Correlational finding on Happiness and Defensive
Subject code: P05at

StudyCheng & Furnham (2003a): study GB London 2003
TitlePersonality, Self-Esteem, and Demographic Predictions of Happiness and Depression.
SourcePersonality and Individual Differences, 2003, Vol. 34, 921- 942
PublicStudents, London, UK, 2003
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Respondents N =234

Author's labelLie scale
Page in Source 928
Our classificationDefensive, code P05at
Self-report on the following questions:
a.If you say you will do something, do you always keep 
your promise no matter how inconvenient it might be?
b.Were you ever greedy by helping yourself to more than 
your share of anything?
c.Have you ever blamed someone for doing something you 
knew was really your fault?
d.Are all your habits good and desirable ones?
e.Have you ever taken anything (even a pin or button) 
that belonged to someone else?
f.Have you ever broken or lost something belonging to 
someone else?
g.Have you ever said anything bad or nasty about 
h.As a child were you ever cheeky to your parents?
i.Have you ever cheated at a game?
j.Have you ever taken advantage of someone?
k.Do you always practice what you preach?
l.Do you sometimes put off until tomorrow what you 
ought to do today?

Rated: yes/no
Observed distribution Mean SD males 2.77 2.32 females 3.63 2.33
Score on  Lie-subscale of Eysenck Personality 
Questionnaire (Revised).
Source: Abbreviated Revised Eysenck Personality 
Questionnaire (1985)

Observed Relation with Happiness
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=-.02 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=.06 ns

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no)
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are .....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy

Appendix 2: Statistics used
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.