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Correlational findings

Study Gruber & Mullainathan (2006): study US 1973

Public:
16+ aged, United States of America, 1973 - 1998
Survey name:
US-GSS
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 36421
Non Response:
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face

Correlate

Authors's Label
Change tobacco tax rate in state
Our Classification
Remarks
Yearly state cigarette tax taken from publication 'The tax burden on tobacco'
Distribution
Average tax rate 35%
Related specification variables
Operationalization
Raise of cigarette tax in US states

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aa b-fix = +/- Happiness in year by cigarette tax in region/year

            very happy  pretty happy  not happy

All         -.03        -.01          +.03

Split by propensity to smoke
- high       -.01       +.05          -.06
- low        -.01       +.00          +.01

Interaction propensity to smoke * tax raise
             .05       +.11         -.16

Raise of tobacco tax reduced unhappiness among people apt to smoke but did not affect other Americans
   
b-fix controlled for
- Marital status
- Education
- Parents education
- Income quartile
- Race
- Number of children
- Employment status
- Church attendance

Propensity to smoke was estimated on the basis of correlates of smoking. 35% fit this category.