Correlational finding on Happiness and Stage of life
Subject code: A04aa02

StudyRyff (1989): study US 1984
TitleHappiness Is Everything, or Is It? Explorations on the Meaning of Psychological Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1989, Vol. 57, 1069 - 1081
PublicAdults, USA, 198?
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =321

Correlate
Author's labelAge
Page in Source 1077
Our classificationStage of life, code A04aa02
Operationalization
a young adults
b middle-aged
c elderly
Observed distributiona: young adult (mean age=19.53, SD=1.57, N=133) b: middle aged (mean age=49.85, SD=9.35, N=108) c: elderly (mean age=74.96, SD=7.11, N=80)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aF=18.9 p < .001
   Women               Men
a  M = 6.82 SD = 1.81  M = 7.04 SD = 1.62
b  M = 7.69 SD = 1.85  M = 8.04 SD = 1.87
c  M = 8.21 SD = 1.89  M = 8.72 SD = 1.47
Set Image size:   

A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aBeta=+.24 p < .01
Beta controlled for;
- gender
- educational level
- marital status
- self-rated health 
- self-perceived financial situation
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aRČ=+.12 p < .01


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no)
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
FF-STATISTIC
Type: asymmetric standard test statistic.
Range: nonnegative unlimited

Meaning : the test statistic is also called the "Variance Ratio" and is the ratio of two independent estimators of the same variance with n1 and n2 degrees of freedom respectively. The critical values of its probability distribution are tabulated extensively in almost any textbook on Statistics
COEFFICIENT of DETERMINATION
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning:
RČ = 0 « no influence of any correlate in this study has been established.
RČ = 1 « the correlates determine the happiness completely.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl