Correlational finding on Happiness and Independent
Subject code: P05bm

StudyRyff (1989): study US 1984
TitleHappiness Is Everything, or Is It? Explorations on the Meaning of Psychological Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1989, Vol. 57, 1069 - 1081
PublicAdults, USA, 198?
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Respondents N =321

Author's labelAutonomy
Page in Source 1073
Our classificationIndependent, code P05bm
Self report on 16 positive and 16 negative statements. 
Each rated on a 6-point scale ranging from strongly 
agree to disagree. 
High scorers are self-determining and independent; able 
to resist social pressures to think and act in certain 
ways; regulate behavior from within; evaluate self by 
personal standards.
Low scorers are concerned about the expectations and 
evaluations of others; rely on judgments of others to 
make important decisions; conform to social pressures 
to think and act in certain ways.
Observed distributionYoung adults: women (m=82.49, sd=12.84), men (m=82.93, sd=14.20) Middle aged adults: women (m=87.62, sd=14.26), men (m=87.34, sd=13.35) Older adults: women (m=86.90, sd=15.83), men (m=85.12, sd=11.30)
Error Estimatesalpha=.86 Test-retest reliability between 6 week period (n=117)=.88

Observed Relation with Happiness
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.36 p < .001

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no)
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)

Appendix 2: Statistics used
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.