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Happiness Measures

Characteristics

Code:
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cd
Focus:
Overall: Satisfaction w Life as a Whole (O-SLW)
Time frame:
currently (today, these days, presently) (c)
Mode:
1 question (sq)
Scale Type:
numeric scale (n)
Scale Range:
11

Description

Selfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole nowadays?
0  extremely dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 extremely satisfied
-    don't know
-   no answer

List of Studies Using this Measure

Study Population N Statistics Baltatescu (2005): study ZZ Western Europe 2002 15+ aged, general public, 13 nations in Europe, 2002-2003 N = 28320
Safi (2010): study ZZ Western Europe 2002 15+ aged, general public, 12 European nations 2002-2006 N = 60169
Mean
= 7.250
SD
= 0.010
Pichler (2009): study ZZ Europe 2004 Employed in paid work, 26 European nations, 2004-05 N = 16860
Mean
= 6.560
SD
= 2.470
Wallace & Pichler (2009): study ZZ Europe 2002 18+ aged, 19 European nations, 2002-2003 N = 36017
ESS homepage (2002): study AT 2002 15+ aged, general public, Austria, 2002 N = 2257
Mean
= 7.642
SD
= 2.061
ESS homepage (2002): study BE 2002 16+ aged, general public, Belgium, 2002 N = 1899
Mean
= 7.437
SD
= 1.936
ESS homepage (2002): study CH 2002 15+ aged, general public, Switzerland, 2002 N = 2040
Mean
= 8.013
SD
= 1.706
ESS homepage (2002): study CZ 2002 16+ aged, general public, Czech Republic, 2002 N = 1360
Mean
= 6.447
SD
= 2.161
ESS homepage (2002): study DE 2002 16+ aged, general public, Germany, 2002 N = 2919
Mean
= 6.957
SD
= 2.245
ESS homepage (2002): study DK 2002 16+ aged, general public, Denmark, 2002 N = 1506
Mean
= 8.436
SD
= 1.576
ESS homepage (2002): study ES 2002 16+ aged, general public, Spain, 2002-03 N = 1729
Mean
= 7.083
SD
= 1.893
ESS homepage (2002): study FI 2002 16+ aged, general public, Finland, 2002 N = 2000
Mean
= 7.907
SD
= 1.650
ESS homepage (2002): study FR 2002 16+ aged, general public, France, 2002 N = 1503
Mean
= 6.417
SD
= 2.554
ESS homepage (2002): study GB 2002 16+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 2002 N = 2052
Mean
= 7.069
SD
= 2.105
ESS homepage (2002): study GR 2002 16+ aged, general public, Greece, 2002 N = 2566
Mean
= 6.330
SD
= 2.379
ESS homepage (2002): study IE 2002 16+ aged, general public, Ireland, 2002 N = 2046
Mean
= 7.444
SD
= 2.066
ESS homepage (2002): study IL 2002 16+ aged, general public, Israel, 2002 N = 2499
Mean
= 6.611
SD
= 2.604
ESS homepage (2002): study IT 2002 16+ aged, general public, Italy, 2002 N = 1207
Mean
= 6.907
SD
= 2.123
ESS homepage (2002): study LU 2002 16+ aged, general public, Luxembourg, 2002 N = 1552
Mean
= 7.831
SD
= 2.007
ESS homepage (2002): study NL 2002 15+ aged, general public, Netherlands, 2002 N = 2364
Mean
= 7.685
SD
= 1.590
ESS homepage (2002): study PL 2002 16+ aged, general public, Poland, 2002 N = 2110
Mean
= 5.846
SD
= 2.626
ESS homepage (2002): study PT 2002 16+ aged, general public, Portugal, 2002 N = 1511
Mean
= 5.907
SD
= 2.161
ESS homepage (2002): study SE 2002 16+ aged, general public, Sweden, 2002 N = 1999
Mean
= 7.800
SD
= 1.727
ESS homepage (2002): study SI 2002 16+ aged, general public, Slovenia, 2002 N = 1519
Mean
= 6.566
SD
= 2.380
ESS homepage (2004): study AT 2004 16+ aged, general public, Austria, 2004 N = 2256
Mean
= 7.511
SD
= 2.059
ESS homepage (2004): study BE 2004 16+ aged, general public, Belgium, 2004 N = 1778
Mean
= 7.426
SD
= 1.800
ESS homepage (2004): study CH 2004 16+ aged, general public, Switzerland, 2004 N = 2141
Mean
= 8.064
SD
= 1.688
ESS homepage (2004): study CZ 2004 16+ aged, general public, Czech Republic, 2004 N = 3026
Mean
= 6.538
SD
= 2.198
ESS homepage (2004): study DE 2004 16+ aged, general public, Germany, 2004 N = 2870
Mean
= 6.795
SD
= 2.266
ESS homepage (2004): study DK 2004 16+ aged, general public, Denmark, 2004 N = 1487
Mean
= 8.467
SD
= 1.465
ESS homepage (2004): study EE 2004 16+ aged, general public, Estonia, 2004 N = 1989
Mean
= 5.887
SD
= 2.238
ESS homepage (2004): study ES 2004 16+ aged, general public, Spain, 2004 N = 1663
Mean
= 7.128
SD
= 1.935
ESS homepage (2004): study FI 2004 16+ aged, general public, Finland, 2004 N = 2022
Mean
= 8.002
SD
= 1.528
ESS homepage (2004): study FR 2004 16+ aged, general public, France, 2004 N = 1806
Mean
= 6.437
SD
= 2.393
ESS homepage (2004): study GB 2004 16+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 2004 N = 1897
Mean
= 7.118
SD
= 1.950
ESS homepage (2004): study GR 2004 16+ aged, general public, Greece, 2004 N = 2406
Mean
= 6.420
SD
= 2.196
ESS homepage (2004): study HU 2004 16+ aged, general public, Hungary, 2004 N = 1498
Mean
= 5.692
SD
= 2.500
ESS homepage (2004): study IE 2004 16+ aged, general public, Ireland, 2004 N = 2286
Mean
= 7.716
SD
= 1.740
ESS homepage (2004): study IS 2004 16+ aged, general public, Iceland, 2004 N = 579
Mean
= 8.464
SD
= 1.447
ESS homepage (2004): study LU 2004 16+ aged, general public, Luxembourg, 2004 N = 1635
Mean
= 7.729
SD
= 2.118
ESS homepage (2004): study NL 2004 16+ aged, general public, Netherlands, 2004 N = 1881
Mean
= 7.573
SD
= 1.628
ESS homepage (2004): study NO 2004 16+ aged, general public, Norway, 2004 N = 1760
Mean
= 7.666
SD
= 1.790
ESS homepage (2004): study PL 2004 16+ aged, general public, Poland, 2004 N = 1716
Mean
= 6.247
SD
= 2.514
ESS homepage (2004): study PT 2004 16+ aged, general public, Portugal, 2004 N = 2052
Mean
= 5.678
SD
= 2.038
ESS homepage (2004): study SE 2004 16+ aged, general public, Sweden, 2004 N = 1948
Mean
= 7.845
SD
= 1.704
ESS homepage (2004): study SI 2004 16+ aged, general public, Slovenia, 2004 N = 1442
Mean
= 6.899
SD
= 2.116
ESS homepage (2004): study SK 2004 16+ aged, general public, Slovakia, 2004 N = 1512
Mean
= 5.582
SD
= 2.573
ESS homepage (2004): study UA 2004 /1 16+ aged, general public, Ukraine, 2004 N = 2031
Mean
= 4.439
SD
= 2.386
ESS homepage (2006): study BE 2006 16+ aged, general public, Belgium, 2006 N = 1798
Mean
= 7.406
SD
= 1.873
ESS homepage (2006): study BG 2006 16+ aged, general public, Bulgaria, 2006 N = 1400
Mean
= 4.695
SD
= 2.685
ESS homepage (2006): study CH 2006 16+ aged, general public, Switzerland, 2006 N = 1804
Mean
= 8.100
SD
= 1.624
ESS homepage (2006): study CY 2006 16+ aged, general public, Cyprus, 2006 N = 995
Mean
= 7.456
SD
= 1.658
ESS homepage (2006): study DE 2006 16+ aged, general public, Germany, 2006 N = 2916
Mean
= 6.829
SD
= 2.179
ESS homepage (2006): study DK 2006 16+ aged, general public, Denmark, 2006 N = 1505
Mean
= 8.479
SD
= 1.501
ESS homepage (2006): study EE 2006 16+ aged, general public, Estonia, 2006 N = 1517
Mean
= 6.376
SD
= 2.214
ESS homepage (2006): study ES 2006 16+ aged, general public, Spain, 2006 N = 1876
Mean
= 7.440
SD
= 1.791
ESS homepage (2006): study FI 2006 16+ aged, general public, Finland, 2006 N = 1896
Mean
= 7.985
SD
= 1.513
ESS homepage (2006): study FR 2006 16+ aged, general public, France, 2006 N = 1986
Mean
= 6.416
SD
= 2.424
ESS homepage (2006): study GB 2006 16+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 2006 N = 2394
Mean
= 7.230
SD
= 1.946
ESS homepage (2006): study NO 2006 16+ aged, general public, Norway, 2006 N = 1750
Mean
= 7.764
SD
= 1.668
ESS homepage (2006): study PL 2006 16+ aged, general public, Poland, 2006 N = 1721
Mean
= 6.690
SD
= 2.414
ESS homepage (2006): study PT 2006 16+ aged, general public, Portugal, 2006 N = 2222
Mean
= 5.520
SD
= 2.123
ESS homepage (2006): study SE 2006 16+ aged, general public, Sweden, 2006 N = 1927
Mean
= 7.820
SD
= 1.762
ESS homepage (2006): study SI 2006 16+ aged, general public, Slovenia, 2006 N = 1476
Mean
= 6.970
SD
= 2.185
ESS homepage (2006): study SK 2006 16+ aged, general public, Slovakia, 2006 N = 1766
Mean
= 6.080
SD
= 2.293
ESS homepage (2006): study HU 2006 16+ aged, general public, Hungary, 2006 N = 1518
Mean
= 5.420
SD
= 2.581
ESS homepage (2006): study RO 2006 16+ aged, general public, Romania, 2006 N = 1849
Mean
= 5.851
SD
= 2.553
ESS homepage (2006): study RU 2006 16+ aged, general public, Russia, 2006 N = 2437
Mean
= 5.197
SD
= 2.569
ESS homepage (2008): study BE 2008 15+ aged, general public, Belgium, 2008 N = 1760
Mean
= 7.269
SD
= 1.898
ESS homepage (2008): study BG 2008 15+ aged, general public, Bulgaria, 2008 N = 2230
Mean
= 4.412
SD
= 2.605
ESS homepage (2008): study CH 2008 15+ aged, general public, Switzerland, 2008 N = 1819
Mean
= 7.964
SD
= 1.702
ESS homepage (2008): study CY 2008 15+ aged, general public, Cyprus, 2008 N = 1215
Mean
= 7.080
SD
= 1.802
ESS homepage (2008): study DE 2008 15+ aged, general public, Germany, 2008 N = 2751
Mean
= 6.954
SD
= 2.217
ESS homepage (2008): study DK 2007 15+ aged, general public, Denmark, 2008 N = 1610
Mean
= 8.520
SD
= 1.417
ESS homepage (2008): study EE 2008 15+ aged, general public, Estonia, 2008 N = 1661
Mean
= 6.202
SD
= 2.226
ESS homepage (2008): study ES 2008 15+ aged, general public, Spain, 2008 N = 2576
Mean
= 7.310
SD
= 1.803
