
Our Classification
Mean and SD stretched from range -6+6 to range -7+7 (for facilitating comparability with other indicators of wellbeing on range 1-7)
Using the scale below, indicate how much of the time during the PAST MONTH have you (has X) felt each emotion?
A  affectionate
B  joyful
C  sad
D  worried
E  irritable
F  guilty
G  happy
H  proud

1  never
2  slight amount (rare)
3  some of the time
4  about half the time
5  much of the time
6  almost always
7  always

Computation: (A+B+G+H)-(C+D+E+F)/ 8

Same questions used both for selfreports and for peer rating

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks A-BD2-cm-rdp-v-7-a DM = ns               Maasai     Amish      Inughuit
              M   SD     M    SD    M    SD
Self-report  4,2   1,0   1,6  0,7   1,7  1,9  
Peer rating  3,8   1,9   1,8  0,7   2,1  1,4  
Difference   0,4  -0,9   0,2  0    -0,4  0,5