print

Correlational findings

Study Gehring (2013): study ZZ World samples 1981

Public:
18+ aged, 79 countries, 1981-2007
Survey name:
WorldValuesSurv 1-5
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 200000
Non Response:
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face

Correlate

Authors's label
Freedom to trade internationally
Our Classification
Operationalization
A: Tariffs
Aa: Revenue from trade taxes (% of trade sector)
Ab: Mean tariff rate
Ac: Standard deviation of tariff rates
B: Regulatory trade barriers
Ba: Non-tariff trade barriers
Bb: Compliance costs of importing and exporting
C: Black-market exchange rates
D: Controls of the movement of capital and people
Da: Foreign ownership/investment restrictions
Db: Capital controls
Dc: Freedom of foreigners to visit

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a r = +.25 AVERAGE happiness by freedom to trade internationally in 79 nations. O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a b = +.01 O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a r = +.40 O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.09 p < .10 O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.11 p < .05 Age below median in country O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.06 Age above median in country O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.08 Females only O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.10 Males only O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.14 p < .05 Low class only (self rating) O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.17 p < .05 Upper and middle class only (self rating) O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.09 p < .10 Left wing only (self rating) O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.10 p < .05 Right wing only (self rating) O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.09 Poor nations only (GDP per capita is less than $10,500) (N=58) O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.08 Rich nations only (GDP per capita is more than $10,500) (N=49) O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a b = +.02 Poor nations only (GDP per capita is less than $10,500) (N=58) O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a b = +.02 Rich nations only (GDP per capita is more than $10,500) (N=49) O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a r = +.37 % VERY HAPPY (top 3 life satisfaction) by freedom to trade internationally in 79 nations. O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.01 O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.02 Poor nations only (GDP per capita is less than $10,500) (N=58) O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.01 Rich nations only (GDP per capita is more than $10,500) (N=49)

b's control for:
- social trust
- belief in God
- investment price level
- log GDP per capita
- government share as a percentage of GDP
- regional dummies
- period dummies

b's are for autoregressive (1) random effects model. Similar coefficients are obtained for  pooled OLS with robust SE, fixed effects model, and random effects model.