ESS homepage (2008): study FI 2007 15+ aged, general public, Finland, 2008 N = 2195
Mean
= 7.941
SD
= 1.536
ESS homepage (2008): study FR 2008 15+ aged, general public, France, 2008 N = 2073
Mean
= 6.352
SD
= 2.414
ESS homepage (2008): study GB 2008 15+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 2008 N = 2352
Mean
= 7.082
SD
= 2.091
ESS homepage (2008): study NO 2008 15+ aged, general public, Norway, 2008 N = 1549
Mean
= 7.890
SD
= 1.659
ESS homepage (2008): study PL 2008 15+ aged, general public, Poland, 2008 N = 1619
Mean
= 6.866
SD
= 2.303
ESS homepage (2008): study PT 2008 15+ aged, general public, Portugal, 2008 N = 2367
Mean
= 5.720
SD
= 2.266
ESS homepage (2008): study RU 2008 15+ aged, general public, Russia, 2008 N = 2512
Mean
= 5.470
SD
= 2.492
ESS homepage (2008): study SE 2008 15+ aged, general public, Sweden, 2008 N = 1830
Mean
= 7.858
SD
= 1.723
ESS homepage (2008): study SI 2008 15+ aged, general public, Slovenia, 2008 N = 1286
Mean
= 6.928
SD
= 2.139
ESS homepage (2008): study HU 2008 18+ aged, general public, Hungary, 2008 N = 1544
Mean
= 5.287
SD
= 2.588
ESS homepage (2008): study IL 2008 18+ aged, general public, Israel, 2008 N = 2490
Mean
= 7.380
SD
= 2.206
ESS homepage (2008): study NL 2008 18+ aged, general public, Netherlands, 2008 N = 1778
Mean
= 7.692
SD
= 1.446
ESS homepage (2008): study SK 2008 15+ aged, general public, Slovakia, 2008 N = 1810
Mean
= 6.400
SD
= 2.249
ESS homepage (2010): study BE 2010 16+ aged, general public, Belgium, 2010 N = 1704
Mean
= 7.510
SD
= 1.648
ESS homepage (2010): study BG 2010 16+ aged, general public, Bulgaria, 2010 N = 2434
Mean
= 4.880
SD
= 2.625
ESS homepage (2010): study CH 2010 16+ aged, general public, Switzerland, 2010 N = 1506
Mean
= 8.140
SD
= 1.652
ESS homepage (2010): study CZ 2010 16+ aged, general public, Czech Republic, 2010 N = 2386
Mean
= 6.410
SD
= 2.175
ESS homepage (2010): study DE 2010 16+ aged, general public, Germany, 2010 N = 3031
Mean
= 7.255
SD
= 2.105
ESS homepage (2010): study DK 2010 16+ aged, general public, Denmark, 2010 N = 1576
Mean
= 8.350
SD
= 1.550
ESS homepage (2010): study EE 2010 16+ aged, general public, Estonia, 2010 N = 1793
Mean
= 6.517
SD
= 2.291
ESS homepage (2010): study ES 2010 16+ aged, general public, Spain, 2010 N = 1885
Mean
= 7.299
SD
= 1.748
ESS homepage (2010): study FR 2010 16+ aged, general public, France, 2010 N = 1728
Mean
= 6.341
SD
= 2.416
ESS homepage (2010): study GB 2010 16+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 2010 N = 2422
Mean
= 7.166
SD
= 2.043
ESS homepage (2010): study HU 2010 16+ aged, general public, Hungary, 2010 N = 1561
Mean
= 5.830
SD
= 2.476
Bock & Radelet (1988): study IL 2010 15+ aged, general public, Israel, 2010 N = 2294
Mean
= 7.489
SD
= 2.143
ESS homepage (2010): study NL 2010 16+ aged, general public, Netherlands, 2010 N = 1829
Mean
= 7.770
SD
= 1.425
ESS homepage (2010): study NO 2010 16+ aged, general public, Norway, 2010 N = 1548
Mean
= 7.930
SD
= 1.657
ESS homepage (2010): study PL 2010 15+ aged, general public, Poland, 2010 N = 1751
Mean
= 7.000
SD
= 2.214
ESS homepage (2010): study PT 2010 16+ aged, general public, Portugal, 2010 N = 2150
Mean
= 5.929
SD
= 2.237
ESS homepage (2010): study RU 2010 15+ aged, general public, Russia, 2010 N = 2595
Mean
= 5.696
SD
= 2.417
ESS homepage (2010): study SE 2010 16+ aged, general public, Sweden, 2010 N = 1497
Mean
= 7.906
SD
= 1.685
MacKerron & Mourato (2009): study GB London 2007 16+ aged, general public, London, 2007 N = 331
Mean
= 7.000
ESS homepage (2013): study BE Antwerpen 2012 16+ aged, general public, Region of Antwerpen, Belgium N = 307
Mean
= 7.540
SD
= 1.390
ESS homepage (2013): study BE Bruxelles (Brussel) 2012 16+ aged, general public, Brussels, Belgium, 2012 N = 112
Mean
= 7.016
SD
= 1.825
ESS homepage (2013): study BE Limburg 2012 16+ aged, general public, Region of Limburg, Belgium, 2012 N = 166
Mean
= 7.772
SD
= 1.537
ESS homepage (2013): study BE Oost-Vlaanderen, East Flanders 2012 16+ aged, general public, Region of East Flanders, Belgium, 2012 N = 221
Mean
= 7.780
SD
= 1.450
ESS homepage (2013): study BE West-Vlaanderen, West Flanders 2012 16+ aged, general public, Region of West Flanders, Belgium, 2012 N = 207
Mean
= 7.740
SD
= 1.754
ESS homepage (2013): study BE Hainaut (Henegouwen) 2012 16+ aged, general public,Region of Hainaut (Henegouwen), Belgium, 2012 N = 178
Mean
= 7.096
SD
= 1.795
ESS homepage (2013): study BE Liège (Luik) 2012 16+ aged, general public,Region of Liège (Luik), Belgium, 2012 N = 153
Mean
= 7.184
SD
= 1.736
ESS homepage (2013): study BE Vlaams Brabant 2012 16+ aged, general public, Region of Vlaams Brabant, East Flanders, Belgium, 2012 N = 178
Mean
= 7.837
SD
= 1.454
ESS homepage (2013): study BG Pleven 2012 16+ aged, general public, Region of Pleven, Bulgaria, 2012 N = 125
Mean
= 4.736
SD
= 2.546
Erlinghagen (2011): study DE 2002 15+ aged, general public, Germany, 2002-2009 N = 11096
Mean
= 6.900
Baltatescu (2007): study ZZ Europe 2002 15+ aged general public, Europe, Europe, 2002-2005 N = 88029
Kirmanoglu & Baslevent (2014): study ZZ Europe 2010 15+ aged Europeans, Europe. 2010/2011 N = 32275
ESS homepage (2012): study DE 2012 15+ aged, general public, Germany, 2012 N = 2958
Mean
= 7.600
SD
= 2.005
ESS homepage (2012): study DK 2012 15+ aged, general public, Denmark, 2012 N = 1650
Mean
= 8.571
SD
= 1.500
ESS homepage (2012): study EE 2012 15+ aged, general public, Estonia, 2012 N = 2380
Mean
= 6.181
SD
= 2.377
ESS homepage (2012): study ES 2012 15+ aged, general public, Spain, 2012 N = 1889
Mean
= 6.914
SD
= 2.322
ESS homepage (2012): study FI 2012 15+ aged, general public, Finland, 2012 N = 2197
Mean
= 8.110
SD
= 1.399
ESS homepage (2012): study GB 2012 15+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 2012 N = 2286
Mean
= 7.349
SD
= 2.012
ESS homepage (2002): study HU 2002 15+ aged, general public, Hungary, 2002 N = 1685
Mean
= 5.610
SD
= 2.482
ESS homepage (2012): study IE 2012 15+ aged, general public, Ireland, 2012 N = 2628
Mean
= 6.780
SD
= 2.228
ESS homepage (2012): study NL 2012 15+ aged, general public, Netherlands, 2012 N = 1845
Mean
= 7.900
SD
= 1.468
ESS homepage (2012): study NO 2012 15+ aged, general public, Norway, 2012 N = 1624
Mean
= 8.140
SD
= 1.567
ESS homepage (2012): study PL 2012 15+ aged, general public, Poland, 2012 N = 1898
Mean
= 7.118
SD
= 2.253
ESS homepage (2012): study PT 2012 15+ aged, general public, Portugal, 2012 N = 2151
Mean
= 5.994
SD
= 2.099
ESS homepage (2012): study RU 2012 15+ aged, general public, Russia 2012 N = 2484
Mean
= 5.801
SD
= 2.322
ESS homepage (2012): study SE 2012 15+ aged, general public, Sweden, 2012 N = 1847
Mean
= 7.872
SD
= 1.698
ESS homepage (2012): study SI 2012 15+ aged, general public, Slovenia, 2012 N = 1257
Mean
= 6.980
SD
= 2.198
ESS homepage (2012): study SK 2012 15+ aged, general public, Slovakia, 2012 N = 1847
Mean
= 6.761
SD
= 2.132
ESS homepage (2012): study BE 2012 15+ aged, general public, Belgium, 2012 N = 1869
Mean
= 7.440
SD
= 1.760
ESS homepage (2012): study BG 2012 15+ aged, general public, Bulgaria, 2012 N = 2260
Mean
= 4.417
SD
= 2.672
ESS homepage (2012): study CH 2012 15+ aged, general public, Switzerland, 2012 N = 1493
Mean
= 8.190
SD
= 1.665
ESS homepage (2012): study CY 2012 15+ aged, general public, Cyprus, 2012 N = 1116
Mean
= 6.858
SD
= 2.408
ESS homepage (2012): study CZ 2012 15+ aged, general public, Czech Republic, 2012 N = 2009
Mean
= 6.672
SD
= 2.120
ESS homepage (2012): study IL 2012 15+ aged, general public, Israel, 2012 N = 2488
Mean
= 7.520
SD
= 2.127
ESS homepage (2012): study IS 2012 15+ aged, general public, Iceland, 2012 N = 752
Mean
= 7.970
SD
= 1.634
ESS homepage (2012): study KO 2012 15+ aged, general public, Kosovo, 2012 N = 1277
Mean
= 6.177
SD
= 2.681
ESS homepage (2013): study BG Ruse 2002 15+ aged, general public, Ruse, Bulgaria, 2002-2010 N = 105
Mean
= 4.020
SD
= 2.523
ESS homepage (2013): study BG Silistra 2002 15+ aged, general public, Silistra, Bulgaria, 2002-2010 N = 84
Mean
= 5.385
SD
= 2.302
ESS homepage (2013): study BG Varna 2002 15+ aged, general public, Varna, Bulgaria, 2002-2010 N = 175
Mean
= 4.374
SD
= 2.522
ESS homepage (2013): study BG Burgaska, Bourgas, Burgas 2002 15+ aged, general public, Burgaska, Bourgas, Burgas, Bulgaria, 2002-2010 N = 150
Mean
= 6.220
SD
= 2.485
ESS homepage (2013): study BG Sliven 2002 15+ aged, general public, Sliven, Bulgaria, 2002-2010 N = 95
Mean
= 3.920
SD
= 2.295
ESS homepage (2013): study BG Stara Zagora 2002 15+ aged, general public, Stara Zagora, Bulgaria, 2002-2010 N = 95
Mean
= 4.207
SD
= 2.246
ESS homepage (2013): study BG Sofia 2002 15+ aged, general public, Sofia, Bulgaria, 2002 N = 356
Mean
= 5.273
SD
= 2.619
ESS homepage (2013): study BG Blagoevgrad 2002 15+ aged, general public, Blagoevgrad, Bulgaria, 2002-2010 N = 107
Mean
= 4.709
SD
= 2.845
ESS homepage (2013): study BG Plovdiv 2002 15+ aged, general public, Plovdiv, Bulgaria, 2002-2010 N = 195
