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Studies

Lowenthal et al. (1975): study US 1969

Publication

Author(s):
Lowenthal, M.F.; Chiriboga, D.A.; Thurnher, M.
Title:
Four Stages of Life. A Comparative Study of Women and Men Facing Transition.
Source:
Jossey-Bass, 1975, San Francisco, USA

Investigation

Public:
People in transition, metropolis,USA, 1969
Sample:
Non-probability purposive sample
Respondents:
N = 216
Non Response:
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face
Lengthy interviews

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Selfreport on 8 questions.

"During the past week, did you ever feel.....?"
A  very lonely
B  restless
C  bored
D  depressed
E  on top of the world
F  excited or interested
G  pleased about accomplishment
H  proud

Answer options:
1  never
2  once
3  several times
4  often

Summation:
-Positive  Affect Score (PAS): E+F+G+H
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): A+B+C+D
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS-NAS+13

Name: Bradburn's Affect Balance Scale (modified version)
Classification:
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-d
Author's label:
Affect Balance Score
Page in publication:
87
Observed distribution
Frequencies
1: 0%,   2: 0%,   3: 0%,   4: 0%
Summary Statistics
On original range 1 - 25 On range 0-10
Mean:
15.00 5.80
Full text:
Selfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days?   Would you say that you are....?
3  very happy
2  pretty happy
1  not too happy
Classification:
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aa
Author's label:
Overall happiness
Observed distribution
Frequencies
1: 13%,   2: 48%,   3: 39%   (total 100%)
Summary Statistics
On original range 1 - 3 On range 0-10
Mean:
2.30 6.30
Full text:
Selfreport on 3 questions:

A. " Dissatisfied" and "Unhappy" responses on the Block (1961) Adjective Rating List.

B. Overall happiness. Single direct question: "Taking all things together,  how would you say things are these days?  Would you say you are .......?"
3  very happy
2  pretty happy
1  not too happy

C. Present-year score on Life-Evaluation Chart, ranging from:
1  low
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9  high
Classification:
O-Sum-u-mq-*-0-a
Author's label:
Life satifaction
Observed distribution
Frequencies
Summary Statistics
On original range 1 - 9 On range 0-10
Mean:
29.30 7.40

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Stage of life Stage of life
Later life-change
Recent marriage
Later retirement
Familial roles Family career (family life-cycle)
Current number of roles
Having grand-children
Ever had children (vs not)
Number of siblings
Occupational roles Work roles
Current employment status
Involved in schooling or not
Current occupation
Current number of roles
Total role scope Current number of roles Instrumental activities Current time-usage Expressive activities Current contacts
Socializing
Time spend socializing
Philosophical activities Concern about meaning
Concern about own values
Concern about religion
Social service activities Voluntary work
Current support behavior
Time spent on work and care
Ease-contentment activities Leisure activity level
Leisure
Current time-usage
Current leisure activity
Hedonistic activities Leisure activity level
Leisure
Current use of stimulants
Growth activities Studying
Current time-usage
Non-goal directed activities Personal care
Household work
Activity-scope Current time-usage Self-criticism Self-critical Respondent- interviewer agreement Congruency self-image and reputation