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Correlational findings

Study Gehring (2013): study ZZ World samples 1981

Public:
18+ aged, 79 countries, 1981-2007
Survey name:
INT-WorldValuesSurv 1-5
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 200000
Non Response:
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face

Correlate

Authors's label
Belief in God
Our Classification
Distribution
M=7,178  SD=2,008
Operationalization
0: No
1: Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a r = +.10 AVERAGE happiness by belief in God in 79 nations. O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a r = -.11 O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.11 p < .05 b controls for:
- social trust
- investment price level
- log GDP per capita
- government share (% of GDP)
- regional dummies
- period dummies
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.09 p < .05 b additionally controls for:
- economic freedom

b is for pooled OLS with robust SE.

Similar coefficients with different levels of statistical significance are obtained for a fixed effects model, random effects model, and an autoregressive (1) random effects model.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a r = -.10 % VERY HAPPY (top 3 life satisfaction) by belief in God in 79 nations. O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.01 p < .10