Mean
= 4.231
SD
= 2.397
ESS homepage (2013): study BG Haskovo 2002 15+ aged, general public, Haskovo, Bulgaria, 2002-2010 N = 94
Mean
= 3.696
SD
= 2.663
ESS homepage (2013): study CH Region Iemanique (Genfer Region) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Region Iemanique (Genfer Region), Switzerland, 2002-2010 N = 246
Mean
= 7.971
SD
= 1.761
ESS homepage (2013): study CH Espace Mittelland (NW) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Espace Mittelland (NW), Switzerland, 2002-2011 N = 356
Mean
= 8.218
SD
= 1.669
ESS homepage (2013): study CH Nord-West Schweiz (North-West Switserland) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Nord-West Schweiz (North-West Switserland), Switzerland, 2002-2011 N = 208
Mean
= 8.050
SD
= 1.854
ESS homepage (2013): study CH Zürich 2002 15+ aged, general public, Zürich, Switzerland, 2002-2011 N = 238
Mean
= 8.149
SD
= 1.540
ESS homepage (2013): study CH Ost-Schweiz (Eastern Switserland) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Ost-Schweiz (Eastern Switserland), Switzerland, 2002-2011 N = 249
Mean
= 8.238
SD
= 1.437
ESS homepage (2013): study CH Zentral-Schweiz(Central Switserland) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Zentral-Schweiz(Central Switserland), Switzerland, 2002-2011 N = 161
Mean
= 8.357
SD
= 1.264
ESS homepage (2013): study CZ Praha (Prague) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Zürich, Switzerland, 2002-2011 N = 281
Mean
= 6.362
SD
= 2.059
ESS homepage (2013): study CZ Stredoceský kraj (Central Bohemia) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Stredoceský kraj (Central Bohemia), Czech Republic, 2002-2011 N = 234
Mean
= 6.141
SD
= 2.404
ESS homepage (2013): study CZ Jihomoravský kraj (South Moravia) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Jihomoravský kraj (South Moravia), Czech Republic, 2002-2011 N = 155
Mean
= 6.699
SD
= 1.956
ESS homepage (2013): study CZ Plzen Reg. 2002 15+ aged, general public, Plzen Reg., Czech Republic, 2002-2011 N = 112
Mean
= 6.531
SD
= 2.034
ESS homepage (2013): study CZ Ustecky kraj. Usti Reg. 2002 15+ aged, general public, Ustecky kraj. Usti Reg., Czech Republic, 2002-2011 N = 176
Mean
= 6.139
SD
= 2.085
ESS homepage (2013): study CZ Liberec Reg. 2002 15+ aged, general public, Liberec Reg., Czech Republic, 2002-2011 N = 100
Mean
= 6.303
SD
= 2.222
ESS homepage (2013): study CZ Kraloverhradecky kraj. Hradec Kralove Reg. 2002 15+ aged, general public, Kraloverhradecky kraj. Hradec Kralove Reg., Czech Republic, 2002-2011 N = 126
Mean
= 6.038
SD
= 2.460
ESS homepage (2013): study CZ Pardubice Reg. 2002 15+ aged, general public, Pardubice Reg., Czech Republic, 2002-2011 N = 122
Mean
= 6.133
SD
= 2.256
ESS homepage (2013): study CZ Východoèeský kraj (Visocina) (East Bohemia) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Východoèeský kraj (Visocina) (East Bohemia), Czech Republic, 2002-2011 N = 129
Mean
= 6.535
SD
= 2.120
ESS homepage (2013): study CZ Jihomoravský kraj (South Moravia) 2002 /1 15+ aged, general public, Jihomoravský kraj (South Moravia), Czech Republic, 2002-2011 N = 261
Mean
= 6.391
SD
= 2.027
ESS homepage (2013): study CZ Olomouc Reg. 2002 15+ aged, general public, Olomouc Reg., Czech Republic, 2002-2011 N = 164
Mean
= 6.289
SD
= 2.245
ESS homepage (2013): study CZ Zlinsky kraj. Zlin Reg. 2002 15+ aged, general public, Zlinsky kraj. Zlin Reg., Czech Republic, 2002-2011 N = 157
Mean
= 6.708
SD
= 1.933
ESS homepage (2013): study CZ Moravskosleszky kraj. Moravian Silesia Reg. 2002 15+ aged, general public, Moravskosleszky kraj. Moravian Silesia Reg., Czech Republic, 2002-2010 N = 304
Mean
= 6.076
SD
= 2.280
ESS homepage (2013): study DE Baden-Wurttemberg 2002 15+ aged, general public, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany, 2002-2010 N = 287
Mean
= 7.625
SD
= 1.979
ESS homepage (2013): study DE Bayern 2002 15+ aged, general public, Bayern, Germany, 2002-2010 N = 430
Mean
= 7.358
SD
= 2.018
ESS homepage (2013): study DE Berlin 2002 15+ aged, general public, Berlin, Germany, 2002-2010 N = 104
Mean
= 7.152
SD
= 1.831
ESS homepage (2013): study DE Brandenburg 2002 15+ aged, general public, Brandenburg, Germany, 2002-2010 N = 226
Mean
= 6.756
SD
= 2.013
ESS homepage (2013): study DE Hessen 2002 15+ aged, general public, Hessen, Germany, 2002-2010 N = 193
Mean
= 7.440
SD
= 2.119
ESS homepage (2013): study DE Mecklenburg-Vorpommern 2002 15+ aged, general public, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany, 2002-2010 N = 122
Mean
= 6.609
SD
= 2.236
ESS homepage (2013): study DE Niedersachsen 2002 15+ aged, general public, Niedersachsen, Germany, 2002-2010 N = 185
Mean
= 7.670
SD
= 1.893
ESS homepage (2013): study DE Nordrhein-Westfalen 2002 15+ aged, general public, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany, 2002-2010 N = 565
Mean
= 7.290
SD
= 2.141
ESS homepage (2013): study DE Rheinland -Pfalz 2002 15+ aged, general public, Rheinland -Pfalz, Germany, 2002-2010 N = 130
Mean
= 7.391
SD
= 1.997
ESS homepage (2013): study DE Sachsen 2002 15+ aged, general public, Sachsen, Germany, 2002-2010 N = 258
Mean
= 6.437
SD
= 2.242
ESS homepage (2013): study DE Sachsen-Anhalt 2002 15+ aged, general public, Sachsen-Anhalt, Germany, 2002-2010 N = 182
Mean
= 6.270
SD
= 2.592
ESS homepage (2013): study DE Schleswig-Holstein 2002 15+ aged, general public, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, 2002-2010 N = 81
Mean
= 7.405
SD
= 1.886
ESS homepage (2013): study DE Thueringen 2002 15+ aged, general public, Thueringen, Germany, 2002-2010 N = 196
Mean
= 6.559
SD
= 2.190
ESS homepage (2013): study DK Hovenstaden (Capital region, København) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Hovenstaden (Capital region, København), Denmark, 2002 N = 397
Mean
= 8.262
SD
= 1.535
ESS homepage (2013): study DK Syddanmark 2002 15+ aged, general public, Syddanmark, Denmark, 2002-2011 N = 365
Mean
= 8.426
SD
= 1.405
ESS homepage (2013): study DK Sjælland 2002 15+ aged, general public, Sjælland, Denmark, 2002-2010 N = 209
Mean
= 8.334
SD
= 1.509
ESS homepage (2013): study DK Midtyilland 2002 15+ aged, general public, Midtyilland, Denmark, 2002-2011 N = 411
Mean
= 8.348
SD
= 1.686
ESS homepage (2013): study DK Nordjylland 2002 15+ aged, general public, Nordjylland, Denmark, 2002-2011 N = 204
Mean
= 8.357
SD
= 1.648
ESS homepage (2013): study EE Põhja-Eesti, Harju County, North Estonia 2002 15+ aged, general public, Põhja-Eesti, Harju County, North Estonia, Estonia, 2002-2010 N = 575
Mean
= 6.795
SD
= 2.239
ESS homepage (2013): study EE Lääne-Eesti (West Estonia) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Lääne-Eesti (West Estonia), Estonia, 2002-2010 N = 222
Mean
= 6.887
SD
= 2.194
ESS homepage (2013): study EE Kesk-Eesti (Central Estonia) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Kesk-Eesti (Central Estonia), Estonia, 2002 N = 248
Mean
= 6.528
SD
= 2.103
ESS homepage (2013): study EE Kirde-Eesti (North-East Estonia) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Kirde-Eesti (North-East Estonia), Estonia, 2002 N = 191
Mean
= 5.560
SD
= 2.750
ESS homepage (2013): study EE Lõuna-Eesti (South Estonia) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Lõuna-Eesti (South Estonia), Estonia, 2002 N = 557
Mean
= 6.405
SD
= 2.189
ESS homepage (2013): study ES Galicia 2002 15+ aged, general public, Galicia, Spain, 2002 N = 101
Mean
= 7.045
SD
= 1.902
ESS homepage (2013): study ES Pais Vasco 2002 15+ aged, general public, Pais Vasco, Spain, 2002 N = 81
Mean
= 7.440
SD
= 1.746
ESS homepage (2013): study ES Madrid 2002 15+ aged, general public, Pais Vasco, Spain, 2002 N = 305
Mean
= 7.098
SD
= 1.798
ESS homepage (2013): study ES Castilla Leon 2002 15+ aged, general public, Castilla Leon, Spain, 2002 N = 116
Mean
= 7.264
SD
= 1.779
ESS homepage (2013): study ES Castilla-Mancha 2002 15+ aged, general public, Castilla-Mancha, Spain, 2002 N = 84
Mean
= 7.663
SD
= 1.587
ESS homepage (2013): study ES Cataluna 2002 15+ aged, general public, Cataluna, Spain, 2002 N = 248
Mean
= 7.516
SD
= 1.690
ESS homepage (2013): study ES Valenciano 2002 /1 15+ aged, general public, Valenciano, Spain, 2002 N = 186
Mean
= 7.375
SD
= 1.809
ESS homepage (2013): study ES Andalucia 2002 15+ aged, general public, Andalucia, Spain, 2002 N = 408
Mean
= 7.187
SD
= 1.733
ESS homepage (2013): study ES Canarias 2002 15+ aged, general public, Canarias, Spain, 2002 N = 62
Mean
= 7.615
SD
= 1.850
ESS homepage (2013): study FI Etelä-Savo 2002 15+ aged, general public, Etelä-Savo, Finland, 2002 N = 61
Mean
= 8.005
SD
= 1.584
ESS homepage (2013): study FI Pohjois-Savo 2002 15+ aged, general public, Etelä-Savo, Finland, 2002 N = 102
Mean
= 7.781
SD
= 1.484
ESS homepage (2013): study FI Uusimaa (region around Helsinki) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Uusimaa (region around Helsinki), Finland, 2002 N = 446
Mean
= 7.905
SD
= 1.595
ESS homepage (2013): study FI Varsi nais Suomi 2002 /1 15+ aged, general public, Varsi nais Suomi, Finland, 2002 N = 181
Mean
= 7.770
SD
= 1.497
ESS homepage (2013): study FI Keski-Suomi 2002 15+ aged, general public, Uusimaa (region around Helsinki), Finland, 2002 N = 104
Mean
= 8.122
SD
= 1.487
ESS homepage (2013): study FI Satakunta 2002 15+ aged, general public, Satakunta, Finland, 2002 N = 93
Mean
= 8.258
SD
= 1.368
ESS homepage (2013): study FI Pirkanmaa 2002 15+ aged, general public, Pirkanmaa, Finland, 2002 N = 164
Mean
= 8.032
SD
= 1.540
ESS homepage (2013): study FI Pohjois-Pohjanmaa 2002 15+ aged, general public, Pohjois-Pohjanmaa, Finland, 2002 N = 129
Mean
= 7.995
SD
= 1.460
ESS homepage (2013): study FI Lappi 2002 15+ aged, general public, Lappi, Finland, 2002 N = 67
Mean
= 8.208
SD
= 1.312
ESS homepage (2013): study FR Île de France (Paris) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Île de France (Paris), France, 2002 N = 262
Mean
= 5.997
SD
= 2.504
ESS homepage (2013): study FR Nord Pas de Calais 2002 15+ aged, general public, Nord Pas de Calais, France, 2002 N = 123
Mean
= 6.169
SD
= 2.627
ESS homepage (2013): study FR Lorraine 2002 15+ aged, general public, Lorraine, France, 2002 N = 90
Mean
= 6.088
SD
= 2.479
ESS homepage (2013): study FR Pays de la Loire 2002 15+ aged, general public, Pays de la Loire, France, 2002 N = 107
Mean
= 6.628
SD
= 2.194
ESS homepage (2013): study FR Bretagne 2002 15+ aged, general public, Bretagne, France, 2002 N = 95
Mean
= 6.217
SD
= 2.474
ESS homepage (2013): study FR Poitou-Charentes 2002 15+ aged, general public, Poitou-Charentes, France, 2002 N = 88
Mean
= 6.294
SD
= 2.428
ESS homepage (2013): study FR Aquitaine 2002 15+ aged, general public, Aquitaine, France, 2002 N = 98
Mean
= 6.508
SD
= 2.401
ESS homepage (2013): study FR Midi-Pyrenees 2002 15+ aged, general public, Midi-Pyrenees, France, 2002 N = 78
Mean
= 6.399
SD
= 2.204
ESS homepage (2013): study FR Rhone-Alpes 2002 15+ aged, general public, Rhone-Alpes, France, 2002 N = 184
Mean
= 6.576
SD
= 2.335
ESS homepage (2013): study FR Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur 2002 15+ aged, general public, Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur, France, 2002 N = 108
Mean
= 5.953
SD
= 2.718
ESS homepage (2013): study FI Varsi nais Suomi 2002 15+ aged, general public, Varsi nais Suomi, Finland, 2002 N = 181
Mean
= 7.770
SD
= 1.497
ESS homepage (2013): study ES Valenciano 2002 15+ aged, general public, Valenciano, Spain, 2002 N = 186
Mean
= 7.375
SD
= 1.809
ESS homepage (2013): study GR Anatoliki makedonia (East Macedonia) 2012 16+ aged, general public, Anatoliki makedonia (East Macedonia), Greece, 2012 N = 148
Mean
= 4.266
SD
= 2.593
ESS homepage (2013): study GR Kentriki Makedonia 2002 15+ aged, general public, Kentriki Makedonia, Greece, 2002 N = 429
Mean
= 5.139
SD
= 2.349
ESS homepage (2013): study GR Ditiki Ellada 2002 /1 16+ aged, general public, Region of West Flanders, Belgium, 2012 N = 89
Mean
= 6.630
SD
= 1.397
ESS homepage (2013): study GR Thessalia 2002 15+ aged, general public, Thessalia, Greece, 2002 N = 200
Mean
= 6.410
SD
= 1.895
ESS homepage (2013): study GR Ipeiros (Epirus) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Ipeiros (Epirus), Greece, 2002 N = 105
Mean
= 5.615
SD
= 2.543
ESS homepage (2013): study GR Ionia Nissia 2002 15+ aged, general public, Ionia Nissia, Greece, 2002 N = 64
Mean
= 4.905
SD
= 2.512
ESS homepage (2013): study GR Sterea Ellada Evia 2002 15+ aged, general public, Sterea Ellada Evia, Greece, 2002 N = 161
Mean
= 5.861
SD
= 1.975
ESS homepage (2013): study GR Peloponnisos kai Dytiki Sterea (Peleponesos) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Peloponnisos kai Dytiki Sterea (Peleponesos), Greece, 2002 N = 150
Mean
= 6.248
SD
= 2.348
ESS homepage (2013): study GR Attiki 2002 15+ aged, general public, Attiki, Greece, 2002 N = 904
Mean
= 5.569
SD
= 2.375
ESS homepage (2013): study GR Notio Agaio 2002 15+ aged, general public, Notio Agaio, Greece, 2002 N = 75
Mean
= 6.028
SD
= 2.278
ESS homepage (2013): study GR Kriti (Crete) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Kriti (Crete), Greece, 2002 N = 159
Mean
= 6.379
SD
= 2.156
ESS homepage (2013): study HR Sjeverozapadna Hrvatska (North West Croatia) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Sjeverozapadna Hrvatska (North West Croatia), Croatia, 2002 N = 479
Mean
= 6.060
SD
= 2.458
ESS homepage (2013): study HR Sredisnja i Istocna (Panonska) Hrvatska (North East Croatia) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Sredisnja i Istocna (Panonska) Hrvatska (North East Croatia), Croatia, 2002 N = 527
Mean
= 6.442
SD
= 2.272
ESS homepage (2013): study HR Jadranska Hrvatska (Adriatic Croatia) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Jadranska Hrvatska (Adriatic Croatia), Croatia, 2002 N = 644
Mean
= 6.421
SD
= 2.266
ESS homepage (2013): study HU Budapest 2002 15+ aged, general public, Blagoevgrad, Bulgaria, 2002-2010 N = 217
Mean
= 6.154
SD
= 2.593
ESS homepage (2013): study IE IE Border 2002 15+ aged, general public, IE Border, Ireland, 2002-2011 N = 517
Mean
= 5.443
SD
= 2.423
ESS homepage (2013): study IE Midlands (Westmeath / Roscommon / Longford / Laois / Offaly) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Midlands (Westmeath / Roscommon / Longford / Laois/Offaly), Ireland, 2002 N = 165
Mean
= 6.025
SD
= 2.049
ESS homepage (2013): study IE West (Mayo/Galway) 2002 15+ aged, general public, West (Mayo / Galway), Ireland, 2002 N = 367
Mean
= 6.817
SD
= 2.077
ESS homepage (2013): study IE IE Mid-East 2002 15+ aged, general public, IE Mid-East, Ireland, 2002-2011 N = 219
Mean
= 6.134
SD
= 2.220
ESS homepage (2013): study IE Mid west (Limerick / Clare / Tippary / North Riding) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Mid west (Limerick / Clare / Tippary / North Riding), Ireland, 2002-2011 N = 233
Mean
= 7.686
SD
= 1.919
ESS homepage (2013): study IE South east (Waterford / Wexford) 2002 15+ aged, general public, South east (Waterford / Wexford), Ireland, 2002-2011 N = 302
Mean
= 7.192
SD
= 1.993
ESS homepage (2013): study IE South west (Kerry / Cork) 2002 15+ aged, general public, South west (Kerry / Cork), Ireland, 2002-2011 N = 364
Mean
= 7.052
SD
= 2.367
ESS homepage (2012): study IL 2002 15+ aged, general public, Israel, 2002-2011 N = 2294
Mean
= 7.494
SD
= 2.140
ESS homepage (2012): study NL Friesland 2002 15+ aged, general public, Friesland, Netherlands, 2002-2011 N = 83
Mean
= 8.008
SD
= 1.418
ESS homepage (2012): study NL Overijssel 2002 15+ aged, general public, Overijssel, Netherlands, 2002-2011 N = 154
Mean
= 8.012
SD
= 1.136
ESS homepage (2012): study NL Gelderland 2002 15+ aged, general public, Gelderland, Netherlands, 2002-2011 N = 228
Mean
= 7.781
SD
= 1.408
ESS homepage (2013): study NL Utrecht 2002 15+ aged, general public, Utrecht, Netherlands, 2002-2011 N = 139
Mean
= 7.734
SD
= 1.518
ESS homepage (2012): study NL Noord-Holland 2002 15+ aged, general public, Noord-Holland, Netherlands, 2002-2011 N = 284
Mean
= 7.748
SD
= 1.572
ESS homepage (2012): study NL Zuid-Holland (South Holland) 2002 /1 15+ aged, general public, Zuid-Holland, Netherlands, 2002-2011 N = 357
Mean
= 7.770
SD
= 1.244
ESS homepage (2012): study NL Noord-Brabant 2002 15+ aged, general public, Noord-Brabant, Netherlands, 2002-2011 N = 282
Mean
= 7.713
SD
= 1.422
ESS homepage (2012): study NL Limburg 2002 15+ aged, general public, Limburg, Netherlands, 2002-2011 N = 123
Mean
= 7.589
SD
= 1.707
ESS homepage (2012): study NO Oslo and Akershus 2002 15+ aged, general public, Oslo and Akershus, Norway, 2002-2011 N = 358
Mean
= 7.729
SD
= 1.776
ESS homepage (2012): study NO Hedmark, Oppland 2002 15+ aged, general public, Hedmark, Oppland, Norway, 2002-2011 N = 123
Mean
= 7.732
SD
= 1.736
ESS homepage (2012): study NO Sør-Østlandet 2002 15+ aged, general public, Sør-Østlandet, Norway, 2002-2011 N = 299
Mean
= 7.904
SD
= 1.647
ESS homepage (2012): study NO Aust-Agder, Vest Agder, Rogaland 2002 15+ aged, general public, Aust-Agder, Vest Agder, Rogaland, Norway, 2002-2011 N = 223
Mean
= 8.216
SD
= 1.546
ESS homepage (2012): study NO Vestlandet 2002 15+ aged, general public, Vestlandet, Norway, 2002-2011 N = 264
Mean
= 8.023
SD
= 1.552
ESS homepage (2012): study NO Trøndelag 2002 15+ aged, general public, Trøndelag, Norway, 2002-2011 N = 134
Mean
= 8.095
SD
= 1.566
ESS homepage (2012): study NO Nord-Norge 2002 /1 15+ aged, general public, Nord-Norge, Norway, 2002-2011 N = 148
Mean
= 7.910
SD
= 1.677
ESS homepage (2012): study PL Lodzkie 2002 15+ aged, general public, Lodzkie, Poland, 2002-2011 N = 127
Mean
= 6.760
SD
= 2.122
ESS homepage (2013): study PL Mazowieckie 2002 15+ aged, general public, Mazowieckie, Poland, 2002-2011 N = 228
Mean
= 6.787
SD
= 2.278
ESS homepage (2012): study PL Malopolskie 2002 15+ aged, general public, Malopolskie, Poland, 2002-2011 N = 143
Mean
= 7.015
SD
= 2.292
ESS homepage (2012): study PL Slaskie 2002 15+ aged, general public, Slaskie, Poland, 2002-2011 N = 207
