Correlational findings

Study Wallace & Pichler (2009): study ZZ Europe 2002

18+ aged, 19 European nations, 2002-2003
N = 36017
Non Response
Interview: face-to-face


Authors's Label
Civic participation (individual level)
Our Classification
Range 0-24
The respondents were asked whether they are members of, participated in, donated money to or voluntarily worked for different types of organisations.
- sports club or club for out-door activities
- organisation for cultural or hobby activities
- trade union
- business, professional or farmers' organisation
- consumer or automobile
- organisation for humantarian aid, human rights, minorities, or immigrants
- organisation for environmental protection, peace or animal rights
- religious or church organisation
- political party
- organisation for science, education or teachers and parents
- social club, club for the young, the retired/ elderly, women, or friendly societies
- any other voluntary organisation such as the ones just mentioned.

Respondents who do not participate in a type of association score 0, those who are only a member score 1 and those who are 'more than a member' score 2.

For an 'overall' measure of civic participation in voluntary associations the number of involvement in 12 types of associations were counted.

This yields an overall count index of civic participation ranging from 0 (no participation at all) to 24 (more than a member in every of the 12 types of voluntary organisations).

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cd b = +.04 p < .001 O-HL-u-sq-n-11-a b = +.04 p < .001 B's controlled for:
- gender
- age
- education
- occupational class
- domicile (big city, suburb, village, countryside)