Correlational finding on Happiness and Longevity (assessed in follow up)
Subject code: H14aa03b

StudyGoldberg et al. (1979): study US 1971
TitleDepressed Mood and Subsequent Physical Illness.
SourceAmerican Journal of Psychiatry, 1979, Vol. 136, 530 - 534
Public18+ aged, died within 1-4 years and matched controls, USA, 1971-76
SampleProbability systematic sample
Non-Response24%
Respondents N =164

Correlate
Author's labelDied
Page in Source 532, 533
Our classificationLongevity (assessed in follow up), code H14aa03b
Operationalization
1 Ss who died between 1971-7?
0 Control group selected from same sample 
  matched for:
  - age
  - sexe
  - education
  - income
  - employment status
  - location
  - lenghtof follow-up interval
Observed distributionN = Died: 82, Controls: 82
Remarks
Ss were interviewd twice with one year interval
Time span of assesment of life and death after last 
interview not reported. Probably about 4 years, since 
this report was submitted in 1977.
Cases are: 66 respondents who had completed both 
interviews and 16 who had died after the first 
interview.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aDMe=
MEDIAN HAPPINESS: Deceased Controls Difference
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aDMe=-
range 0-2           0,9      0,9      0
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aDMe=+
range 0-2           2,3      1,8     +0,5
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aD%=
>2 on range 0-2     11%       6%     -5%
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDMe=-
range 0-11          2,7      2,0     -0,7


% UNHAPPY
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aChiČ=.64 ns
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aD%=-
>4 on range 0-9     20%      17%     -3%
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aC=.03 ns
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aD%=-
>5 on range 0-11   21%      15%     -7%
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aChiČ=.55 ns


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no)
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you and the bottom represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
[ 10 ] best possible life
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life


Preceded by 1) open questions about what the respondent imagines as the best possible life and the worst possible life. 2) ratings on the ladder of one's life five years ago and where on the ladder one expects to stand five years from now.

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (original)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are .....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
CPearson's CONTINGENCY COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [0; SQRT(1-1/s)], where s = the lesser of c and r, the number of columns and rows respectively.

Meaning:
C = 0 « no association.
C = SQRT( 1-1/s) « strongest possible association
ChiČCHI-SQUARE
Type: test statistic
Range: [0; Ne*(min(c,r)-1)], where c and r are the number of columns and rows respectively in a cross tabulation of Ne sample elements.

Meaning:
ChiČ <= (c-1) * (r-1) means: no or minor association
ChiČ >> (c-1) * (r-1) means: strong association
D%DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
DMeDIFFERENCE IN MEDIAN
Type: descriptive statistic
Measurement level: happiness metric
correlate; dichotomous or nominal
Seldom used in happiness research.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl