Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: H13ac04a

StudyCheng & Furnham (2003a): study GB London 2003
TitlePersonality, Self-Esteem, and Demographic Predictions of Happiness and Depression.
SourcePersonality and Individual Differences, 2003, Vol. 34, 921- 942
PublicStudents, London, UK, 2003
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Respondents N =234

Author's labelBeck Depression Inventory
Page in Source 928
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code H13ac04a
Self- report on 21 items 
a: I am sad
b: I am afraid of the future
c: I failed as a person
d: I am not happy
e: I feel guilty
f: I have being punished
g: I feel disapointed
h: I am a bad person
i: I think often over a suicide
j: I am crying very often
k: I feel get annoyed
l: I have lack of interest in other persons
m: I have lack of dississsion
n: I am not good-looking
o: I dislike work
p: I sleep not well
q: I am fatigue
r: I have a lack of appetite
s: Ihave lost weight
t: I am afraid of my health
u: I have lack of interst in sex

Rated: Never (0); Rarely (1); Sometimes(2); Often (3)
indicating the severity of symptoms.
Observed distribution Mean SD males 6.85 6.14 females 9.59 6.54
Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) comprises 21 items 
measuring both affects and symptoms. 
(Beck et al. 1961 Archives of General Psychiatry 4, 

Observed Relation with Happiness
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=-.44 p < .001
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.56 p < .001

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no)
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are .....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy

Appendix 2: Statistics used
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.