Mean
= 7.042
SD
= 2.250
ESS homepage (2012): study PL Lubelskie 2002 15+ aged, general public, Lubelskie, Poland, 2002-2011 N = 113
Mean
= 6.701
SD
= 2.251
ESS homepage (2012): study PL Podkarpackie 2002 15+ aged, general public, Podkarpackie, Poland, 2002-2011 N = 97
Mean
= 7.020
SD
= 1.949
ESS homepage (2012): study PL Swietokrzyskie 2002 15+ aged, general public, Swietokrzyskie, Poland, 2002-2011 N = 70
Mean
= 6.783
SD
= 2.098
ESS homepage (2012): study PL Wielkopolskie 2002 15+ aged, general public, Wielkopolskie, Poland, 2002-2011 N = 147
Mean
= 7.180
SD
= 2.276
ESS homepage (2012): study PL Zachodniopomorskie 2002 15+ aged, general public, Zachodniopomorskie, Poland, 2002-2011 N = 79
Mean
= 7.215
SD
= 2.327
ESS homepage (2012): study PL Dolnoslaskie 2002 15+ aged, general public, Dolnoslaskie, Poland, 2002-2011 N = 110
Mean
= 7.096
SD
= 2.336
ESS homepage (2012): study PL Opolskie 2002 15+ aged, general public, Opolskie, Poland, 2002-2011 N = 55
Mean
= 7.546
SD
= 2.161
ESS homepage (2012): study PL Kujawsko-pomorskie 2002 15+ aged, general public, Kujawsko-pomorskie, Poland, 2002-2011 N = 102
Mean
= 6.639
SD
= 2.057
ESS homepage (2012): study PL Warminsko-mazurskie 2002 15+ aged, general public, Warminsko-mazurskie, Poland, 2002-2011 N = 64
Mean
= 7.352
SD
= 2.033
ESS homepage (2012): study PL Pomorskie 2002 15+ aged, general public, Pomorskie, Poland, 2002-2011 N = 116
Mean
= 7.405
SD
= 1.888
ESS homepage (2012): study PT PT Norte 2002 15+ aged, general public, PT Norte, Portugal, 2002-2011 N = 849
Mean
= 5.796
SD
= 2.335
ESS homepage (2012): study PT Algarve (Faro) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Algarve (Faro), Portugal, 2002-2011 N = 82
Mean
= 4.768
SD
= 1.096
ESS homepage (2012): study PT PT Centro 2002 15+ aged, general public, Centro, Portugal, 2002-2011 N = 388
Mean
= 6.057
SD
= 2.070
ESS homepage (2012): study PT Lisboa et Vale do Tejo 2002 15+ aged, general public, Lisboa et Vale do Tejo, Portugal, 2002-2011 N = 752
Mean
= 5.964
SD
= 2.346
ESS homepage (2012): study PT Alentejo 2002 15+ aged, general public, Alentejo, Portugal, 2002-2011 N = 79
Mean
= 6.154
SD
= 2.135
ESS homepage (2012): study RU RU: North-Western 2002 15+ aged, general public, RU: North-Western, Russia, 2002-2011 N = 233
Mean
= 5.956
SD
= 2.316
ESS homepage (2012): study RU RU Central 2002 15+ aged, general public, RU Central, Russia, 2002-2011 N = 564
Mean
= 5.673
SD
= 2.323
ESS homepage (2012): study RU Volgo-Vyatki 2002 15+ aged, general public, Volgo-Vyatki, Russia, 2002-2011 N = 154
Mean
= 5.906
SD
= 2.340
ESS homepage (2012): study RU Central-Chernozhem 2002 15+ aged, general public, Central-Chernozhem, Russia, 2002-2011 N = 148
Mean
= 5.209
SD
= 2.237
ESS homepage (2012): study RU Volga 2002 15+ aged, general public, Volga, Russia, 2002-2011 N = 310
Mean
= 5.638
SD
= 2.257
ESS homepage (2012): study RU North-Caucasus 2002 15+ aged, general public, North-Caucasus, Russia, 2002-2011 N = 345
Mean
= 5.393
SD
= 2.640
ESS homepage (2012): study RU Ural 2002 15+ aged, general public, Ural, Russia, 2002-2011 N = 356
Mean
= 5.898
SD
= 2.408
ESS homepage (2012): study RU West-Siberia 2002 15+ aged, general public, West-Siberia, Russia, 2002-2011 N = 248
Mean
= 5.889
SD
= 2.479
ESS homepage (2012): study RU Eastern Siberia 2002 15+ aged, general public, Eastern Siberia, Russia, 2002-2011 N = 128
Mean
= 4.499
SD
= 2.394
ESS homepage (2012): study RU Far East 2002 15+ aged, general public, Far East, Russia, 2002-2011 N = 107
Mean
= 4.772
SD
= 2.821
ESS homepage (2012): study SE Stockholms Län 2002 15+ aged, general public, Stockholms Län, Sweden, 2002-2011 N = 251
Mean
= 7.898
SD
= 1.862
ESS homepage (2012): study SE Östergötlands län 2002 15+ aged, general public, Östergötlands län, Sweden, 2002-2011 N = 78
Mean
= 8.078
SD
= 1.786
ESS homepage (2012): study SE Örebro län 2002 15+ aged, general public, Örebro län, Sweden, 2002-2011 N = 62
Mean
= 8.260
SD
= 1.880
ESS homepage (2013): study BG Blagoevgrad 2002 /1 15+ aged, general public, Blagoevgrad, Bulgaria, 2002-2010 N = 107
Mean
= 4.709
SD
= 2.845
ESS homepage (2013): study IE Dublin 2002 15+ aged, general public, Dublin, Ireland, 2002-2011 N = 590
Mean
= 6.225
SD
= 2.105
ESS homepage (2013): study GR Ditiki Ellada 2002 15+ aged, general public, Ditiki Ellada, Greece, 2002-2011 N = 178
Mean
= 5.955
SD
= 2.017
ESS homepage (2013): study BE Brabant Wallon (Waals Brabant) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Brabant Wallon (Waals Brabant), Belgium, 2002-2011 N = 56
Mean
= 7.479
SD
= 1.681
ESS homepage (2013): study BE Hainaut (Henegouwen) 2002 16+ aged, general public, Hainaut (Henegouwen), Belgium, 2002-2011 N = 178
Mean
= 7.096
SD
= 1.795
ESS homepage (2013): study BE Liège (Luik) 2002 16+ aged, general public, Liège (Luik), Belgium, 2002-2011 N = 153
Mean
= 7.184
SD
= 1.736
ESS homepage (2013): study BE Namur (Namen) 2002 16+ aged, general public, Namur (Namen), Belgium, 20002-2011 N = 77
Mean
= 6.974
SD
= 2.032
ESS homepage (2012): study SE Skåne 2002 15+ aged, general public, Skåne, Sweden, 2002-2011 N = 198
Mean
= 7.822
SD
= 1.471
ESS homepage (2012): study SE Hallands län 2002 15+ aged, general public, Hallands län, Sweden, 2002-2011 N = 55
Mean
= 7.877
SD
= 1.969
ESS homepage (2012): study BE Luxembourg 2002 15+ aged, general public, Luxembourg, Belgium, 2002-2011 N = 49
Mean
= 7.378
SD
= 1.763
ESS homepage (2012): study SE Uppsala län 2002 15+ aged, general public, Uppsala län, Sweden, 2002-2011 N = 64
Mean
= 7.697
SD
= 1.830
ESS homepage (2012): study SE Östergötlands län 2002 /1 15+ aged, general public, Östergötlands län, Sweden, 2002-2011 N = 78
Mean
= 8.078
SD
= 1.786
ESS homepage (2012): study SE Västra Götalands län 2002 15+ aged, general public, Västra Götalands län, Sweden, 2002-2011 N = 268
Mean
= 7.930
SD
= 1.598
ESS homepage (2012): study SI Pomurska 2002 15+ aged, general public, Pomurska, Slovenia, 2002-2011 N = 88
Mean
= 6.465
SD
= 2.430
ESS homepage (2012): study SI Podravska 2002 15+ aged, general public, Podravska, Slovenia, 2002-2011 N = 259
Mean
= 7.329
SD
= 1.825
ESS homepage (2012): study SI Koroska 2002 15+ aged, general public, Koroska, Slovenia, 2002-2011 N = 50
Mean
= 6.800
SD
= 2.514
ESS homepage (2012): study SI Savinjska 2002 15+ aged, general public, Savinjska, Slovenia, 2002-2011 N = 194
Mean
= 6.936
SD
= 2.105
ESS homepage (2012): study SI Jugovzhodna Slovenija 2002 15+ aged, general public, Jugovzhodna Slovenija, Slovenia, 2002-2011 N = 116
Mean
= 7.005
SD
= 1.937
ESS homepage (2012): study SI Osrednja Slovenska 2002 15+ aged, general public, Osrednja Slovenska, Slovenia, 2002-2011 N = 280
Mean
= 6.880
SD
= 2.142
ESS homepage (2012): study SI Goriska 2002 15+ aged, general public, Goriska, Slovenia, 2002-2011 N = 93
Mean
= 7.099
SD
= 2.261
ESS homepage (2012): study SI Obalno-kraska 2002 15+ aged, general public, Obalno-kraska, Slovenia, 2002-2011 N = 65
Mean
= 6.818
SD
= 1.901
ESS homepage (2012): study SK Bratislavský kraj 2002 15+ aged, general public, Bratislavský kraj, Slovakia, 2002-2011 N = 224
Mean
= 6.728
SD
= 2.226
ESS homepage (2012): study SK Trnavský kraj 2002 15+ aged, general public, Trnavský kraj, Slovakia, 2002-2011 N = 190
Mean
= 6.369
SD
= 2.200
ESS homepage (2012): study SK Trenèiansky kraj 2002 15+ aged, general public, Trenèiansky kraj, Slovakia, 2002-2011 N = 199
Mean
= 6.279
SD
= 2.126
ESS homepage (2012): study SK Nitriansky kraj 2002 15+ aged, general public, Nitriansky kraj, Slovakia, 2002-2011 N = 224
Mean
= 6.561
SD
= 2.075
ESS homepage (2012): study SK Zilinský kraj 2002 15+ aged, general public, Zilinský kraj, Slovakia, 2002-2011 N = 222
Mean
= 6.361
SD
= 2.150
ESS homepage (2012): study SK Banskobystrický kraj 2002 15+ aged, general public, Banskobystrický kraj, Slovakia, 2002-2011 N = 241
Mean
= 6.451
SD
= 2.095
ESS homepage (2012): study SK Presovský kraj 2002 15+ aged, general public, Presovský kraj, Slovakia, 2002-2011 N = 305
Mean
= 6.325
SD
= 2.447
ESS homepage (2012): study SK Kosický kraj 2002 15+ aged, general public, Kosický kraj, Slovakia, 2002-2011 N = 251
Mean
= 6.198
SD
= 2.401
ESS homepage (2012): study UA Crimea, Autonomy Republic, Krim 2002 15+ aged, general public, Crimea, Autonomy Republic, Krim, Ukraine, 2002-2011 N = 101
Mean
= 5.543
SD
= 2.738
ESS homepage (2012): study UA Vynnytska oblast 2002 15+ aged, general public, Vynnytska oblast, Ukraine, 2002-2011 N = 99
Mean
= 4.910
SD
= 2.935
ESS homepage (2012): study UA Volynska oblast 2002 15+ aged, general public, Volynska oblast, Ukraine, 2002-2011 N = 68
Mean
= 5.759
SD
= 2.618
ESS homepage (2012): study UA Dnipropetrovsk oblast 2002 15+ aged, general public, Dnipropetrovsk oblast, Ukraine, 2002-2011 N = 122
Mean
= 4.073
SD
= 2.509
ESS homepage (2012): study UA Donetsk oblast 2002 15+ aged, general public, Donetsk oblast, Ukraine, 2002-2011 N = 204
Mean
= 4.464
SD
= 2.704
ESS homepage (2012): study UA Zhytomyrska oblast 2002 15+ aged, general public, Zhytomyrska oblast, Ukraine, 2002-2011 N = 82
Mean
= 3.974
SD
= 1.543
ESS homepage (2012): study UA Zaporizska oblast 2002 15+ aged, general public, Zaporizska oblast, Ukraine, 2002-2011 N = 77
Mean
= 5.065
SD
= 2.128
ESS homepage (2012): study UA Ivano-Frankivska oblast 2002 15+ aged, general public, Ivano-Frankivska oblast, Ukraine, 2002-2011 N = 72
Mean
= 5.115
SD
= 1.879
ESS homepage (2012): study UA Kirovogradska oblast 2002 15+ aged, general public, Kirovogradska oblast, Ukraine, 2002-2011 N = 72
Mean
= 2.818
SD
= 2.458
ESS homepage (2012): study UA Luhansk oblast 2002 15+ aged, general public, Luhansk oblast, Ukraine, 2002-2011 N = 99
Mean
= 4.754
SD
= 2.219
ESS homepage (2012): study UA Lviv oblast 2002 15+ aged, general public, Lviv oblast, Ukraine, 2002-2011 N = 90
Mean
= 4.587
SD
= 2.665
ESS homepage (2012): study UA Mykolaivska oblast 2002 15+ aged, general public, Mykolaivska oblast, Ukraine, 2002-2011 N = 66
Mean
= 4.587
SD
= 2.326
ESS homepage (2012): study UA Odessa 2002 15+ aged, general public, Odessa, Ukraine, 2002-2011 N = 74
Mean
= 4.559
SD
= 2.373
ESS homepage (2012): study UA Rivenska oblast 2002 15+ aged, general public, Rivenska oblast, Ukraine, 2002-2011 N = 82
Mean
= 4.964
SD
= 2.122
ESS homepage (2012): study UA Kharkiv oblast 2002 15+ aged, general public, Kharkiv oblast, Ukraine, 2002-2011 N = 117
Mean
= 4.669
SD
= 2.300
ESS homepage (2012): study UA Khersonska oblast 2002 15+ aged, general public, Khersonska oblast, Ukraine, 2002-2011 N = 59
Mean
= 4.948
SD
= 1.646
ESS homepage (2012): study UA Cherkasska oblast 2002 15+ aged, general public, Cherkasska oblast, Ukraine, 2002-2011 N = 72
Mean
= 3.719
SD
= 2.665
ESS homepage (2012): study UA Chernigivska oblast 2002 15+ aged, general public, Chernigivska oblast, Ukraine, 2002-2011 N = 109
Mean
= 4.871
SD
= 2.608
ESS homepage (2012): study UA Kyiv city 2002 15+ aged, general public, Kyiv city, Ukraine, 2002-2011 N = 82
Mean
= 4.849
SD
= 2.620
ESS homepage (2012): study GB GB North East 2002 15+ aged, general public, GB North East, United Kingdom, 2002-2011 N = 107
Mean
= 6.784
SD
= 2.090
ESS homepage (2012): study GB GB North-West 2002 15+ aged, general public, GB North-West, United Kingdom, 2002-2011 N = 275
Mean
= 7.122
SD
= 1.916
ESS homepage (2012): study GB Yorkshire and The Humber 2002 15+ aged, general public, Yorkshire and The Humber, United Kingdom, 2002-2011 N = 225
Mean
= 6.701
SD
= 2.308
ESS homepage (2012): study GB East-Midlands 2002 15+ aged, general public, East-Midlands, United Kingdom, 2002-2011 N = 666
Mean
= 6.963
SD
= 2.068
ESS homepage (2012): study GB West Midlands 2002 15+ aged, general public, West Midlands, United Kingdom, 2002-2011 N = 220
Mean
= 6.873
SD
= 2.279
ESS homepage (2012): study GB East England 2002 15+ aged, general public, East England, United Kingdom, 2002-2011 N = 226
Mean
= 7.292
SD
= 2.000
ESS homepage (2012): study GB London 2002 15+ aged, general public, London, United Kingdom, 2002-2011 N = 208
Mean
= 6.903
SD
= 2.212
ESS homepage (2012): study GB GB South-East 2002 15+ aged, general public, GB South-East, United Kingdom, 2002-2011 N = 335
Mean
= 7.060
SD
= 2.056
ESS homepage (2012): study GB GB South-West 2002 15+ aged, general public, GB South-West, United Kingdom, 2002-2011 N = 194
Mean
= 7.367
SD
= 1.888
ESS homepage (2012): study GB Wales 2002 15+ aged, general public, Wales, United Kingdom, 2002-2011 N = 138
Mean
= 7.265
SD
= 2.103
ESS homepage (2012): study GB Scotland 2002 15+ aged, general public, Scotland, United Kingdom, 2002-2011 N = 247
Mean
= 7.321
SD
= 1.906
ESS homepage (2012): study GB Northern Ireland 2002 15+ aged, general public, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom, 2002 N = 64
Mean
= 7.321
SD
= 1.906
ESS homepage (2012): study HU Pest 2002 15+ aged, general public, Podravska, Slovenia, 2002-2011 N = 185
Mean
= 6.517
SD
= 2.309
ESS homepage (2012): study HU Komarom-Esztergom 2002 15+ aged, general public, Komarom-Esztergom, Hungary, 2002-2011 N = 80
Mean
= 6.269
SD
= 2.164
ESS homepage (2012): study HU Gyor-Moson-Sopron 2002 15+ aged, general public, Gyor-Moson-Sopron, Hungary, 2002-2011 N = 70
Mean
= 6.096
SD
= 2.477
ESS homepage (2012): study HU Vas 2002 15+ aged, general public, Vas, Hungary, 2002-2011 N = 62
Mean
= 5.764
SD
= 2.364
ESS homepage (2012): study HU Jasz-Nagykun-Szolnok 2002 15+ aged, general public, Jasz-Nagykun-Szolnok, Hungary, 2002-2011 N = 97
Mean
= 5.461
SD
= 2.380
ESS homepage (2012): study HU Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg 2002 15+ aged, general public, Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg, Hungary, 2002-2011 N = 89
Mean
= 5.543
SD
= 2.483
ESS homepage (2012): study HU Bács-Kiskun 2002 15+ aged, general public, Bács-Kiskun, Hungary, 2002-2011 N = 90
Mean
= 5.648
SD
= 2.169
ESS homepage (2012): study NL Zuid-Holland (South Holland) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Zuid-Holland, Netherlands, 2002-2011 N = 355
Mean
= 7.720
SD
= 1.324
ESS homepage (2012): study SI Gorenjska 2002 15+ aged, general public, Gorenjska, Slovenia, 2002-2011 N = 137
Mean
= 6.925
SD
= 2.368
ESS homepage (2013): study DK Frederiksborg county 2002 15+ aged, general public, Frederiksborg county, Denmark, 2002-2011 N = 313
Mean
= 8.566
SD
= 1.437
ESS homepage (2013): study DK Roskilde county 2002 15+ aged, general public, Roskilde county, Denmark, 2002-2011 N = 175
Mean
= 8.421
SD
= 1.578
ESS homepage (2013): study DK Vestsjælland county 2002 15+ aged, general public, Vestsjælland county, Denmark, 2002-2011 N = 247
Mean
= 8.597
SD
= 1.530
ESS homepage (2013): study DK Storstrøm county 2002 15+ aged, general public, Storstrøm county, Denmark, 2002-2011 N = 206
Mean
= 8.135
SD
= 2.023
ESS homepage (2013): study DK Fyn county 2002 15+ aged, general public, Fyn county, Denmark, 2002-2011 N = 430
Mean
= 8.403
SD
= 1.691
ESS homepage (2013): study DK Sønderjylland county 2002 15+ aged, general public, Sønderjylland county, Denmark, 2002-2011 N = 243
Mean
= 8.446
SD
= 1.442
ESS homepage (2013): study DK Ribe county 2002 15+ aged, general public, Ribe county, Denmark, 2002-2011 N = 200
Mean
= 8.690
SD
= 1.590
ESS homepage (2013): study DK Vejle county 2002 15+ aged, general public, Vejle county, Denmark, 2002-2011 N = 337
Mean
= 8.561
SD
= 1.376
ESS homepage (2013): study DK Ringkøbing county 2002 15+ aged, general public, Syddanmark, Denmark, 2002-2011 N = 225
Mean
= 8.559
SD
= 1.239
ESS homepage (2013): study DK Århus county 2002 15+ aged, general public, Århus county, Denmark, 2002-2011 N = 601
Mean
= 8.369
SD
= 1.453
ESS homepage (2013): study DK Viborg county 2002 15+ aged, general public, Viborg county, Denmark, 2002-2011 N = 199
Mean
= 8.589
SD
= 1.479
ESS homepage (2012): study DE Bremen 2002 15+ aged, general public, Bremen, Germany, 2002-2011 N = 82
Mean
= 6.739
SD
= 2.495
ESS homepage (2012): study DE Hamburg 2002 15+ aged, general public, Hamburg, Germany, 2002-2011 N = 207
Mean
= 6.886
SD
= 2.116
ESS homepage (2012): study CY Nicosia 2002 15+ aged, general public, Nicosia, Cyprus, 2002-2011 N = 669
Mean
= 7.171
SD
= 1.682
ESS homepage (2012): study CY Nicosia (Lefkosia) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Nicosia (Lefkosia), Cyprus, 2002-2011 N = 237
Mean
= 7.198
SD
= 1.415
ESS homepage (2012): study CY Limassol 2002 15+ aged, general public, Limassol (Lemesos), Cyprus, 2002-2011 N = 483
Mean
= 7.243
SD
= 2.215
ESS homepage (2013): study CY Limassol (Lemesos) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Limassol (Lemesos), Cyprus, 2002-2011 N = 132
Mean
= 6.755
SD
= 2.113
ESS homepage (2012): study CY Larnaka 2002 15+ aged, general public, Larnaka, Cyprus, 2002-2011 N = 224
Mean
= 7.181
SD
= 1.954
ESS homepage (2012): study CY Larnaka 2002 /1 15+ aged, general public, Larnaka, Cyprus, 2002-2011 N = 155
Mean
= 6.965
SD
= 1.341
ESS homepage (2012): study CY Paphos 2002 15+ aged, general public, Paphos, Cyprus, 2002-2011 N = 138
Mean
= 7.581
SD
= 1.650
ESS homepage (2012): study CY Paphos 2002 /1 15+ aged, general public, Paphos, Cyprus, 2002-2011 N = 62
Mean
= 7.774
SD
= 1.443
ESS homepage (2012): study CY Ammochostos Rural 2002 15+ aged, general public, Ammochostos Rural, Cyprus, 2002-2011 N = 110
Mean
= 7.167
SD
= 1.568
ESS homepage (2013): study CZ Karlovarsky kraj. Karlovy Vary Reg. 2002 15+ aged, general public, Karlovarsky kraj. Karlovy Vary Reg., Czech Republic, 2002-2011 N = 189
Mean
= 6.264
SD
= 2.321
ESS homepage (2013): study FI Southern Finland and Åland 2002 15+ aged, general public, Southern Finland and Åland, Finland, 2002-2011 N = 2915
Mean
= 7.951
SD
= 1.541
ESS homepage (2013): study FI Western Finland 2002 15+ aged, general public, Western Finland, Finland, 2002-2011 N = 1634
Mean
= 7.989
SD
= 1.530
ESS homepage (2013): study FI Eastern Finland 2002 15+ aged, general public, Eastern Finland, Finland, 2002-2011 N = 866
Mean
= 7.957
SD
= 1.522
ESS homepage (2013): study FI Northern Finland 2002 15+ aged, general public, Northern Finland, Finland, 2002-2011 N = 698
Mean
= 8.085
SD
= 1.443
ESS homepage (2013): study GR Voreio Agaio 2002 16+ aged, general public, Voreio Agaio, Greece, 2002-2011 N = 124
Mean
= 6.302
SD
= 2.441
ESS homepage (2013): study GR East Macedonia & Thrace 2002 15+ aged, general public, East Macedonia & Thrace, Greece, 2002-2011 N = 115
Mean
= 5.825
SD
= 2.736
ESS homepage (2013): study GR Central Macedonia/ Thessaloniki 2002 15+ aged, general public, Central Macedonia/ Thessaloniki, Greece, 2002-2011 N = 359
Mean
= 5.694
SD
= 2.261
ESS homepage (2013): study GR West Macedonia & Epirus 2002 15+ aged, general public, West Macedonia & Epirus, Greece, 2002-2011 N = 120
Mean
= 5.809
SD
= 2.428
ESS homepage (2013): study GR Thessalia 2002 /1 15+ aged, general public, Thessalia, Greece, 2002-2011 N = 135
Mean
= 5.981
SD
= 2.429
ESS homepage (2013): study GR West Macedonia & Epirus 2002 /1 15+ aged, general public, West Macedonia & Epirus, Greece, 2002-2011 N = 164
Mean
= 5.890
SD
= 1.941
ESS homepage (2013): study GR Central Greece 2002 15+ aged, general public, Central Greece, Greece, 2002-2011 N = 110
Mean
= 5.757
SD
= 2.332
ESS homepage (2013): study GR Aegean Islands 2002 15+ aged, general public, Aegean Islands, Greece, 2002-2011 N = 65
Mean
= 6.760
SD
= 1.882
ESS homepage (2013): study ES Baleares 2002 15+ aged, general public, Canarias, Spain, 2002-2011 N = 83
Mean
= 6.273
SD
= 2.064
ESS homepage (2013): study ES Murcia 2002 15+ aged, general public, Murcia, Spain, 2002-2011 N = 100
Mean
= 6.730
SD
= 1.865
ESS homepage (2013): study ES Asturias 2002 15+ aged, general public, Asturias, Spain, 2002-2011 N = 100
Mean
= 7.155
SD
= 1.850
ESS homepage (2013): study ES Aragon 2002 15+ aged, general public, Aragon, Spain, 2002-2011 N = 105
Mean
= 7.590
SD
= 1.603
ESS homepage (2013): study ES Extremadura 2002 15+ aged, general public, Extremadura, Spain, 2002-2011 N = 93
Mean
= 7.288
SD
= 1.511
ESS homepage (2012): study HU West- Transdanubia 2002 15+ aged, general public, West- Transdanubia, Hungary, 2002-2011 N = 708
Mean
= 5.795
SD
= 2.438
ESS homepage (2013): study HU South-Transdanubia 2002 15+ aged, general public, South-Transdanubia, Hungary, 2002-2011 N = 657
Mean
= 5.307
SD
= 2.560
ESS homepage (2013): study HU HU North Regio 2002 15+ aged, general public, North Regio, Hungary, 2002-2011 N = 796
Mean
= 5.105
SD
= 2.615
ESS homepage (2013): study HU HU North- Plain 2002 15+ aged, general public, North- Plain, Hungary, 2002-2011 N = 962
Mean
= 5.439
SD
= 2.502
ESS homepage (2013): study HU HU South- Plain 2002 15+ aged, general public, HU South- Plain, Hungary, 2002-2011 N = 854
Mean
= 5.262
SD
= 2.621
ESS homepage (2012): study HU Veszprem 2002 15+ aged, general public, Veszprem, Hungary, 2002-2011 N = 54
Mean
= 5.626
SD
= 2.426
ESS homepage (2012): study HU Somogy 2002 15+ aged, general public, Somogy, Hungary, 2002-2011 N = 69
Mean
= 4.813
SD
= 2.835
ESS homepage (2012): study HU Hajdu-Bihar 2002 15+ aged, general public, Hajdu-Bihar, Hungary, 2002-2011 N = 72
Mean
= 6.008
SD
= 2.460
ESS homepage (2012): study HU Baranya 2002 15+ aged, general public, Baranya, Hungary, 2002-2011 N = 63
Mean
= 5.749
SD
= 2.734
ESS homepage (2012): study AT Burgenland 2002 15+ aged, general public, Burgenland, Austria, 2002-2011 N = 252
Mean
= 7.483
SD
= 2.080
ESS homepage (2012): study AT Kärnten 2002 15+ aged, general public, Kärnten, Austria, 2002-2011 N = 496
Mean
= 7.482
SD
= 2.128
ESS homepage (2012): study AT Niederösterreich 2002 15+ aged, general public, Niederösterreich, Austria, 2002-2011 N = 1297
Mean
= 7.448
SD
= 2.089
ESS homepage (2012): study AT Oberösterreich 2002 15+ aged, general public, Oberösterreich, Austria, 2002-2011 N = 1133
Mean
= 7.575
SD
= 2.066
ESS homepage (2012): study AT Salzburg 2002 15+ aged, general public, Salzburg, Austria, 2002-2011 N = 464
Mean
= 7.665
SD
= 2.110
ESS homepage (2012): study AT Steiermark 2002 15+ aged, general public, Steiermark, Austria, 2002-2011 N = 1017
Mean
= 7.774
SD
= 2.004
ESS homepage (2012): study AT Tirol 2002 15+ aged, general public, Tirol, Austria, 2002-2011 N = 594
Mean
= 7.508
SD
= 2.102
ESS homepage (2012): study AT Vorarlberg 2002 15+ aged, general public, Vorarlberg, Austria, 2002-2011 N = 288
Mean
= 7.664
SD
= 2.311
ESS homepage (2012): study AT Wien 2002 15+ aged, general public, Wien, Austria, 2002-2011 N = 1377
Mean
= 7.192
SD
= 2.104
ESS homepage (2012): study IL Jerusalem 2002 15+ aged, general public, Jerusalem, Israel, 2002-2011 N = 478
Mean
= 7.553
SD
= 2.334
ESS homepage (2012): study IL IL Northern District 2002 15+ aged, general public, IL Northern District, Israel, 2002-2011 N = 1001
Mean
= 6.800
SD
= 2.748
ESS homepage (2012): study IL Haifa 2002 15+ aged, general public, Haifa, Israel, 2002-2011 N = 711
Mean
= 6.664
SD
= 2.597
ESS homepage (2012): study IL IL Central District 2002 15+ aged, general public, IL Central District, Israel, 2002-2011 N = 1144
Mean
= 7.098
SD
= 2.278
ESS homepage (2012): study IL Tel Aviv District 2002 15+ aged, general public, Tel Aviv District, Israel, 2002-2011 N = 883
Mean
= 6.964
SD
= 2.441
ESS homepage (2012): study IL IL Southern District 2002 15+ aged, general public, IL Southern District, Israel, 2002-2011 N = 680
Mean
= 6.514
SD
= 2.470
ESS homepage (2012): study IL Judea, Samaria and Gaza area's 2002 15+ aged, general public, Judea, Samaria and Gaza area's, Israel, 2002-2011 N = 88
Mean
= 6.297
SD
= 2.766
ESS homepage (2012): study IT Piemonte 2002 15+ aged, general public, Piemonte, Italy, 2002-2011 N = 201
Mean
= 6.580
SD
= 2.326
ESS homepage (2012): study IT Lombardia 2002 15+ aged, general public, Lombardia, Italy, 2002-2011 N = 304
Mean
= 6.780
SD
= 2.101
ESS homepage (2012): study IT Veneto 2002 15+ aged, general public, Veneto, Italy, 2002-2011 N = 164
Mean
= 7.146
SD
= 1.819
ESS homepage (2012): study IT Liguria 2002 15+ aged, general public, Liguria, Italy, 2002-2011 N = 81
Mean
= 6.754
SD
= 2.183
ESS homepage (2012): study IT Emilia Romagna 2002 15+ aged, general public, Emilia Romagna, Italy, 2002-2011 N = 231
Mean
= 6.945
SD
= 2.026
ESS homepage (2012): study IT Toscana 2002 15+ aged, general public, Toscana, Italy, 2002-2011 N = 186
Mean
= 6.603
SD
= 2.155
ESS homepage (2012): study IT Marche 2002 15+ aged, general public, Marche, Italy, 2002-2011 N = 69
Mean
= 7.193
SD
= 2.171
ESS homepage (2012): study IT Lazio 2002 15+ aged, general public, Lazio, Italy, 2002-2011 N = 218
Mean
= 6.894
SD
= 2.244
ESS homepage (2012): study IT Abruzzo 2002 15+ aged, general public, Abruzzo, Italy, 2002-2011 N = 99
Mean
= 6.141
SD
= 2.053
ESS homepage (2012): study IT Campania 2002 15+ aged, general public, Campania, Italy, 2002-2011 N = 306
Mean
= 6.187
SD
= 1.924
ESS homepage (2012): study IT Puglia 2002 15+ aged, general public, Puglia, Italy, 2002-2011 N = 268
Mean
= 6.585
SD
= 2.242
ESS homepage (2012): study IT Calabria 2002 15+ aged, general public, Calabria, Italy, 2002-2011 N = 79
Mean
= 6.507
SD
= 2.364
ESS homepage (2012): study IT Sicilia 2002 15+ aged, general public, Sicilia, Italy, 2002-2011 N = 237
Mean
= 6.359
SD
= 2.375
ESS homepage (2012): study IT Sardegna 2002 15+ aged, general public, Sardegna, Italy, 2002-2011 N = 120
Mean
= 5.560
SD
= 2.599
ESS homepage (2012): study HU HU Central regio 2002 15+ aged, general public, Namur (Namen), Belgium, 2002-2011 N = 1511
Mean
= 5.591
SD
= 2.499
ESS homepage (2012): study HU Middle- Transdanubia 2002 15+ aged, general public, Middle- Transdanubia, Hungary, 2002-2011 N = 757
Mean
= 5.689
SD
= 2.432
ESS homepage (2012): study HU South-Transdanubia 2002 15+ aged, general public, South-Transdanubia, Hungary, 2002-2011 N = 657
Mean
= 5.307
SD
= 2.560
ESS homepage (2012): study HU HU North Regio 2002 15+ aged, general public, North Regio, Hungary, 2002-2011 N = 796
Mean
= 5.105
SD
= 2.615
ESS homepage (2012): study HU HU North- Plain 2002 15+ aged, general public, North- Plain, Hungary, 2002-2011 N = 962
Mean
= 5.439
SD
= 2.502
ESS homepage (2012): study HU HU South- Plain 2002 15+ aged, general public,South- Plain, Hungary, 2002-2011 N = 854
Mean
= 5.262
SD
= 2.621
ESS homepage (2013): study FR Bassin Parisien Est 2002 15+ aged, general public, Bassin Parisien Est, France, 2002-2011 N = 583
Mean
= 6.223
SD
= 2.563
ESS homepage (2013): study FR Bassin Parisien Ouest 2002 15+ aged, general public, Bassin Parisien Ouest, France, 2002-2011 N = 714
Mean
= 6.109
SD
= 2.585
ESS homepage (2013): study FR FR Nord 2002 15+ aged, general public, FR Nord, France, 2002-2011 N = 546
Mean
= 5.954
SD
= 2.704
ESS homepage (2013): study FR FR Est 2002 15+ aged, general public, FR Est, France, 2002-2011 N = 734
Mean
= 6.317
SD
= 2.393
ESS homepage (2013): study FR FR Ouest, West 2002 15+ aged, general public, FR Ouest, West, France, 2002-2011 N = 1014
Mean
= 6.386
SD
= 2.469
ESS homepage (2013): study FR FR Sud Ouest (South West) 2002 15+ aged, general public, FR Sud Ouest (South West), France, 2002-2011 N = 925
Mean
