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Correlational findings

Study Gehring (2013): study ZZ World samples 1981

Public:
18+ aged, 79 countries, 1981-2007
Survey name:
INT-WorldValuesSurv 1-5
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 200000
Non Response:
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face

Correlate

Authors's label
Freedom to trade internationally
Our Classification
Remarks
Part of Economic Freedom Index (Fraser Institute: Gwartney, Hall, & Lawson, 2011).
Distribution
M=6,938  SD=1,188
Operationalization
A: Tariffs
Aa: Revenue from trade taxes (% of trade sector)
Ab: Mean tariff rate
Ac: Standard deviation of tariff rates
B: Regulatory trade barriers
Ba: Non-tariff trade barriers
Bb: Compliance costs of importing and exporting
C: Black-market exchange rates
D: Controls of the movement of capital and people
Da: Foreign ownership/investment restrictions
Db: Capital controls
Dc: Freedom of foreigners to visit

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Special Research Type Elaboration / Remarks O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a r = +.25 Cross-national AVERAGE happiness by freedom to trade internationally in 79 nations. O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a b = +.01 Cross-national O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a r = +.40 Cross-national O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.09 p < .10 Cross-national O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.11 p < .05 Cross-national Age below median in country O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.06 Cross-national Age above median in country O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.08 Cross-national Females only O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.10 Cross-national Males only O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.14 p < .05 Cross-national Low class only (self rating) O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.17 p < .05 Cross-national Upper and middle class only (self rating) O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.09 p < .10 Cross-national Left wing only (self rating) O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.10 p < .05 Cross-national Right wing only (self rating) O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.09 Cross-national Poor nations only (GDP per capita is less than $10,500) (N=58) O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.08 Cross-national Rich nations only (GDP per capita is more than $10,500) (N=49) O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a b = +.02 Cross-national Poor nations only (GDP per capita is less than $10,500) (N=58) O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a b = +.02 Cross-national Rich nations only (GDP per capita is more than $10,500) (N=49) O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a r = +.37 Cross-national % VERY HAPPY (top 3 life satisfaction) by freedom to trade internationally in 79 nations. O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.01 Cross-national O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.02 Cross-national Poor nations only (GDP per capita is less than $10,500) (N=58) O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.01 Cross-national Rich nations only (GDP per capita is more than $10,500) (N=49)

b's control for:
- social trust
- belief in God
- investment price level
- log GDP per capita
- government share as a percentage of GDP
- regional dummies
- period dummies

b's are for autoregressive (1) random effects model. Similar coefficients are obtained for  pooled OLS with robust SE, fixed effects model, and random effects model.