Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in anxiety
Subject code: M14aa02a

StudyBradburn (1969): study US 1963
TitleThe Structure of Psychological Well-Being.
SourceAldine Publishing, 1969, Chicago, USA
Public21-60 aged, urban areas, USA, 1963 - 64
Sample
Non-Response 20%, Attrition 30%
Respondents N =2787

Correlate
Author's labelChange in anxiety (Increase)
Our classificationChange in anxiety, code M14aa02a
Operationalization
Difference in response to a 3-item index of health 
complaints in the last few weeks.
- nervousness or tenseness
- trouble getting to sleep
- have(not) enough energy to do things
  you liked to do.

Assessed at
T1: January 1963
T3: Oktober 1963

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDMr=- p < .05
CHANGE in anxiety by CHANGE in happiness.
Computed for negative affect (NA) only (not full 
ABS).
NA assessed at T1 and T3

Ss who increased in anxiety tend to increase NA as 
well (and reversedly).

Change in affect expressed in change () in 
average ridits (RT). Ridit analysis compares 
distribution in category with distribution in 
total sample. RT above .50 means relative 
increase. RT below relative decrease in 
happiness.


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no)
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
DMrDIFFERENCE IN MEAN RIDITS
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Happiness ordinal
Range: [0; +1]

Meaning:
Mr < .50: average happiness in this subgroup lower than in the larger population
Mr = .50: average happiness in this subgroup the same as in the larger population
Mr > .50: average happiness in this subgroup higher than in the larger population

'Ridit analysis' compares the distribution of happiness scores in subgroups to its distribution in the entire sample ("Relative to an Identified Distribution")

Testing for significance can be performed through a "BROSS Confidence Interval" (BCI). If all values the BCI for a subgroup are above/below 0.500, the subgroup is significantly more/less happy than the larger population.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl