Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in income level
Subject code: I01aa02a

StudyBradburn (1969): study US 1963
TitleThe Structure of Psychological Well-Being.
SourceAldine Publishing, 1969, Chicago, USA
Public21-60 aged, urban areas, USA, 1963 - 64
Sample
Non-Response 20%, Attrition 30%
Respondents N =2787

Correlate
Author's labelIncrease of income
Page in Source 104
Our classificationChange in income level, code I01aa02a
Operationalization
Change in total family income between T1 and T3 (one 
year).
1. less
2. same
3. more

Total family income assessed by estimates.
T1 (Jan. 1963): estimated income 1962.
T3 (Okt. 1963): expected income 1963.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDMr= ns
CHANGE in income by CHANGE in happiness.
Happiness (Affect Balance) assessed at T1 and T3.

Change in happiness expressed in change () in 
average ridits (RT). RT above .50 indicates that 
Ss in the category became more happy than the 
reference group, RT below .50 that they became 
relatively less happy. The sample of 10 
metropolitan areas served as reference.

1. less income      RT = .49
2. same             RT = .53
3. more income      RT = .50


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no)
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
DMrDIFFERENCE IN MEAN RIDITS
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Happiness ordinal
Range: [0; +1]

Meaning:
Mr < .50: average happiness in this subgroup lower than in the larger population
Mr = .50: average happiness in this subgroup the same as in the larger population
Mr > .50: average happiness in this subgroup higher than in the larger population

'Ridit analysis' compares the distribution of happiness scores in subgroups to its distribution in the entire sample ("Relative to an Identified Distribution")

Testing for significance can be performed through a "BROSS Confidence Interval" (BCI). If all values the BCI for a subgroup are above/below 0.500, the subgroup is significantly more/less happy than the larger population.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl