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Happiness Measures

Characteristics

Code:
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-a
Focus:
Overall: Happiness in Life (O-HL)
Time frame:
time unspecified (u)
Mode:
1 question (sq)
Scale Type:
numeric scale (n)
Scale Range:
11

Description

Selfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how happy would you say you are?
0  extremely unhappy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 extremely happy
-    don't know
-    no answer

List of Studies Using this Measure

Study Population N Statistics Baltatescu (2005): study ZZ Western Europe 2002 15+ aged, general public, 13 nations in Europe, 2002-2003 N = 28320
Pichler (2009): study ZZ Europe 2004 Employed in paid work, 26 European nations, 2004-05 N = 16860
Mean
= 7.010
SD
= 2.120
Wallace & Pichler (2009): study ZZ Europe 2002 18+ aged, 19 European nations, 2002-2003 N = 36017
ESS homepage (2002): study AT 2002 15+ aged, general public, Austria, 2002 N = 2257
Mean
= 7.686
SD
= 1.906
ESS homepage (2002): study BE 2002 16+ aged, general public, Belgium, 2002 N = 1899
Mean
= 7.758
SD
= 1.629
ESS homepage (2002): study CH 2002 15+ aged, general public, Switzerland, 2002 N = 2040
Mean
= 8.051
SD
= 1.434
ESS homepage (2002): study CZ 2002 16+ aged, general public, Czech Republic, 2002 N = 1360
Mean
= 6.965
SD
= 1.979
ESS homepage (2002): study DE 2002 16+ aged, general public, Germany, 2002 N = 2919
Mean
= 7.234
SD
= 1.906
ESS homepage (2002): study DK 2002 16+ aged, general public, Denmark, 2002 N = 1506
Mean
= 8.324
SD
= 1.422
ESS homepage (2002): study FI 2002 16+ aged, general public, Finland, 2002 N = 2000
Mean
= 8.030
SD
= 1.463
ESS homepage (2002): study FR 2002 16+ aged, general public, France, 2002 N = 1503
Mean
= 7.457
SD
= 1.887
ESS homepage (2002): study GB 2002 16+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 2002 N = 2052
Mean
= 7.615
SD
= 1.812
ESS homepage (2002): study GR 2002 16+ aged, general public, Greece, 2002 N = 2566
Mean
= 6.594
SD
= 2.218
ESS homepage (2002): study IE 2002 16+ aged, general public, Ireland, 2002 N = 2046
Mean
= 7.879
SD
= 1.771
ESS homepage (2002): study IL 2002 16+ aged, general public, Israel, 2002 N = 2499
Mean
= 7.290
SD
= 2.100
ESS homepage (2002): study IT 2002 16+ aged, general public, Italy, 2002 N = 1207
Mean
= 6.490
SD
= 2.088
ESS homepage (2002): study LU 2002 16+ aged, general public, Luxembourg, 2002 N = 1552
Mean
= 7.914
SD
= 1.896
ESS homepage (2002): study NL 2002 15+ aged, general public, Netherlands, 2002 N = 2364
Mean
= 7.858
SD
= 1.359
ESS homepage (2002): study NO 2002 16+ aged, general public, Norway, 2002 N = 2036
Mean
= 7.884
SD
= 1.511
ESS homepage (2002): study PL 2002 16+ aged, general public, Poland, 2002 N = 2110
Mean
= 6.428
SD
= 2.251
ESS homepage (2002): study PT 2002 16+ aged, general public, Portugal, 2002 N = 1511
Mean
= 6.970
SD
= 1.870
ESS homepage (2002): study SE 2002 16+ aged, general public, Sweden, 2002 N = 1999
Mean
= 7.885
SD
= 1.590
ESS homepage (2002): study SI 2002 16+ aged, general public, Slovenia, 2002 N = 1519
Mean
= 6.930
SD
= 2.067
ESS homepage (2004): study AT 2004 16+ aged, general public, Austria, 2004 N = 2256
Mean
= 7.593
SD
= 1.874
ESS homepage (2004): study BE 2004 16+ aged, general public, Belgium, 2004 N = 1778
Mean
= 7.750
SD
= 1.517
ESS homepage (2004): study CH 2004 16+ aged, general public, Switzerland, 2004 N = 2141
Mean
= 8.101
SD
= 1.490
ESS homepage (2004): study CZ 2004 16+ aged, general public, Czech Republic, 2004 N = 3026
Mean
= 6.950
SD
= 1.909
ESS homepage (2004): study DE 2004 16+ aged, general public, Germany, 2004 N = 2870
Mean
= 7.070
SD
= 1.994
ESS homepage (2004): study DK 2004 16+ aged, general public, Denmark, 2004 N = 1487
Mean
= 8.316
SD
= 1.415
ESS homepage (2004): study EE 2004 16+ aged, general public, Estonia, 2004 N = 1989
Mean
= 6.268
SD
= 2.061
ESS homepage (2004): study ES 2004 16+ aged, general public, Spain, 2004 N = 1663
Mean
= 7.330
SD
= 1.776
ESS homepage (2004): study FI 2004 16+ aged, general public, Finland, 2004 N = 2022
Mean
= 8.058
SD
= 1.402
ESS homepage (2004): study FR 2004 16+ aged, general public, France, 2004 N = 1806
Mean
= 7.317
SD
= 1.826
ESS homepage (2004): study GB 2004 16+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 2004 N = 1897
Mean
= 7.471
SD
= 1.786
ESS homepage (2004): study IE 2004 16+ aged, general public, Ireland, 2004 N = 2286
Mean
= 7.978
SD
= 1.678
ESS homepage (2004): study IS 2004 16+ aged, general public, Iceland, 2004 N = 579
Mean
= 8.473
SD
= 1.393
ESS homepage (2004): study LU 2004 16+ aged, general public, Luxembourg, 2004 N = 1635
Mean
= 7.750
SD
= 1.851
ESS homepage (2004): study NL 2004 16+ aged, general public, Netherlands, 2004 N = 1881
Mean
= 7.780
SD
= 1.320
ESS homepage (2004): study NO 2004 16+ aged, general public, Norway, 2004 N = 1760
Mean
= 7.896
SD
= 1.581
ESS homepage (2004): study PL 2004 16+ aged, general public, Poland, 2004 N = 1716
Mean
= 6.720
SD
= 2.248
ESS homepage (2004): study PT 2004 16+ aged, general public, Portugal, 2004 N = 2052
Mean
= 6.540
SD
= 1.720
ESS homepage (2004): study SE 2004 16+ aged, general public, Sweden, 2004 N = 1948
Mean
= 7.841
SD
= 1.638
ESS homepage (2004): study SI 2004 16+ aged, general public, Slovenia, 2004 N = 1442
Mean
= 7.183
SD
= 1.936
ESS homepage (2004): study SK 2004 16+ aged, general public, Slovakia, 2004 N = 1512
Mean
= 6.237
SD
= 2.160
ESS homepage (2004): study UA 2004 16+ aged, general public, Ukraine, 2004 N = 2031
Mean
= 5.564
SD
= 2.312
ESS homepage (2006): study BE 2006 16+ aged, general public, Belgium, 2006 N = 1798
Mean
= 7.672
SD
= 1.583
ESS homepage (2006): study BG 2006 16+ aged, general public, Bulgaria, 2006 N = 1400
Mean
= 5.371
SD
= 2.508
ESS homepage (2006): study CH 2006 16+ aged, general public, Switzerland, 2006 N = 1804
Mean
= 8.113
SD
= 1.412
ESS homepage (2006): study CY 2006 16+ aged, general public, Cyprus, 2006 N = 995
Mean
= 7.777
SD
= 1.617
ESS homepage (2006): study DE 2006 16+ aged, general public, Germany, 2006 N = 2916
Mean
= 7.065
SD
= 1.911
ESS homepage (2006): study DK 2006 16+ aged, general public, Denmark, 2006 N = 1505
Mean
= 8.330
SD
= 1.394
ESS homepage (2006): study EE 2006 16+ aged, general public, Estonia, 2006 N = 1517
Mean
= 6.783
SD
= 1.955
ESS homepage (2006): study ES 2006 16+ aged, general public, Spain, 2006 N = 1876
Mean
= 7.639
SD
= 1.664
ESS homepage (2006): study FI 2006 16+ aged, general public, Finland, 2006 N = 1896
Mean
= 8.002
SD
= 1.423
ESS homepage (2006): study FR 2006 16+ aged, general public, France, 2006 N = 1986
Mean
= 7.255
SD
= 1.709
ESS homepage (2006): study GB 2006 16+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 2006 N = 2394
Mean
= 7.541
SD
= 1.875
ESS homepage (2006): study NO 2006 16+ aged, general public, Norway, 2006 N = 1750
Mean
= 7.930
SD
= 1.546
ESS homepage (2006): study PL 2006 16+ aged, general public, Poland, 2006 N = 1721
Mean
= 6.960
SD
= 2.125
ESS homepage (2006): study PT 2006 16+ aged, general public, Portugal, 2006 N = 2222
Mean
= 6.548
SD
= 1.808
ESS homepage (2006): study SE 2006 16+ aged, general public, Sweden, 2006 N = 1927
Mean
= 7.890
SD
= 1.543
ESS homepage (2006): study SI 2006 16+ aged, general public, Slovenia, 2006 N = 1476
Mean
= 7.245
SD
= 1.991
ESS homepage (2006): study SK 2006 16+ aged, general public, Slovakia, 2006 N = 1766
Mean
= 6.523
SD
= 2.015
ESS homepage (2004): study TR 2005 16+ aged, general public, Turkey, 2004 N = 1856
Mean
= 6.560
SD
= 2.618
ESS homepage (2006): study HU 2006 16+ aged, general public, Hungary, 2006 N = 1518
Mean
= 6.400
SD
= 2.472
ESS homepage (2006): study RO 2006 16+ aged, general public, Romania, 2006 N = 1849
Mean
= 6.159
SD
= 2.181
ESS homepage (2006): study RU 2006 16+ aged, general public, Russia, 2006 N = 2437
Mean
= 6.010
SD
= 2.274
ESS homepage (2008): study BE 2008 15+ aged, general public, Belgium, 2008 N = 1760
Mean
= 7.650
SD
= 1.603
ESS homepage (2008): study BG 2008 15+ aged, general public, Bulgaria, 2008 N = 2230
Mean
= 5.426
SD
= 2.657
ESS homepage (2008): study CH 2008 15+ aged, general public, Switzerland, 2008 N = 1819
Mean
= 7.978
SD
= 1.530
ESS homepage (2008): study CY 2008 15+ aged, general public, Cyprus, 2008 N = 1215
Mean
= 7.544
SD
= 1.600
ESS homepage (2008): study DE 2008 15+ aged, general public, Germany, 2008 N = 2751
Mean
= 7.260
SD
= 1.929
ESS homepage (2008): study DK 2007 15+ aged, general public, Denmark, 2008 N = 1610
Mean
= 8.370
SD
= 1.340
ESS homepage (2008): study EE 2008 15+ aged, general public, Estonia, 2008 N = 1661
Mean
= 6.700
SD
= 1.956
ESS homepage (2008): study ES 2008 15+ aged, general public, Spain, 2008 N = 2576
Mean
= 7.689
SD
= 1.634
ESS homepage (2008): study FI 2007 15+ aged, general public, Finland, 2008 N = 2195
Mean
= 8.015
SD
= 1.430
ESS homepage (2008): study FR 2008 15+ aged, general public, France, 2008 N = 2073
Mean
= 7.230
SD
= 1.713
ESS homepage (2008): study GB 2008 15+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 2008 N = 2352
Mean
= 7.515
SD
= 1.840
ESS homepage (2008): study NO 2008 15+ aged, general public, Norway, 2008 N = 1549
Mean
= 7.981
SD
= 1.510
ESS homepage (2008): study PL 2008 15+ aged, general public, Poland, 2008 N = 1619
Mean
= 7.150
SD
= 2.064
ESS homepage (2008): study PT 2008 15+ aged, general public, Portugal, 2008 N = 2367
Mean
= 6.621
SD
= 2.023
ESS homepage (2008): study RU 2008 15+ aged, general public, Russia, 2008 N = 2512
Mean
= 6.188
SD
= 2.176
ESS homepage (2008): study SE 2008 15+ aged, general public, Sweden, 2008 N = 1830
Mean
= 7.830
SD
= 1.603
ESS homepage (2008): study SI 2008 15+ aged, general public, Slovenia, 2008 N = 1286
Mean
= 7.234
SD
= 1.913
ESS homepage (2008): study HU 2008 18+ aged, general public, Hungary, 2008 N = 1544
Mean
= 5.940
SD
= 2.436
ESS homepage (2008): study IL 2008 18+ aged, general public, Israel, 2008 N = 2490
Mean
= 7.530
SD
= 2.041
ESS homepage (2008): study NL 2008 18+ aged, general public, Netherlands, 2008 N = 1778
Mean
= 7.810
SD
= 1.281
ESS homepage (2008): study SK 2008 15+ aged, general public, Slovakia, 2008 N = 1810
Mean
= 6.690
SD
= 1.914
ESS homepage (2010): study BE 2010 16+ aged, general public, Belgium, 2010 N = 1704
Mean
= 7.826
SD
= 1.430
ESS homepage (2010): study BG 2010 16+ aged, general public, Bulgaria, 2010 N = 2434
Mean
= 5.659
SD
= 2.512
ESS homepage (2010): study CH 2010 16+ aged, general public, Switzerland, 2010 N = 1506
Mean
= 8.060
SD
= 1.463
ESS homepage (2010): study CZ 2010 16+ aged, general public, Czech Republic, 2010 N = 2386
Mean
= 6.697
SD
= 1.906
ESS homepage (2010): study DE 2010 16+ aged, general public, Germany, 2010 N = 3031
Mean
= 7.450
SD
= 1.875
ESS homepage (2010): study DK 2010 16+ aged, general public, Denmark, 2010 N = 1576
Mean
= 8.270
SD
= 1.464
ESS homepage (2010): study EE 2010 16+ aged, general public, Estonia, 2010 N = 1793
Mean
= 6.910
SD
= 1.928
ESS homepage (2010): study ES 2010 16+ aged, general public, Spain, 2010 N = 1885
Mean
= 7.575
SD
= 1.615
ESS homepage (2010): study FR 2010 16+ aged, general public, France, 2010 N = 1728
Mean
= 7.130
SD
= 1.792
ESS homepage (2010): study GB 2010 16+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 2010 N = 2422
Mean
= 7.496
SD
= 1.850
ESS homepage (2010): study HU 2010 16+ aged, general public, Hungary, 2010 N = 1561
Mean
= 6.420
SD
= 2.384
Bock & Radelet (1988): study IL 2010 15+ aged, general public, Israel, 2010 N = 2294
Mean
= 7.648
SD
= 2.007
ESS homepage (2010): study NL 2010 16+ aged, general public, Netherlands, 2010 N = 1829
Mean
= 7.880
SD
= 1.308
ESS homepage (2010): study NO 2010 16+ aged, general public, Norway, 2010 N = 1548
Mean
= 8.009
SD
= 1.502
ESS homepage (2010): study PL 2010 15+ aged, general public, Poland, 2010 N = 1751
Mean
= 7.310
SD
= 2.034
ESS homepage (2010): study PT 2010 16+ aged, general public, Portugal, 2010 N = 2150
Mean
= 6.714
SD
= 1.914
ESS homepage (2010): study RU 2010 15+ aged, general public, Russia, 2010 N = 2595
Mean
= 6.290
SD
= 2.215
ESS homepage (2010): study SE 2010 16+ aged, general public, Sweden, 2010 N = 1497
Mean
= 7.912
SD
= 1.549
ESS homepage (2010): study SI 2010 16+ aged, general public, Slovenia, 2010 N = 1403
Mean
= 7.280
SD
= 1.898
Bartram (2013): study ZZ Europe 2008 15+ aged general public, Europe, 2008-2011 N = 42380
Mean
= 6.340
SD
= 2.290
Bartram (2013a): study RO 2009 15+ aged general public, Romania, 2009 N = 1595
Mean
= 6.100
SD
= 2.200
Bartram (2013b): study ZZ Europe 2002 15+ aged general public, Europe, 2002-2011 N = 56395
Mean
= 7.510
SD
= 1.750
Erlinghagen (2011): study DE 2002 15+ aged, general public, Germany, 2002-2009 N = 11096
Mean
= 7.200
Senik (2011): study ZZ Europe 2002 15+ aged, general public, Europe, 13 EU nations, 2002-2009 N = 64706
Mean
= 7.610
SD
= 1.690
Senik (2011): study ZZ Europe 2002 /2 15+ aged first-generation immigrants, 13 EU-nations, 2002-2009 N = 5094
Senik (2011): study ZZ Europe 2004 15+aged intra-European migrants, 13 EU nations, 2004-2009 N = 2560
Senik (2011): study BE 2002 15+ aged general public, Belgium, 2002-2009 N = 4831
Senik (2011): study CH 2002 15+ aged general public, Switzerland, 2002-2009 N = 4904
Senik (2011): study CA 2000 15+ aged general public, Canada, 2000-2006 N = 3439
Mean
= 3.410
SD
= 0.590
Senik (2011): study ZZ Europe 2002 /1 15+ aged general public, 13 EU nations, 2002-2009 N = 65371
Mean
= 7.610
SD
= 1.690
ESS homepage (2012): study BE 2012 15+ aged, general public, Belgium, 2012 N = 1869
Mean
= 7.690
SD
= 1.528
ESS homepage (2012): study BG 2012 15+ aged, general public, Bulgaria, 2012 N = 2260
Mean
= 5.410
SD
= 2.666
ESS homepage (2012): study CH 2012 15+ aged, general public, Switzerland, 2012 N = 1493
Mean
= 8.081
SD
= 1.504
ESS homepage (2012): study CY 2012 15+ aged, general public, Cyprus, 2012 N = 1116
Mean
= 7.231
SD
= 2.049
ESS homepage (2012): study CZ 2012 15+ aged, general public, Czech Republic, 2012 N = 2009
Mean
= 6.769
SD
= 1.980
ESS homepage (2012): study DE 2012 15+ aged, general public, Germany, 2012 N = 2958
Mean
= 7.710
SD
= 1.780
ESS homepage (2012): study DK 2012 15+ aged, general public, Denmark, 2012 N = 1650
Mean
= 8.380
SD
= 1.467
ESS homepage (2012): study EE 2012 15+ aged, general public, Estonia, 2012 N = 2380
Mean
= 6.820
SD
= 2.036
ESS homepage (2012): study ES 2012 15+ aged, general public, Spain, 2012 N = 1889
Mean
= 7.586
SD
= 1.870
ESS homepage (2012): study FI 2012 15+ aged, general public, Finland, 2012 N = 2197
Mean
= 8.086
SD
= 1.349
ESS homepage (2012): study GB 2012 15+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 2012 N = 2286
Mean
= 7.565
SD
= 1.902
ESS homepage (2012): study IE 2012 15+ aged, general public, Ireland, 2012 N = 2628
Mean
= 7.133
SD
= 1.932
ESS homepage (2012): study IL 2012 15+ aged, general public, Israel, 2012 N = 2488
Mean
= 7.840
SD
= 1.854
ESS homepage (2012): study IS 2012 15+ aged, general public, Iceland, 2012 N = 752
Mean
= 8.210
SD
= 1.468
ESS homepage (2012): study KO 2012 15+ aged, general public, Kosovo, 2012 N = 1277
Mean
= 6.393
SD
= 2.510
ESS homepage (2012): study NL 2012 15+ aged, general public, Netherlands, 2012 N = 1845
Mean
= 7.951
SD
= 1.330
ESS homepage (2012): study NO 2012 15+ aged, general public, Norway, 2012 N = 1624
Mean
= 8.159
SD
= 1.460
ESS homepage (2012): study PL 2012 15+ aged, general public, Poland, 2012 N = 1898
Mean
= 7.330
SD
= 2.007
ESS homepage (2012): study PT 2012 15+ aged, general public, Portugal, 2012 N = 2151
Mean
= 6.492
SD
= 1.910
ESS homepage (2012): study RU 2012 15+ aged, general public, Russia 2012 N = 2484
Mean
= 6.286
SD
= 2.124
ESS homepage (2012): study SE 2012 15+ aged, general public, Sweden, 2012 N = 1847
Mean
= 7.815
SD
= 1.562
ESS homepage (2012): study SI 2012 15+ aged, general public, Slovenia, 2012 N = 1257
Mean
= 7.260
SD
= 1.982
ESS homepage (2012): study SK 2012 15+ aged, general public, Slovakia, 2012 N = 1847
Mean
= 6.886
SD
= 1.786
ESS homepage (2013): study BE Bruxelles (Brussel) 2012 16+ aged, general public, Brussels, Belgium, 2012 N = 112
Mean
= 7.417
SD
= 1.617
ESS homepage (2013): study BE Antwerpen 2012 16+ aged, general public, Region of Antwerpen, Belgium N = 307
Mean
= 7.831
SD
= 1.321
ESS homepage (2013): study BE Hainaut (Henegouwen) 2012 16+ aged, general public,Region of Hainaut (Henegouwen), Belgium, 2012 N = 178
Mean
= 7.633
SD
= 1.476
ESS homepage (2013): study BE Liège (Luik) 2012 16+ aged, general public,Region of Liège (Luik), Belgium, 2012 N = 153
Mean
= 7.601
SD
= 1.586
ESS homepage (2013): study BE Limburg 2012 16+ aged, general public, Region of Limburg, Belgium, 2012 N = 166
Mean
= 7.958
SD
= 1.312
ESS homepage (2013): study BE Oost-Vlaanderen, East Flanders 2012 16+ aged, general public, Region of East Flanders, Belgium, 2012 N = 221
Mean
= 7.954
SD
= 1.341
ESS homepage (2013): study BE Vlaams Brabant 2012 16+ aged, general public, Region of Vlaams Brabant, East Flanders, Belgium, 2012 N = 178
Mean
= 7.970
SD
= 1.392
ESS homepage (2013): study BE West-Vlaanderen, West Flanders 2012 16+ aged, general public, Region of West Flanders, Belgium, 2012 N = 207
Mean
= 8.005
SD
= 1.479
ESS homepage (2012): study BE Namur (Namen) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Namur (Namen), Belgium, 2002 N = 77
Mean
= 7.805
SD
= 1.396
ESS homepage (2013): study BG Blagoevgrad 2002 15+ aged, general public, Blagoevgrad, Bulgaria, 2002-2010 N = 107
Mean
= 5.820
SD
= 2.789
ESS homepage (2013): study BG Burgaska, Bourgas, Burgas 2002 15+ aged, general public, Burgaska, Bourgas, Burgas, Bulgaria, 2002-2010 N = 150
Mean
= 6.662
SD
= 2.687
ESS homepage (2013): study BG Haskovo 2002 15+ aged, general public, Haskovo, Bulgaria, 2002-2010 N = 94
Mean
= 4.783
SD
= 2.524
ESS homepage (2013): study BG Pleven 2012 16+ aged, general public, Region of Pleven, Bulgaria, 2012 N = 125
Mean
= 5.640
SD
= 2.405
ESS homepage (2013): study BG Ruse 2002 15+ aged, general public, Ruse, Bulgaria, 2002-2010 N = 105
Mean
= 5.182
SD
= 2.459
ESS homepage (2013): study BG Silistra 2002 15+ aged, general public, Silistra, Bulgaria, 2002-2010 N = 84
Mean
= 5.621
SD
= 2.054
ESS homepage (2013): study BG Varna 2002 15+ aged, general public, Varna, Bulgaria, 2002-2010 N = 175
Mean
= 5.113
SD
= 2.656
ESS homepage (2013): study BG Sliven 2002 15+ aged, general public, Sliven, Bulgaria, 2002-2010 N = 95
Mean
= 4.468
SD
= 2.266
ESS homepage (2013): study BG Stara Zagora 2002 15+ aged, general public, Stara Zagora, Bulgaria, 2002-2010 N = 95
Mean
= 5.049
SD
= 2.316
ESS homepage (2013): study BG Sofia 2002 15+ aged, general public, Sofia, Bulgaria, 2002 N = 356
Mean
= 6.084
SD
= 2.509
ESS homepage (2013): study BG Plovdiv 2002 15+ aged, general public, Plovdiv, Bulgaria, 2002-2010 N = 195
Mean
= 5.126
SD
= 2.451
ESS homepage (2013): study CH Region Iemanique (Genfer Region) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Region Iemanique (Genfer Region), Switzerland, 2002-2010 N = 246
Mean
= 8.153
SD
= 1.540
ESS homepage (2013): study CH Espace Mittelland (NW) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Espace Mittelland (NW), Switzerland, 2002-2011 N = 356
Mean
= 8.191
SD
= 1.539
ESS homepage (2013): study CH Nord-West Schweiz (North-West Switserland) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Nord-West Schweiz (North-West Switserland), Switzerland, 2002-2011 N = 208
Mean
= 8.107
SD
= 1.512
ESS homepage (2013): study CH Zürich 2002 15+ aged, general public, Zürich, Switzerland, 2002-2011 N = 238
Mean
= 7.892
SD
= 1.314
ESS homepage (2013): study CH Ost-Schweiz (Eastern Switserland) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Ost-Schweiz (Eastern Switserland), Switzerland, 2002-2011 N = 249
Mean
= 8.064
SD
= 1.336
ESS homepage (2013): study CH Zentral-Schweiz(Central Switserland) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Zentral-Schweiz(Central Switserland), Switzerland, 2002-2011 N = 161
Mean
= 7.933
SD
= 1.222
ESS homepage (2013): study CZ Praha (Prague) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Zürich, Switzerland, 2002-2011 N = 281
Mean
= 6.586
SD
= 1.757
ESS homepage (2013): study CZ Stredoceský kraj (Central Bohemia) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Stredoceský kraj (Central Bohemia), Czech Republic, 2002-2011 N = 234
Mean
= 6.498
SD
= 1.985
ESS homepage (2013): study CZ Jihomoravský kraj (South Moravia) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Jihomoravský kraj (South Moravia), Czech Republic, 2002-2011 N = 155
Mean
= 7.047
SD
= 1.698
ESS homepage (2013): study CZ Plzen Reg. 2002 15+ aged, general public, Plzen Reg., Czech Republic, 2002-2011 N = 112
Mean
= 6.792
SD
= 1.851
ESS homepage (2013): study CZ Ustecky kraj. Usti Reg. 2002 15+ aged, general public, Ustecky kraj. Usti Reg., Czech Republic, 2002-2011 N = 176
Mean
= 6.475
SD
= 1.918
ESS homepage (2013): study CZ Liberec Reg. 2002 15+ aged, general public, Liberec Reg., Czech Republic, 2002-2011 N = 100
Mean
= 6.778
SD
= 1.967
ESS homepage (2013): study CZ Kraloverhradecky kraj. Hradec Kralove Reg. 2002 15+ aged, general public, Kraloverhradecky kraj. Hradec Kralove Reg., Czech Republic, 2002-2011 N = 126
Mean
= 6.680
SD
= 2.203
ESS homepage (2013): study CZ Pardubice Reg. 2002 15+ aged, general public, Pardubice Reg., Czech Republic, 2002-2011 N = 122
Mean
= 6.323
SD
= 2.003
ESS homepage (2013): study CZ Východoèeský kraj (Visocina) (East Bohemia) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Východoèeský kraj (Visocina) (East Bohemia), Czech Republic, 2002-2011 N = 129
Mean
= 6.882
SD
= 1.893
ESS homepage (2013): study CZ Jihomoravský kraj (South Moravia) 2002 /1 15+ aged, general public, Jihomoravský kraj (South Moravia), Czech Republic, 2002-2011 N = 261
Mean
= 6.510
SD
= 1.832
ESS homepage (2013): study CZ Olomouc Reg. 2002 15+ aged, general public, Olomouc Reg., Czech Republic, 2002-2011 N = 164
Mean
= 6.525
SD
= 2.120
ESS homepage (2013): study CZ Zlinsky kraj. Zlin Reg. 2002 15+ aged, general public, Zlinsky kraj. Zlin Reg., Czech Republic, 2002-2011 N = 157
Mean
= 6.752
SD
= 1.931
ESS homepage (2013): study CZ Moravskosleszky kraj. Moravian Silesia Reg. 2002 15+ aged, general public, Moravskosleszky kraj. Moravian Silesia Reg., Czech Republic, 2002-2010 N = 304
Mean
= 6.380
SD
= 2.008
ESS homepage (2013): study DE Baden-Wurttemberg 2002 15+ aged, general public, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany, 2002-2010 N = 287
Mean
= 7.664
SD
= 1.762
ESS homepage (2013): study DE Bayern 2002 15+ aged, general public, Bayern, Germany, 2002-2010 N = 430
Mean
= 7.485
SD
= 1.764
ESS homepage (2013): study DE Berlin 2002 15+ aged, general public, Berlin, Germany, 2002-2010 N = 104
Mean
= 7.183
SD
= 2.022
ESS homepage (2013): study DE Brandenburg 2002 15+ aged, general public, Brandenburg, Germany, 2002-2010 N = 226
Mean
= 7.068
SD
= 1.755
ESS homepage (2013): study DE Hessen 2002 15+ aged, general public, Hessen, Germany, 2002-2010 N = 193
Mean
= 7.602
SD
= 1.825
ESS homepage (2013): study DE Mecklenburg-Vorpommern 2002 15+ aged, general public, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany, 2002-2010 N = 122
Mean
= 7.327
SD
= 1.693
ESS homepage (2013): study DE Niedersachsen 2002 15+ aged, general public, Niedersachsen, Germany, 2002-2010 N = 185
Mean
= 7.717
SD
= 1.921
ESS homepage (2013): study DE Nordrhein-Westfalen 2002 15+ aged, general public, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany, 2002-2010 N = 565
Mean
= 7.511
SD
= 1.904
ESS homepage (2013): study DE Rheinland -Pfalz 2002 15+ aged, general public, Rheinland -Pfalz, Germany, 2002-2010 N = 130
Mean
= 7.423
SD
= 1.777
ESS homepage (2013): study DE Sachsen 2002 15+ aged, general public, Sachsen, Germany, 2002-2010 N = 258
Mean
= 6.939
SD
= 1.928
ESS homepage (2013): study DE Sachsen-Anhalt 2002 15+ aged, general public, Sachsen-Anhalt, Germany, 2002-2010 N = 182
Mean
= 6.974
SD
= 2.181
ESS homepage (2013): study DE Schleswig-Holstein 2002 15+ aged, general public, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, 2002-2010 N = 81
Mean
= 7.465
SD
= 1.862
ESS homepage (2013): study DE Thueringen 2002 15+ aged, general public, Thueringen, Germany, 2002-2010 N = 196
Mean
= 6.953
SD
= 1.869
ESS homepage (2013): study DK Hovenstaden (Capital region, København) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Hovenstaden (Capital region, København), Denmark, 2002 N = 397
Mean
= 8.189
SD
= 1.477
ESS homepage (2013): study DK Sjælland 2002 15+ aged, general public, Sjælland, Denmark, 2002-2010 N = 209
Mean
= 8.248
SD
= 1.460
ESS homepage (2013): study DK Syddanmark 2002 15+ aged, general public, Syddanmark, Denmark, 2002-2011 N = 365
Mean
= 8.409
SD
= 1.353
ESS homepage (2013): study DK Midtyilland 2002 15+ aged, general public, Midtyilland, Denmark, 2002-2011 N = 411
Mean
= 8.266
SD
= 1.470
ESS homepage (2013): study DK Nordjylland 2002 15+ aged, general public, Nordjylland, Denmark, 2002-2011 N = 204
Mean
= 8.224
SD
= 1.607
ESS homepage (2013): study EE Põhja-Eesti, Harju County, North Estonia 2002 15+ aged, general public, Põhja-Eesti, Harju County, North Estonia, Estonia, 2002-2010 N = 575
Mean
= 7.205
SD
= 1.868
ESS homepage (2013): study EE Lääne-Eesti (West Estonia) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Lääne-Eesti (West Estonia), Estonia, 2002-2010 N = 222
Mean
= 7.137
SD
= 1.929
ESS homepage (2013): study EE Kesk-Eesti (Central Estonia) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Kesk-Eesti (Central Estonia), Estonia, 2002 N = 248
Mean
= 6.851
SD
= 1.786
ESS homepage (2013): study EE Kirde-Eesti (North-East Estonia) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Kirde-Eesti (North-East Estonia), Estonia, 2002 N = 191
Mean
= 6.557
SD
= 2.272
ESS homepage (2013): study EE Lõuna-Eesti (South Estonia) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Lõuna-Eesti (South Estonia), Estonia, 2002 N = 557
Mean
= 6.644
SD
= 1.860
ESS homepage (2013): study ES Galicia 2002 15+ aged, general public, Galicia, Spain, 2002 N = 101
Mean
= 7.403
SD
= 1.606
ESS homepage (2013): study ES Pais Vasco 2002 15+ aged, general public, Pais Vasco, Spain, 2002 N = 81
Mean
= 7.432
SD
= 1.843
ESS homepage (2013): study ES Madrid 2002 15+ aged, general public, Pais Vasco, Spain, 2002 N = 305
Mean
= 7.530
SD
= 1.598
ESS homepage (2013): study ES Castilla Leon 2002 15+ aged, general public, Castilla Leon, Spain, 2002 N = 116
Mean
= 7.406
SD
= 1.540
ESS homepage (2013): study ES Castilla-Mancha 2002 15+ aged, general public, Castilla-Mancha, Spain, 2002 N = 84
Mean
= 7.865
SD
= 1.748
ESS homepage (2013): study ES Cataluna 2002 15+ aged, general public, Cataluna, Spain, 2002 N = 248
Mean
= 7.864
SD
= 1.579
ESS homepage (2013): study ES Valenciano 2002 /1 15+ aged, general public, Valenciano, Spain, 2002 N = 186
Mean
= 7.681
SD
= 1.568
ESS homepage (2013): study ES Andalucia 2002 15+ aged, general public, Andalucia, Spain, 2002 N = 408
Mean
= 7.355
SD
= 1.668
ESS homepage (2013): study ES Canarias 2002 15+ aged, general public, Canarias, Spain, 2002 N = 62
Mean
= 7.984
SD
= 1.550
ESS homepage (2013): study ES Valenciano 2002 15+ aged, general public, Valenciano, Spain, 2002 N = 186
Mean
= 7.681
SD
= 1.568
ESS homepage (2013): study FI Etelä-Savo 2002 15+ aged, general public, Etelä-Savo, Finland, 2002 N = 61
Mean
= 7.935
SD
= 1.325
ESS homepage (2013): study FI Pohjois-Savo 2002 15+ aged, general public, Etelä-Savo, Finland, 2002 N = 102
Mean
= 7.765
SD
= 1.444
ESS homepage (2013): study FI Uusimaa (region around Helsinki) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Uusimaa (region around Helsinki), Finland, 2002 N = 446
Mean
= 8.017
SD
= 1.438
ESS homepage (2013): study FI Varsi nais Suomi 2002 /1 15+ aged, general public, Varsi nais Suomi, Finland, 2002 N = 181
Mean
= 7.787
SD
= 1.615
ESS homepage (2013): study FI Keski-Suomi 2002 15+ aged, general public, Uusimaa (region around Helsinki), Finland, 2002 N = 104
Mean
= 8.269
SD
= 1.252
ESS homepage (2013): study FI Satakunta 2002 15+ aged, general public, Satakunta, Finland, 2002 N = 93
Mean
= 8.184
SD
= 1.154
ESS homepage (2013): study FI Pirkanmaa 2002 15+ aged, general public, Pirkanmaa, Finland, 2002 N = 164
Mean
= 8.093
SD
= 1.394
ESS homepage (2013): study FI Varsi nais Suomi 2002 15+ aged, general public, Varsi nais Suomi, Finland, 2002 N = 181
Mean
= 7.787
SD
= 1.615
ESS homepage (2013): study FI Pohjois-Pohjanmaa 2002 15+ aged, general public, Pohjois-Pohjanmaa, Finland, 2002 N = 129
Mean
= 7.953
SD
= 1.454
ESS homepage (2013): study FI Lappi 2002 15+ aged, general public, Lappi, Finland, 2002 N = 67
Mean
= 8.030
SD
= 1.329
ESS homepage (2013): study FR Île de France (Paris) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Île de France (Paris), France, 2002 N = 262
Mean
= 6.942
SD
= 1.825
ESS homepage (2013): study FR Nord Pas de Calais 2002 15+ aged, general public, Nord Pas de Calais, France, 2002 N = 123
Mean
= 6.944
SD
= 2.140
ESS homepage (2013): study FR Lorraine 2002 15+ aged, general public, Lorraine, France, 2002 N = 90
Mean
= 6.768
SD
= 1.773
ESS homepage (2013): study FR Pays de la Loire 2002 15+ aged, general public, Pays de la Loire, France, 2002 N = 107
Mean
= 7.346
SD
= 1.679
ESS homepage (2013): study FR Bretagne 2002 15+ aged, general public, Bretagne, France, 2002 N = 95
Mean
= 6.841
SD
= 1.917
ESS homepage (2013): study FR Poitou-Charentes 2002 15+ aged, general public, Poitou-Charentes, France, 2002 N = 88
Mean
= 7.037
SD
= 1.710
ESS homepage (2013): study FR Aquitaine 2002 15+ aged, general public, Aquitaine, France, 2002 N = 98
Mean
= 7.037
SD
= 1.710
ESS homepage (2013): study FR Midi-Pyrenees 2002 15+ aged, general public, Midi-Pyrenees, France, 2002 N = 78
Mean
= 6.844
SD
= 1.649
ESS homepage (2013): study FR Rhone-Alpes 2002 15+ aged, general public, Rhone-Alpes, France, 2002 N = 184
Mean
= 7.241
SD
= 1.730
ESS homepage (2013): study FR Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur 2002 15+ aged, general public, Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur, France, 2002 N = 108
Mean
= 7.005
SD
= 2.072
ESS homepage (2013): study GR Anatoliki makedonia (East Macedonia) 2012 16+ aged, general public, Anatoliki makedonia (East Macedonia), Greece, 2012 N = 148
Mean
= 5.404
SD
= 2.135
ESS homepage (2013): study GR Kentriki Makedonia 2002 15+ aged, general public, Kentriki Makedonia, Greece, 2002 N = 429
Mean
= 5.620
SD
= 2.156
ESS homepage (2013): study GR Ditiki Ellada 2002 /1 16+ aged, general public, Region of West Flanders, Belgium, 2012 N = 89
Mean
= 6.121
SD
= 1.969
ESS homepage (2013): study GR Thessalia 2002 15+ aged, general public, Thessalia, Greece, 2002 N = 200
Mean
= 6.791
SD
= 1.499
ESS homepage (2013): study GR Ipeiros (Epirus) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Ipeiros (Epirus), Greece, 2002 N = 105
Mean
= 6.135
SD
= 2.269
ESS homepage (2013): study GR Ionia Nissia 2002 15+ aged, general public, Ionia Nissia, Greece, 2002 N = 64
Mean
= 5.672
SD
= 2.710
ESS homepage (2013): study GR Sterea Ellada Evia 2002 15+ aged, general public, Sterea Ellada Evia, Greece, 2002 N = 161
Mean
= 5.998
SD
= 1.650
ESS homepage (2013): study GR Peloponnisos kai Dytiki Sterea (Peleponesos) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Peloponnisos kai Dytiki Sterea (Peleponesos), Greece, 2002 N = 150
Mean
= 6.268
SD
= 2.454
ESS homepage (2013): study GR Attiki 2002 15+ aged, general public, Attiki, Greece, 2002 N = 904
Mean
= 5.838
SD
= 2.260
ESS homepage (2013): study GR Notio Agaio 2002 15+ aged, general public, Notio Agaio, Greece, 2002 N = 75
Mean
= 6.483
SD
= 2.037
ESS homepage (2013): study GR Kriti (Crete) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Kriti (Crete), Greece, 2002 N = 159
Mean
= 6.796
SD
= 2.019
ESS homepage (2013): study HR Sjeverozapadna Hrvatska (North West Croatia) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Sjeverozapadna Hrvatska (North West Croatia), Croatia, 2002 N = 479
Mean
= 6.431
SD
= 2.322
ESS homepage (2013): study HR Sredisnja i Istocna (Panonska) Hrvatska (North East Croatia) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Sredisnja i Istocna (Panonska) Hrvatska (North East Croatia), Croatia, 2002 N = 527
Mean
= 6.629
SD
= 2.063
ESS homepage (2013): study HR Jadranska Hrvatska (Adriatic Croatia) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Jadranska Hrvatska (Adriatic Croatia), Croatia, 2002 N = 644
Mean
= 6.655
SD
= 2.114
ESS homepage (2013): study HU Budapest 2002 15+ aged, general public, Blagoevgrad, Bulgaria, 2002-2010 N = 217
Mean
= 6.630
SD
= 2.353
ESS homepage (2012): study HU Pest 2002 15+ aged, general public, Podravska, Slovenia, 2002-2011 N = 185
Mean
= 7.131
SD
= 2.274
ESS homepage (2012): study HU Komarom-Esztergom 2002 15+ aged, general public, Komarom-Esztergom, Hungary, 2002-2011 N = 80
Mean
= 6.497
SD
= 2.362
ESS homepage (2012): study HU Gyor-Moson-Sopron 2002 15+ aged, general public, Gyor-Moson-Sopron, Hungary, 2002-2011 N = 70
Mean
= 7.128
SD
= 1.956
ESS homepage (2012): study HU Vas 2002 15+ aged, general public, Vas, Hungary, 2002-2011 N = 62
Mean
= 6.053
SD
= 2.253
ESS homepage (2012): study HU Jasz-Nagykun-Szolnok 2002 15+ aged, general public, Jasz-Nagykun-Szolnok, Hungary, 2002-2011 N = 97
Mean
= 6.064
SD
= 2.527
ESS homepage (2012): study HU Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg 2002 15+ aged, general public, Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg, Hungary, 2002-2011 N = 89
Mean
= 6.281
SD
= 2.596
ESS homepage (2012): study HU Bács-Kiskun 2002 15+ aged, general public, Bács-Kiskun, Hungary, 2002-2011 N = 90
Mean
= 6.233
SD
= 2.031
ESS homepage (2013): study IE West (Mayo/Galway) 2002 15+ aged, general public, West (Mayo / Galway), Ireland, 2002 N = 367
Mean
= 7.103
SD
= 1.852
ESS homepage (2013): study IE Dublin 2002 15+ aged, general public, Dublin, Ireland, 2002-2011 N = 590
Mean
= 6.715
SD
= 1.928
ESS homepage (2013): study IE IE Mid-East 2002 15+ aged, general public, IE Mid-East, Ireland, 2002-2011 N = 219
Mean
= 6.277
SD
= 2.190
ESS homepage (2013): study IE Mid west (Limerick / Clare / Tippary / North Riding) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Mid west (Limerick / Clare / Tippary / North Riding), Ireland, 2002-2011 N = 233
Mean
= 7.641
SD
= 2.069
ESS homepage (2013): study IE South east (Waterford / Wexford) 2002 15+ aged, general public, South east (Waterford / Wexford), Ireland, 2002-2011 N = 302
Mean
= 7.489
SD
= 1.768
ESS homepage (2013): study IE South west (Kerry / Cork) 2002 15+ aged, general public, South west (Kerry / Cork), Ireland, 2002-2011 N = 364
Mean
= 7.561
SD
= 2.124
ESS homepage (2012): study IL 2002 15+ aged, general public, Israel, 2002-2011 N = 2294
Mean
= 7.605
SD
= 2.030
ESS homepage (2013): study BG Blagoevgrad 2002 /1 15+ aged, general public, Blagoevgrad, Bulgaria, 2002-2010 N = 107
Mean
= 5.820
SD
= 2.789
ESS homepage (2013): study BE Brabant Wallon (Waals Brabant) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Brabant Wallon (Waals Brabant), Belgium, 2002-2011 N = 56
Mean
= 7.853
SD
= 1.357
ESS homepage (2013): study GR Ditiki Ellada 2002 15+ aged, general public, Ditiki Ellada, Greece, 2002-2011 N = 178
Mean
= 6.023
SD
= 2.057
ESS homepage (2013): study IE IE Border 2002 15+ aged, general public, IE Border, Ireland, 2002-2011 N = 517
Mean
= 7.750
SD
= 1.745
ESS homepage (2012): study NL Gelderland 2002 15+ aged, general public, Gelderland, Netherlands, 2002-2011 N = 228
Mean
= 7.910
SD
= 1.295
ESS homepage (2013): study NL Utrecht 2002 15+ aged, general public, Utrecht, Netherlands, 2002-2011 N = 139
Mean
= 7.740
SD
= 1.483
ESS homepage (2012): study NL Noord-Holland 2002 15+ aged, general public, Noord-Holland, Netherlands, 2002-2011 N = 284
Mean
= 7.739
SD
= 1.502
ESS homepage (2012): study NL Zuid-Holland (South Holland) 2002 /1 15+ aged, general public, Zuid-Holland, Netherlands, 2002-2011 N = 357
Mean
= 7.744
SD
= 1.272
ESS homepage (2012): study NL Noord-Brabant 2002 15+ aged, general public, Noord-Brabant, Netherlands, 2002-2011 N = 282
Mean
= 7.751
SD
= 1.414
ESS homepage (2012): study NL Limburg 2002 15+ aged, general public, Limburg, Netherlands, 2002-2011 N = 123
Mean
= 7.539
SD
= 1.626
ESS homepage (2012): study NO Oslo and Akershus 2002 15+ aged, general public, Oslo and Akershus, Norway, 2002-2011 N = 358
Mean
= 7.846
SD
= 1.534
ESS homepage (2012): study NO Hedmark, Oppland 2002 15+ aged, general public, Hedmark, Oppland, Norway, 2002-2011 N = 123
Mean
= 7.846
SD
= 1.534
ESS homepage (2012): study NO Sør-Østlandet 2002 15+ aged, general public, Sør-Østlandet, Norway, 2002-2011 N = 299
Mean
= 7.973
SD
= 1.531
ESS homepage (2012): study NO Aust-Agder, Vest Agder, Rogaland 2002 15+ aged, general public, Aust-Agder, Vest Agder, Rogaland, Norway, 2002-2011 N = 223
Mean
= 8.108
SD
= 1.521
ESS homepage (2012): study NO Vestlandet 2002 15+ aged, general public, Vestlandet, Norway, 2002-2011 N = 264
Mean
= 8.080
SD
= 1.457
ESS homepage (2012): study NO Trøndelag 2002 15+ aged, general public, Trøndelag, Norway, 2002-2011 N = 134
Mean
= 8.143
SD
= 1.301
ESS homepage (2012): study NO Nord-Norge 2002 /1 15+ aged, general public, Nord-Norge, Norway, 2002-2011 N = 148
Mean
= 8.205
SD
= 1.375
ESS homepage (2012): study PL Lodzkie 2002 15+ aged, general public, Lodzkie, Poland, 2002-2011 N = 127
Mean
= 6.792
SD
= 1.754
ESS homepage (2013): study PL Mazowieckie 2002 15+ aged, general public, Mazowieckie, Poland, 2002-2011 N = 228
Mean
= 7.151
SD
= 2.156
ESS homepage (2012): study PL Malopolskie 2002 15+ aged, general public, Malopolskie, Poland, 2002-2011 N = 143
Mean
= 7.284
SD
= 2.118
ESS homepage (2012): study PL Slaskie 2002 15+ aged, general public, Slaskie, Poland, 2002-2011 N = 207
Mean
= 7.444
SD
= 1.876
ESS homepage (2012): study PL Lubelskie 2002 15+ aged, general public, Lubelskie, Poland, 2002-2011 N = 113
Mean
= 6.972
SD
= 1.988
ESS homepage (2012): study PL Podkarpackie 2002 15+ aged, general public, Podkarpackie, Poland, 2002-2011 N = 97
Mean
= 7.175
SD
= 2.033
ESS homepage (2012): study PL Swietokrzyskie 2002 15+ aged, general public, Swietokrzyskie, Poland, 2002-2011 N = 70
Mean
= 7.316
SD
= 2.007
ESS homepage (2012): study PL Wielkopolskie 2002 15+ aged, general public, Wielkopolskie, Poland, 2002-2011 N = 147
Mean
= 7.531
SD
= 1.995
ESS homepage (2012): study PL Zachodniopomorskie 2002 15+ aged, general public, Zachodniopomorskie, Poland, 2002-2011 N = 79
Mean
= 7.610
SD
= 2.093
ESS homepage (2012): study PL Dolnoslaskie 2002 15+ aged, general public, Dolnoslaskie, Poland, 2002-2011 N = 110
Mean
= 7.488
SD
= 2.148
ESS homepage (2012): study PL Opolskie 2002 15+ aged, general public, Opolskie, Poland, 2002-2011 N = 55
Mean
= 7.820
SD
= 2.086
ESS homepage (2012): study PL Kujawsko-pomorskie 2002 15+ aged, general public, Kujawsko-pomorskie, Poland, 2002-2011 N = 102
Mean
= 7.335
SD
= 1.686
ESS homepage (2012): study PL Warminsko-mazurskie 2002 15+ aged, general public, Warminsko-mazurskie, Poland, 2002-2011 N = 64
Mean
= 7.763
SD
= 1.663
ESS homepage (2012): study PL Pomorskie 2002 15+ aged, general public, Pomorskie, Poland, 2002-2011 N = 116
Mean
= 7.460
SD
= 2.006
ESS homepage (2012): study PT PT Norte 2002 15+ aged, general public, PT Norte, Portugal, 2002-2011 N = 849
Mean
= 6.895
SD
= 1.777
ESS homepage (2012): study PT Algarve (Faro) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Algarve (Faro), Portugal, 2002-2011 N = 82
Mean
= 4.964
SD
= 1.064
ESS homepage (2012): study PT PT Centro 2002 15+ aged, general public, Centro, Portugal, 2002-2011 N = 388
Mean
= 6.553
SD
= 1.821
ESS homepage (2012): study PT Lisboa et Vale do Tejo 2002 15+ aged, general public, Lisboa et Vale do Tejo, Portugal, 2002-2011 N = 752
Mean
= 6.505
SD
= 2.235
ESS homepage (2012): study PT Alentejo 2002 15+ aged, general public, Alentejo, Portugal, 2002-2011 N = 79
Mean
= 6.304
SD
= 2.115
ESS homepage (2012): study RU RU: North-Western 2002 15+ aged, general public, RU: North-Western, Russia, 2002-2011 N = 233
Mean
= 6.623
SD
= 2.235
ESS homepage (2012): study RU RU Central 2002 15+ aged, general public, RU Central, Russia, 2002-2011 N = 564
Mean
= 6.064
SD
= 2.166
ESS homepage (2012): study RU Volgo-Vyatki 2002 15+ aged, general public, Volgo-Vyatki, Russia, 2002-2011 N = 154
Mean
= 6.414
SD
= 2.046
ESS homepage (2012): study RU Central-Chernozhem 2002 15+ aged, general public, Central-Chernozhem, Russia, 2002-2011 N = 148
Mean
= 5.711
SD
= 2.308
ESS homepage (2012): study RU Volga 2002 15+ aged, general public, Volga, Russia, 2002-2011 N = 310
Mean
= 6.300
SD
= 2.112
ESS homepage (2012): study RU North-Caucasus 2002 15+ aged, general public, North-Caucasus, Russia, 2002-2011 N = 345
Mean
= 6.127
SD
= 2.308
ESS homepage (2012): study RU Ural 2002 15+ aged, general public, Ural, Russia, 2002-2011 N = 356
Mean
= 6.356
SD
= 2.216
ESS homepage (2012): study RU West-Siberia 2002 15+ aged, general public, West-Siberia, Russia, 2002-2011 N = 248
Mean
= 6.392
SD
= 2.160
ESS homepage (2012): study RU Eastern Siberia 2002 15+ aged, general public, Eastern Siberia, Russia, 2002-2011 N = 128
Mean
= 4.903
SD
= 2.113
ESS homepage (2012): study RU Far East 2002 15+ aged, general public, Far East, Russia, 2002-2011 N = 107
Mean
= 5.287
SD
= 2.659
ESS homepage (2012): study SE Stockholms Län 2002 15+ aged, general public, Stockholms Län, Sweden, 2002-2011 N = 251
Mean
= 7.902
SD
= 1.686
ESS homepage (2012): study SE Östergötlands län 2002 15+ aged, general public, Östergötlands län, Sweden, 2002-2011 N = 78
Mean
= 8.245
SD
= 1.341
ESS homepage (2012): study SE Skåne 2002 15+ aged, general public, Skåne, Sweden, 2002-2011 N = 198
Mean
= 7.873
SD
= 1.462
ESS homepage (2012): study SE Hallands län 2002 15+ aged, general public, Hallands län, Sweden, 2002-2011 N = 55
Mean
= 7.836
SD
= 1.646
ESS homepage (2012): study SE Västra Götalands län 2002 15+ aged, general public, Västra Götalands län, Sweden, 2002-2011 N = 268
Mean
= 7.864
SD
= 1.601
ESS homepage (2012): study SE Östergötlands län 2002 /1 15+ aged, general public, Östergötlands län, Sweden, 2002-2011 N = 78
Mean
= 8.245
SD
= 1.341
ESS homepage (2012): study SE Örebro län 2002 15+ aged, general public, Örebro län, Sweden, 2002-2011 N = 62
Mean
= 8.229
SD
= 1.892
ESS homepage (2013): study BE Hainaut (Henegouwen) 2002 16+ aged, general public, Hainaut (Henegouwen), Belgium, 2002-2011 N = 178
Mean
= 7.633
SD
= 1.476
ESS homepage (2013): study BE Liège (Luik) 2002 16+ aged, general public, Liège (Luik), Belgium, 2002-2011 N = 153
Mean
= 7.601
SD
= 1.586
ESS homepage (2013): study BE Namur (Namen) 2002 16+ aged, general public, Namur (Namen), Belgium, 20002-2011 N = 77
Mean
= 7.805
SD
= 1.396
ESS homepage (2012): study BE Luxembourg 2002 15+ aged, general public, Luxembourg, Belgium, 2002-2011 N = 49
Mean
= 7.738
SD
= 1.425
ESS homepage (2012): study SE Uppsala län 2002 15+ aged, general public, Uppsala län, Sweden, 2002-2011 N = 64
Mean
= 7.697
SD
= 1.611
ESS homepage (2012): study SI Pomurska 2002 15+ aged, general public, Pomurska, Slovenia, 2002-2011 N = 88
Mean
= 6.930
SD
= 1.882
ESS homepage (2012): study SI Podravska 2002 15+ aged, general public, Podravska, Slovenia, 2002-2011 N = 259
Mean
= 7.422
SD
= 1.801
ESS homepage (2012): study SI Koroska 2002 15+ aged, general public, Koroska, Slovenia, 2002-2011 N = 50
Mean
= 7.140
SD
= 2.069
ESS homepage (2012): study SI Savinjska 2002 15+ aged, general public, Savinjska, Slovenia, 2002-2011 N = 194
Mean
= 7.222
SD
= 1.923
ESS homepage (2012): study SI Jugovzhodna Slovenija 2002 15+ aged, general public, Jugovzhodna Slovenija, Slovenia, 2002-2011 N = 116
Mean
= 6.904
SD
= 1.963
ESS homepage (2012): study SI Osrednja Slovenska 2002 15+ aged, general public, Osrednja Slovenska, Slovenia, 2002-2011 N = 280
Mean
= 7.267
SD
= 1.865
ESS homepage (2012): study SI Goriska 2002 15+ aged, general public, Goriska, Slovenia, 2002-2011 N = 93
Mean
= 7.511
SD
= 1.744
ESS homepage (2012): study SI Obalno-kraska 2002 15+ aged, general public, Obalno-kraska, Slovenia, 2002-2011 N = 65
Mean
= 7.189
SD
= 1.851
ESS homepage (2012): study SI Gorenjska 2002 15+ aged, general public, Gorenjska, Slovenia, 2002-2011 N = 137
Mean
= 7.546
SD
= 1.960
ESS homepage (2012): study SK Bratislavský kraj 2002 15+ aged, general public, Bratislavský kraj, Slovakia, 2002-2011 N = 224
Mean
= 6.844
SD
= 2.136
ESS homepage (2012): study SK Trnavský kraj 2002 15+ aged, general public, Trnavský kraj, Slovakia, 2002-2011 N = 190
Mean
= 6.639
SD
= 1.998
ESS homepage (2012): study SK Trenèiansky kraj 2002 15+ aged, general public, Trenèiansky kraj, Slovakia, 2002-2011 N = 199
Mean
= 6.619
SD
= 1.811
ESS homepage (2012): study SK Nitriansky kraj 2002 15+ aged, general public, Nitriansky kraj, Slovakia, 2002-2011 N = 224
Mean
= 6.564
SD
= 1.761
ESS homepage (2012): study SK Zilinský kraj 2002 15+ aged, general public, Zilinský kraj, Slovakia, 2002-2011 N = 222
Mean
= 6.610
SD
= 1.597
ESS homepage (2012): study SK Banskobystrický kraj 2002 15+ aged, general public, Banskobystrický kraj, Slovakia, 2002-2011 N = 241
Mean
= 6.689
SD
= 1.784
ESS homepage (2012): study SK Presovský kraj 2002 15+ aged, general public, Presovský kraj, Slovakia, 2002-2011 N = 305
Mean
= 6.671
SD
= 1.972
ESS homepage (2012): study SK Kosický kraj 2002 15+ aged, general public, Kosický kraj, Slovakia, 2002-2011 N = 251
Mean
= 6.634
SD
= 2.049
ESS homepage (2012): study UA Crimea, Autonomy Republic, Krim 2002 15+ aged, general public, Crimea, Autonomy Republic, Krim, Ukraine, 2002-2011 N = 101
Mean
= 6.004
SD
= 2.391
ESS homepage (2012): study UA Vynnytska oblast 2002 15+ aged, general public, Vynnytska oblast, Ukraine, 2002-2011 N = 99
Mean
= 6.034
SD
= 2.899
ESS homepage (2012): study UA Volynska oblast 2002 15+ aged, general public, Volynska oblast, Ukraine, 2002-2011 N = 68
Mean
= 6.026
SD
= 2.215
ESS homepage (2012): study UA Dnipropetrovsk oblast 2002 15+ aged, general public, Dnipropetrovsk oblast, Ukraine, 2002-2011 N = 122
Mean
= 5.266
SD
= 2.663
ESS homepage (2012): study UA Donetsk oblast 2002 15+ aged, general public, Donetsk oblast, Ukraine, 2002-2011 N = 204
Mean
= 5.715
SD
= 2.760
ESS homepage (2012): study UA Zhytomyrska oblast 2002 15+ aged, general public, Zhytomyrska oblast, Ukraine, 2002-2011 N = 82
Mean
= 4.839
SD
= 1.663
ESS homepage (2012): study UA Zaporizska oblast 2002 15+ aged, general public, Zaporizska oblast, Ukraine, 2002-2011 N = 77
Mean
= 5.568
SD
= 2.014
ESS homepage (2012): study UA Ivano-Frankivska oblast 2002 15+ aged, general public, Ivano-Frankivska oblast, Ukraine, 2002-2011 N = 72
Mean
= 5.342
SD
= 1.463
ESS homepage (2012): study UA Kirovogradska oblast 2002 15+ aged, general public, Kirovogradska oblast, Ukraine, 2002-2011 N = 72
Mean
= 5.122
SD
= 3.176
ESS homepage (2012): study UA Luhansk oblast 2002 15+ aged, general public, Luhansk oblast, Ukraine, 2002-2011 N = 99
Mean
= 5.903
SD
= 1.757
ESS homepage (2012): study UA Lviv oblast 2002 15+ aged, general public, Lviv oblast, Ukraine, 2002-2011 N = 90
Mean
= 5.669
SD
= 2.358
ESS homepage (2012): study UA Mykolaivska oblast 2002 15+ aged, general public, Mykolaivska oblast, Ukraine, 2002-2011 N = 66
Mean
= 5.256
SD
= 2.426
ESS homepage (2012): study UA Odessa 2002 15+ aged, general public, Odessa, Ukraine, 2002-2011 N = 74
Mean
= 5.431
SD
= 2.532
ESS homepage (2012): study UA Rivenska oblast 2002 15+ aged, general public, Rivenska oblast, Ukraine, 2002-2011 N = 82
Mean
= 5.595
SD
= 2.007
ESS homepage (2012): study UA Kharkiv oblast 2002 15+ aged, general public, Kharkiv oblast, Ukraine, 2002-2011 N = 117
Mean
= 5.624
SD
= 2.235
ESS homepage (2012): study UA Khersonska oblast 2002 15+ aged, general public, Khersonska oblast, Ukraine, 2002-2011 N = 59
Mean
= 5.772
SD
= 1.856
ESS homepage (2012): study UA Cherkasska oblast 2002 15+ aged, general public, Cherkasska oblast, Ukraine, 2002-2011 N = 72
Mean
= 5.220
SD
= 2.759
ESS homepage (2012): study UA Chernigivska oblast 2002 15+ aged, general public, Chernigivska oblast, Ukraine, 2002-2011 N = 109
Mean
= 5.891
SD
= 2.364
ESS homepage (2012): study UA Kyiv city 2002 15+ aged, general public, Kyiv city, Ukraine, 2002-2011 N = 82
Mean
= 5.648
SD
= 2.503
ESS homepage (2012): study GB GB North East 2002 15+ aged, general public, GB North East, United Kingdom, 2002-2011 N = 107
Mean
= 7.333
SD
= 1.750
ESS homepage (2012): study GB GB North-West 2002 15+ aged, general public, GB North-West, United Kingdom, 2002-2011 N = 275
Mean
= 7.321
SD
= 1.779
ESS homepage (2012): study GB Yorkshire and The Humber 2002 15+ aged, general public, Yorkshire and The Humber, United Kingdom, 2002-2011 N = 225
Mean
= 7.203
SD
= 2.028
ESS homepage (2012): study GB East-Midlands 2002 15+ aged, general public, East-Midlands, United Kingdom, 2002-2011 N = 666
Mean
= 7.258
SD
= 2.095
ESS homepage (2012): study GB West Midlands 2002 15+ aged, general public, West Midlands, United Kingdom, 2002-2011 N = 220
Mean
= 7.251
SD
= 2.087
ESS homepage (2012): study GB East England 2002 15+ aged, general public, East England, United Kingdom, 2002-2011 N = 226
Mean
= 7.645
SD
= 1.909
ESS homepage (2012): study GB London 2002 15+ aged, general public, London, United Kingdom, 2002-2011 N = 208
Mean
= 7.199
SD
= 2.103
ESS homepage (2012): study GB GB South-East 2002 15+ aged, general public, GB South-East, United Kingdom, 2002-2011 N = 335
Mean
= 7.441
SD
= 1.849
ESS homepage (2012): study GB GB South-West 2002 15+ aged, general public, GB South-West, United Kingdom, 2002-2011 N = 194
Mean
= 7.421
SD
= 1.954
ESS homepage (2012): study GB Wales 2002 15+ aged, general public, Wales, United Kingdom, 2002-2011 N = 138
Mean
= 7.606
SD
= 1.920
ESS homepage (2012): study GB Scotland 2002 15+ aged, general public, Scotland, United Kingdom, 2002-2011 N = 247
Mean
= 7.660
SD
= 1.615
ESS homepage (2012): study DE Hamburg 2002 15+ aged, general public, Hamburg, Germany, 2002-2011 N = 207
Mean
= 7.078
SD
= 1.892
ESS homepage (2012): study DE Bremen 2002 15+ aged, general public, Bremen, Germany, 2002-2011 N = 82
Mean
= 7.199
SD
= 2.081
ESS homepage (2012): study DE Saarland 2002 15+ aged, general public, Saarland, Germany, 2002-2011 N = 107
Mean
= 7.540
SD
= 1.687
ESS homepage (2013): study DK Frederiksborg county 2002 15+ aged, general public, Frederiksborg county, Denmark, 2002-2011 N = 313
Mean
= 8.434
SD
= 1.334
ESS homepage (2013): study DK Roskilde county 2002 15+ aged, general public, Roskilde county, Denmark, 2002-2011 N = 175
Mean
= 8.362
SD
= 1.272
ESS homepage (2013): study DK Vestsjælland county 2002 15+ aged, general public, Vestsjælland county, Denmark, 2002-2011 N = 247
Mean
= 8.413
SD
= 1.436
ESS homepage (2013): study DK Storstrøm county 2002 15+ aged, general public, Storstrøm county, Denmark, 2002-2011 N = 206
Mean
= 8.206
SD
= 1.566
ESS homepage (2013): study DK Fyn county 2002 15+ aged, general public, Fyn county, Denmark, 2002-2011 N = 430
Mean
= 8.196
SD
= 1.523
ESS homepage (2013): study DK Sønderjylland county 2002 15+ aged, general public, Sønderjylland county, Denmark, 2002-2011 N = 243
Mean
= 8.412
SD
= 1.351
ESS homepage (2013): study DK Ribe county 2002 15+ aged, general public, Ribe county, Denmark, 2002-2011 N = 200
Mean
= 8.586
SD
= 1.356
ESS homepage (2013): study DK Vejle county 2002 15+ aged, general public, Vejle county, Denmark, 2002-2011 N = 337
Mean
= 8.315
SD
= 1.388
ESS homepage (2013): study DK Ringkøbing county 2002 15+ aged, general public, Syddanmark, Denmark, 2002-2011 N = 225
Mean
= 8.490
SD
= 1.186
ESS homepage (2013): study DK Århus county 2002 15+ aged, general public, Århus county, Denmark, 2002-2011 N = 601
Mean
= 8.228
SD
= 1.440
ESS homepage (2013): study DK Viborg county 2002 15+ aged, general public, Viborg county, Denmark, 2002-2011 N = 199
Mean
= 8.397
SD
= 1.474
VanderMeer & Wielers (2013): study ZZ Europe 2004 Working people, 20 European countries, 2004. N = 11986
Mean
= 5.210
SD
= 1.950
ESS homepage (2014a): study AT 2014 15+ aged, general public, Austria, 2014 N = 1795
Mean
= 7.310
SD
= 2.003
ESS homepage (2014a): study BE 2014 15+ aged, general public, Belgium, 2014 N = 1769
Mean
= 7.750
SD
= 1.454
ESS homepage (2014a): study CH 2014 15+ aged, general public, Switzerland, 2014 N = 1532
Mean
= 8.091
SD
= 1.498
ESS homepage (2014a): study CZ 2014 15+ aged, general public, Czech Republic, 2014 N = 2148
Mean
= 6.965
SD
= 1.965
ESS homepage (2014a): study DE 2014 15+ aged, general public, Germany, 2014 N = 3045
Mean
= 7.658
SD
= 1.700
ESS homepage (2014a): study DK 2014 15+ aged, general public, Denmark, 2014 N = 1496
Mean
= 8.240
SD
= 1.543
ESS homepage (2014a): study EE 2014 15+ aged, general public, Estonia, 2014 N = 2049
Mean
= 6.938
SD
= 2.007
ESS homepage (2014a): study ES 2014 15+ aged, general public, Spain, 2014 N = 1929
Mean
= 7.418
SD
= 1.853
ESS homepage (2014a): study FI 2014 15+ aged, general public, Finland, 2014 N = 2086
Mean
= 8.041
SD
= 1.360
ESS homepage (2014a): study FR 2014 15+ aged, general public, France, 2014 N = 1917
Mean
= 7.378
SD
= 1.733
ESS homepage (2014a): study GB 2014 15+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 2014 N = 2264
Mean
= 7.591
SD
= 1.915
ESS homepage (2014a): study HU 2014 15+ aged, general public, Hungary, 2014 N = 1691
Mean
= 6.371
SD
= 2.173
ESS homepage (2014a): study IE 2014 15+ aged, general public, Ireland, 2014 N = 2390
Mean
= 7.317
SD
= 1.863
ESS homepage (2014a): study IL 2014 15+ aged, general public, Israel, 2014 N = 2562
Mean
= 7.644
SD
= 1.908
ESS homepage (2014a): study LT 2014 15+ aged, general public, Lithuania, 2014 N = 2250
Mean
= 6.547
SD
= 2.044
ESS homepage (2014a): study NL 2014 15+ aged, general public, Netherlands, 2014 N = 1919
Mean
= 7.857
SD
= 1.295
ESS homepage (2014a): study NO 2014 15+ aged, general public, Norway, 2014 N = 1436
Mean
= 7.988
SD
= 1.557
ESS homepage (2014a): study PL 2014 15+ aged, general public, Poland, 2014 N = 1615
Mean
= 7.252
SD
= 2.029
ESS homepage (2014a): study PT 2014 15+ aged, general public, Portugal, 2014 N = 1265
Mean
= 6.888
SD
= 2.257
ESS homepage (2014a): study SE 2014 15+ aged, general public, Sweden, 2014 N = 1791
Mean
= 7.904
SD
= 1.486
ESS homepage (2014a): study SI 2014 15+ aged, general public, Slovenia, 2014 N = 1224
Mean
= 7.061
SD
= 2.081
Ahmadyar (2016): study NL 2016 +18 aged Afghan immigrants, The Netherlands, 2016 N = 141
Mean
= 6.498
SD
= 2.163
Pischke (2011): study ZZ Europe 2002 20-64 aged men, Europe, 2002-2008 N = 27740
ESS homepage (2016): study AT 2016 15+ aged, general public, Austria, 2016 N = 2010
Mean
= 7.610
SD
= 1.767
ESS homepage (2016): study BE 2016 15+ aged, general public, Belgium, 2016 N = 1766
Mean
= 7.750
SD
= 1.470
ESS homepage (2016): study CH 2016 15+ aged, general public, Switzerland, 2016 N = 1525
Mean
= 8.180
SD
= 1.480
ESS homepage (2016): study CZ 2016 15+ aged, general public, Czech Republic, 2016 N = 2269
Mean
= 6.960
SD
= 1.815
ESS homepage (2016): study DE 2016 15+ aged, general public, Germany, 2016 N = 2852
Mean
= 7.820
SD
= 1.685
ESS homepage (2016): study EE 2016 15+ aged, general public, Estonia,, 2016 N = 2019
Mean
= 7.240
SD
= 1.890
ESS homepage (2016): study FI 2016 15+ aged, general public, Finland, 2016 N = 1925
Mean
= 8.140
SD
= 1.440
ESS homepage (2016): study FR 2016 15+ aged, general public, France, 2016 N = 2070
Mean
= 7.400
SD
= 1.696
ESS homepage (2016): study GB 2016 15+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 2016 N = 1959
Mean
= 7.680
SD
= 1.769
ESS homepage (2016): study IE 2016 15+ aged, general public, Ireland, 2016 N = 2766
Mean
= 7.560
SD
= 1.724
ESS homepage (2016): study IL 2016 15+ aged, general public, Israel, 2016 N = 2557
Mean
= 7.950
SD
= 1.731
ESS homepage (2016): study IS 2016 15+ aged, general public, Iceland, 2016 N = 880
Mean
= 8.140
SD
= 1.490
ESS homepage (2016): study NL 2016 15+ aged, general public, Netherlands, 2016 N = 1681
Mean
= 7.960
SD
= 1.245
ESS homepage (2016): study NO 2016 15+ aged, general public, Norway, 2016 N = 1545
Mean
= 8.110
SD
= 1.520
ESS homepage (2016): study PL 2016 15+ aged, general public, Poland, 2016 N = 1694
Mean
= 7.480
SD
= 1.910
ESS homepage (2016): study RU 2016 15+ aged, general public, Russian Federation, 2016 N = 2430
Mean
= 6.330
SD
= 2.149
ESS homepage (2016): study SE 2016 15+ aged, general public, Sweden, 2016 N = 1551
Mean
= 7.850
SD
= 1.630
ESS homepage (2016): study SI 2016 15+ aged, general public, Slovenia, 2016 N = 1307
Mean
= 7.470
SD
= 1.923
Blanchflower & Oswald (2017): study ZZ Europe 2002 15+ aged, general public, Europe, 32 nations, 2002-2014 N = 316509
Mencarini & Sironi (2012): study ZZ Europe 2004 /1 20-50 aged partnered women, 26 EU nations, 2004 N = 8031
Ludwigs (2014): study DE 2014 Users of a happiness app and controls, followed 9 weeks. Germany 2014 N = 349
Lelkes (2012): study ZZ EU 27 2010 65+ aged, 26 European nations, 2010-2011 N = 11000
Laaksonen (2018): study ZZ Europe 2008 15+ aged general public, 30 EU nations, 2008-2013 N = 155500
Mean
= 7.106
SD
= 2.072
Moradian (2017): study DE 2017 Student-participants in happiness training, Germany, 2017 N = 120
Pierewan & Tampubolon (2014a): study ZZ Europe 2002 16+ aged general public, EU nations, 2004- 2010 N = 100000
Pierewan & Tampubolon (2014a): study ZZ Europe 2004 15+ aged, general public, Europe, 2004-2010 N = 150000
Mean
= 7.090
Kara & Petrescu (2018): study BE 2012 Self employed, Belgium, 2012 N = 216
Mean
= 7.890
ESS homepage (2016): study HU 2016 15+ aged, general public, Hungary, 2016 N = 1614
Mean
= 6.800
SD
= 2.077
ESS homepage (2016): study LT 2016 15+ aged, general public, Lithuania, 2016 N = 2122
Mean
= 6.440
SD
= 2.070
ESS homepage (2016): study IT 2016 15+ aged, general public, Italy, 2016 N = 2626
Mean
= 7.120
SD
= 1.789
ESS homepage (2016): study ES 2016 15+ aged, general public, Spain, 2016 N = 1958
Mean
= 7.730
SD
= 1.656
ESS homepage (2018): study AT 2018 15+ aged, general public, Austria, 2018 N = 2499
Mean
= 7.870
SD
= 1.645
ESS homepage (2012): study UA 2012 15+ aged, general public, Ukraine, 2012 N = 2178
Mean
= 6.210
SD
= 2.262
ESS homepage (2012): study AL 2012 15+ aged, general public, Albania, 2012 N = 1201
Mean
= 6.490
SD
= 2.859
ESS homepage (2012): study UA 2012 /1 15+ aged, general public, Ukraine, 2012 N = 2178
Mean
= 6.210
SD
= 2.262
ESS homepage (2004): study GR 2004 16+ aged, general public, Greece, 2004 N = 2406
Mean
= 6.800
SD
= 2.076
ESS homepage (2004): study HU 2004 16+ aged, general public, Hungary, 2004 N = 1498
Mean
= 6.480
SD
= 2.414
ESS homepage (2006): study AT 2006 16+ aged, general public, Austria, 2006 N = 2405
Mean
= 7.570
SD
= 1.924
ESS homepage (2006): study IE 2006 16+ aged, general public, Ireland, 2006 N = 1800
Mean
= 7.770
SD
= 1.767
ESS homepage (2006): study NL 2006 16+ aged, general public, Netherlands, 2006 N = 1889
Mean
= 7.720
SD
= 1.382
ESS homepage (2006): study UA 2006 16+ aged, general public, Ukraine, 2006 N = 2002
Mean
= 5.750
SD
= 2.606
ESS homepage (2008): study CZ 2008 15+ aged, general public, Czech Republic, 2008 N = 2018
Mean
= 6.930
SD
= 1.893
ESS homepage (2008): study GR 2008 15+ aged, general public, Greece, 2008 N = 2072
Mean
= 6.780
SD
= 1.885
ESS homepage (2008): study HR 2008 15+ aged, general public, Croatia, 2008 N = 1484
ESS homepage (2008): study IE 2008 15+ aged, general public, Ireland, 2008 N = 1764
Mean
= 7.540
SD
= 1.803
ESS homepage (2008): study LV 2008 15+ aged, general public, Latvia, 2008 N = 1980
Mean
= 6.410
SD
= 2.049
ESS homepage (2008): study RO 2008 15+ aged, general public, Romania, 2008 N = 2146
Mean
= 6.220
SD
= 2.102
ESS homepage (2008): study TR 2008 15+ aged, general public, Turkey, 2008 N = 2416
Mean
= 5.480
SD
= 2.684
ESS homepage (2008): study UA 2008 15+ aged, general public, Ukraine, 2008 N = 1845
Mean
= 5.610
SD
= 2.344
ESS homepage (2010): study CY 2010 16+ aged, general public, Cyprus, 2010 N = 1083
Mean
= 7.240
SD
= 1.937
ESS homepage (2010): study FI 2010 16+ aged, general public, Finland, 2010 N = 1878
Mean
= 7.960
SD
= 1.430
ESS homepage (2010): study GR 2010 16+ aged, general public, Greece, 2010 N = 2715
Mean
= 6.060
SD
= 2.151
ESS homepage (2010): study HR 2010 16+ aged, general public, Croatia, 2010 N = 1649
Mean
= 6.780
SD
= 2.092
ESS homepage (2010): study IE 2010 16+ aged, general public, Ireland, 2010 N = 2576
Mean
= 7.000
SD
= 2.070
ESS homepage (2010): study IL 2010 16+ aged, general public, Israel, 2010 N = 2294
Mean
= 7.630
SD
= 2.019
ESS homepage (2010): study LT 2010 16+ aged, general public, Lithaunia, 2010 N = 1677
Mean
= 6.160
SD
= 2.329
ESS homepage (2010): study SK 2010 16+ aged, general public, Sovakia, 2010 N = 1856
Mean
= 6.750
SD
= 1.859
ESS homepage (2010): study UA 2010 16+ aged, general public, Ukraine, 2010 N = 1931
Mean
= 5.860
SD
= 2.379
ESS homepage (2012): study FR 2012 15+ aged, general public, France, 2012 N = 1968
Mean
= 7.290
SD
= 1.720
ESS homepage (2012): study HU 2012 15+ aged, general public, Hungary, 2012 N = 2014
Mean
= 6.100
SD
= 2.254
ESS homepage (2002): study HU 2002 15+ aged, general public, Hungary, 2002 N = 1685
Mean
= 6.320
SD
= 2.328
ESS homepage (2012): study IT 2012 15+ aged, general public, Italy, 2012 N = 960
Mean
= 7.090
SD
= 1.968
ESS homepage (2012): study LT 2012 15+ aged, general public, Lithuania, 2012 N = 2109
Mean
= 6.560
SD
= 1.973
Kara & Petrescu (2018): study BG 2012 Self employed, Bulgaria, 2012 N = 145
Mean
= 5.900
Kara & Petrescu (2018): study CY 2012 Self employed, Cyprus, 2012 N = 148
Mean
= 6.910
Kara & Petrescu (2018): study CZ 2012 Self employed, Czech Republic, 2012 N = 176
Mean
= 7.000
Kara & Petrescu (2018): study DK 2012 Self employed, Denmark, 2012 N = 139
Mean
= 8.620
Kara & Petrescu (2018): study EE 2012 Self employed, Estonia, 2012 N = 144
Mean
= 7.170
Kara & Petrescu (2018): study FI 2012 Self employed, Finland, 2012 N = 239
Mean
= 9.090
Kara & Petrescu (2018): study FR 2012 Self employed, France, 2012 N = 184
Mean
= 7.270
Kara & Petrescu (2018): study DE 2012 Self employed, Germany, 2012 N = 293
Mean
= 7.750
Kara & Petrescu (2018): study HU 2012 Self employed, Hungary, 2012 N = 107
Mean
= 6.840
Kara & Petrescu (2018): study IE 2012 Self employed, Ireland, 2012 N = 312
Mean
= 7.390
Kara & Petrescu (2018): study IL 2012 Self employed, Israel, 2012 N = 319
Mean
= 7.920
Kara & Petrescu (2018): study IT 2012 Self employed, Italy, 2012 N = 138
Mean
= 7.170
Kara & Petrescu (2018): study KO 2012 Self employed, Kosovo, 2012 N = 57
Mean
= 6.840
Kara & Petrescu (2018): study LT 2012 Self employed, Lithuania, 2012 N = 90
Mean
= 6.890
Kara & Petrescu (2018): study NL 2012 Self employed, Netherlands, 2012 N = 202
Mean
= 7.880
Kara & Petrescu (2018): study NO 2012 Self employed, Norway, 2012 N = 123
Mean
= 8.030
Kara & Petrescu (2018): study PL 2012 Self employed, Poland, 2012 N = 279
Mean
= 7.250
Kara & Petrescu (2018): study PT 2012 Self employed, Portugal, 2012 N = 279
Mean
= 6.570
Kara & Petrescu (2018): study RU 2012 Self employed, Russia, 2012 N = 108
Mean
= 6.660
Kara & Petrescu (2018): study SK 2012 Self employed, Slovakia, 2012 N = 152
Mean
= 6.880
Kara & Petrescu (2018): study SI 2012 Self employed, Slovenia, 2012 N = 89
Mean
= 7.360
Kara & Petrescu (2018): study ES 2012 Self employed, Spain, 2012 N = 235
Mean
= 7.610
Kara & Petrescu (2018): study SE 2012 Self employed, Sweden, 2012 N = 189
Mean
= 8.100
Kara & Petrescu (2018): study CH 2012 Self employed, Switzerland, 2012 N = 158
Mean
= 8.030
Kara & Petrescu (2018): study UA 2012 Self employed, Ukraine, 2012 N = 64
Mean
= 6.630
Kara & Petrescu (2018): study GB 2012 Self employed, United Kingdom, 2012 N = 271
Mean
= 7.600
ESS homepage (2018): study BE 2018 15+ aged, general public, Belgium, 2018 N = 1767
Mean
= 7.810
SD
= 1.438
ESS homepage (2018): study BG 2018 15+ aged, general public, Bulgaria, 2018 N = 2198
Mean
= 5.580
SD
= 2.430
ESS homepage (2018): study CH 2018 15+ aged, general public, Switzerland, 2018 N = 1542
Mean
= 8.180
SD
= 1.498
ESS homepage (2018): study CY 2018 15+ aged, general public, Cyprus, 2018 N = 781
Mean
= 7.460
SD
= 1.833
ESS homepage (2018): study CZ 2018 15+ aged, general public, Czech Republic, 2018 N = 2398
Mean
= 7.060
SD
= 1.748
ESS homepage (2018): study DE 2018 15+ aged, general public, Germany, 2018 N = 2358
Mean
= 7.820
SD
= 1.699
ESS homepage (2018): study EE 2018 15+ aged, general public, Estonia, 2018 N = 1904
Mean
= 7.330
SD
= 1.812
ESS homepage (2018): study FI 2018 15+ aged, general public, Finland, 2018 N = 1755
Mean
= 8.180
SD
= 1.352
ESS homepage (2018): study FR 2018 15+ aged, general public, France, 2018 N = 2010
Mean
= 7.370
SD
= 1.696
ESS homepage (2018): study GB 2018 15+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 2018 N = 2204
Mean
= 7.650
SD
= 1.873
ESS homepage (2018): study HU 2018 15+ aged, general public, Hungary, 2018 N = 1698
Mean
= 6.690
SD
= 2.018
ESS homepage (2018): study IE 2018 15+ aged, general public, Ireland, 2018 N = 2216
Mean
= 7.750
SD
= 1.631
ESS homepage (2018): study IT 2018 15+ aged, general public, Italy, 2018 N = 2745
Mean
= 7.030
SD
= 1.867
ESS homepage (2018): study NL 2018 15+ aged, general public, Netherlands, 2018 N = 1673
Mean
= 8.020
SD
= 1.181
ESS homepage (2018): study NO 2018 15+ aged, general public, Norway, 2018 N = 1406
Mean
= 7.990
SD
= 1.543
ESS homepage (2018): study PL 2018 15+ aged, general public, Poland, 2018 N = 1500
Mean
= 7.260
SD
= 1.908
ESS homepage (2018): study RS 2018 15+ aged, general public, Serbia, 2018 N = 2043
Mean
= 6.990
SD
= 2.473
ESS homepage (2018): study SI 2018 15+ aged, general public, Slovenia, 2018 N = 1318
Mean
= 7.620
SD
= 1.786