= 6.256
SD
= 2.463
ESS homepage (2013): study FR FR Sud Est, South-East 2002 15+ aged, general public, FR Sud Est, South-East, France, 2002-2011 N = 952
Mean
= 6.436
SD
= 2.372
ESS homepage (2013): study FR FR Méditerranée 2002 15+ aged, general public, FR Méditerranée, France, 2002-2011 N = 791
Mean
= 6.325
SD
= 2.467
ESS homepage (2013): study CH Ticino 2002 15+ aged, general public, Ticino, Switzerland, 2002-2011 N = 212
Mean
= 7.636
SD
= 1.843
ESS homepage (2012): study NL Oost-Groningen (East Groningen) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Oost-Groningen (East Groningen), Netherlands, 2002-2011 N = 86
Mean
= 7.649
SD
= 1.372
ESS homepage (2012): study NL Rest of Groningen 2002 15+ aged, general public, Rest of Groningen, Netherlands, 2002-2011 N = 168
Mean
= 7.548
SD
= 1.353
ESS homepage (2012): study NL Noord Friesland (North Friesland) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Noord Friesland (North Friesland), Netherlands, 2002-2011 N = 181
Mean
= 7.728
SD
= 1.599
ESS homepage (2012): study NL Zuid-West Friesland (South West Friesland) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Zuid-West Friesland (South West Friesland), Netherlands, 2002-2011 N = 51
Mean
= 7.314
SD
= 1.513
ESS homepage (2012): study NL Zuid-Oost Friesland (South East Friesland) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Zuid-Oost Friesland (South East Friesland), Netherlands, 2002-2011 N = 121
Mean
= 7.764
SD
= 1.405
ESS homepage (2012): study NL Noord- Drenthe (North Drenthe) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Noord- Drenthe (North Drenthe), Netherlands, 2002-2011 N = 96
Mean
= 7.520
SD
= 1.905
ESS homepage (2012): study NL Zuid-Oost Drenthe (South East Drenthe) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Zuid-Oost Drenthe (South East Drenthe), Netherlands, 2002-2011 N = 85
Mean
= 7.976
SD
= 1.364
ESS homepage (2012): study NL Zuid-West Drenthe (South West Drenthe) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Zuid-West Drenthe (South West Drenthe), Netherlands, 2002-2011 N = 61
Mean
= 7.868
SD
= 1.553
ESS homepage (2012): study NL Noord-Overijssel (North Overijssel) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Noord-Overijssel (North Overijssel), Netherlands, 2002-2011 N = 177
Mean
= 7.708
SD
= 1.665
ESS homepage (2012): study NL Zuid-West Overijssel (South West Overijssel) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Zuid-West Overijssel (South West Overijssel), Netherlands, 2002-2011 N = 79
Mean
= 7.042
SD
= 2.282
ESS homepage (2012): study NL Twente 2002 15+ aged, general public, Twente, Netherlands, 2002-2011 N = 326
Mean
= 7.540
SD
= 1.707
ESS homepage (2012): study NL Veluwe 2002 15+ aged, general public, Veluwe, Netherlands, 2002-2011 N = 280
Mean
= 7.554
SD
= 1.662
ESS homepage (2012): study NL Achterhoek 2002 15+ aged, general public, Achterhoek, Netherlands, 2002-2011 N = 210
Mean
= 7.737
SD
= 1.280
ESS homepage (2012): study NL Arnhem & Nijmegen 2002 15+ aged, general public, Arnhem & Nijmegen, Netherlands, 2002-2011 N = 348
Mean
= 7.637
SD
= 1.451
ESS homepage (2012): study NL Zuid-West Gelderland (South West Gelderland) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Zuid-West Gelderland (South West Gelderland), Netherlands, 2002-2011 N = 121
Mean
= 7.687
SD
= 1.458
ESS homepage (2012): study NL Flevoland 2002 15+ aged, general public, Flevoland, Netherlands, 2002-2011 N = 177
Mean
= 7.449
SD
= 1.498
ESS homepage (2012): study NL Utrecht 2002 15+ aged, general public, Utrecht, Netherlands, 2002-2011 N = 576
Mean
= 7.560
SD
= 1.515
ESS homepage (2012): study NL Kop van Noord-Holland (North of North Holland) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Kop van Noord-Holland (North of North Holland), Netherlands, 2002-2011 N = 200
Mean
= 7.663
SD
= 1.626
ESS homepage (2012): study NL Alkmaar and surroundings 2002 15+ aged, general public, Alkmaar and surroundings, Netherlands, 2002-2011 N = 122
Mean
= 7.576
SD
= 1.648
ESS homepage (2012): study NL Ijmond 2002 15+ aged, general public, Ijmond, Netherlands, 2002-2011 N = 86
Mean
= 7.690
SD
= 1.634
ESS homepage (2012): study NL Haarlem agglomeration 2002 15+ aged, general public, Haarlem agglomeration, Netherlands, 2002-2011 N = 103
Mean
= 7.619
SD
= 1.790
ESS homepage (2012): study NL Zaanstreek 2002 15+ aged, general public, Zaanstreek, Netherlands, 2002-2011 N = 78
Mean
= 7.716
SD
= 1.370
ESS homepage (2012): study NL Greater Amsterdam 2002 15+ aged, general public, Greater Amsterdam, Netherlands, 2002-2011 N = 535
Mean
= 7.403
SD
= 1.692
ESS homepage (2012): study NL Het Gooi and Vechtstreek 2002 15+ aged, general public, Het Gooi and Vechtstreek, Netherlands, 2002-2011 N = 118
Mean
= 7.561
SD
= 1.749
ESS homepage (2012): study NL Leiden and Bollenstreek 2002 15+ aged, general public, Leiden and Bollenstreek, Netherlands, 2002-2011 N = 194
Mean
= 7.492
SD
= 1.491
ESS homepage (2012): study NL s'Gravenhage (Den Haag; The Hague) 2002 15+ aged, general public, s'Gravenhage (Den Haag; The Hague), Netherlands, 2002-2011 N = 331
Mean
= 7.271
SD
= 1.701
ESS homepage (2012): study NL Delft and Westland 2002 15+ aged, general public, Delft and Westland, Netherlands, 2002-2011 N = 107
Mean
= 7.365
SD
= 1.738
ESS homepage (2012): study NL East South Holland 2002 15+ aged, general public, East South Holland, Netherlands, 2002-2011 N = 150
Mean
= 7.565
SD
= 1.589
ESS homepage (2012): study NL Rijnmond 2002 15+ aged, general public, Rijnmond, Netherlands, 2002-2011 N = 627
Mean
= 7.413
SD
= 1.777
ESS homepage (2012): study NL Zuid-Oost Zuid Holland (South-East South Holland) 2002 15+ aged, general public, Zuid-Oost Zuid Holland (South-East South Holland), Netherlands, 2002-2011 N = 196
Mean
= 7.632
SD
= 1.532
ESS homepage (2012): study NL Zeeuws-Vlaanderen 2002 15+ aged, general public, Zeeuws-Vlaanderen, Netherlands, 2002-2011 N = 66
Mean
= 7.851
SD
= 1.328
ESS homepage (2012): study NL Overig Zeeland 2002 15+ aged, general public, Overig Zeeland, Netherlands, 2002-2011 N = 143
Mean
= 7.685
SD
= 1.657
ESS homepage (2012): study NL West Noord Brabant 2002 15+ aged, general public, West Noord Brabant, Netherlands, 2002-2011 N = 288
Mean
= 7.481
SD
= 1.732
ESS homepage (2012): study NL Mid North Brabant 2002 15+ aged, general public, Mid North Brabant, Netherlands, 2002-2011 N = 224
Mean
= 7.325
SD
= 1.773
ESS homepage (2012): study NL North-East Noord Brabant 2002 15+ aged, general public, North-East Noord Brabant, Netherlands, 2002-2011 N = 291
Mean
= 7.608
SD
= 1.690
ESS homepage (2012): study NL South-East Noord Brabant 2002 15+ aged, general public, South-East Noord Brabant, Netherlands, 2002 N = 304
Mean
= 7.742
SD
= 1.499
ESS homepage (2012): study NL Noord Limburg 2002 15+ aged, general public, Noord Limburg, Netherlands, 2002-2011 N = 148
Mean
= 7.548
SD
= 1.853
ESS homepage (2012): study NL Mid Limburg 2002 15+ aged, general public, Mid Limburg, Netherlands, 2002-2011 N = 105
Mean
= 7.699
SD
= 1.549
ESS homepage (2012): study NL Zuid Limburg 2002 15+ aged, general public, Zuid Limburg, Netherlands, 2002-2011 N = 321
Mean
= 7.543
SD
= 1.537
ESS homepage (2013): study IE Connaught 2002 /1 15+ aged, general public, Connaught, Ireland, 2002-2011 N = 356
Mean
= 7.013
SD
= 2.094
ESS homepage (2013): study IE Munster 2002 15+ aged, general public, Munster, Ireland, 2002-2011 N = 533
Mean
= 7.129
SD
= 2.130
ESS homepage (2013): study ES Baleares 2002 /1 15+ aged, general public, Baleares, Spain, 2002-2011 N = 83
Mean
= 6.273
SD
= 2.064
ESS homepage (2013): study GB GB North East 2002 /1 15+ aged, general public, GB North East, United Kingdom, 2002-2011 N = 411
Mean
= 6.888
SD
= 2.360
ESS homepage (2013): study TR Istanbul 2002 15+ aged, general public, Istanbul, Turkey, 2002-2011 N = 808
Mean
= 5.894
SD
= 2.676
ESS homepage (2013): study TR Western Marmara 2002 15+ aged, general public, Western Marmara, Turkey, 2002-2011 N = 159
Mean
= 5.312
SD
= 2.873
ESS homepage (2013): study TR Turkey Aegean 2002 15+ aged, general public, Turkey Aegean, Turkey, 2002-2011 N = 487
Mean
= 5.285
SD
= 3.325
ESS homepage (2013): study TR Eastern Marmara 2002 15+ aged, general public, Eastern Marmara, Turkey, 2002-2011 N = 427
Mean
= 6.392
SD
= 2.701
ESS homepage (2013): study TR Western Anatolia 2002 15+ aged, general public, Western Anatolia, Turkey, 2002-2011 N = 397
Mean
= 6.237
SD
= 2.708
ESS homepage (2013): study TR Turkey Mediterranean 2002 15+ aged, general public, Turkey Mediterranean, Turkey, 2002-2011 N = 576
Mean
= 5.751
SD
= 2.967
ESS homepage (2013): study TR Central Anatolia 2002 15+ aged, general public, Central Anatolia, Turkey, 2002-2011 N = 175
Mean
= 6.386
SD
= 2.964
ESS homepage (2013): study TR Western Black Sea 2002 15+ aged, general public, Western Black Sea, Turkey, 2002-2011 N = 196
Mean
= 6.751
SD
= 2.679
ESS homepage (2013): study TR Eastern Black Sea 2002 15+ aged, general public, Eastern Black Sea, Turkey, 2002-2011 N = 77
Mean
= 6.208
SD
= 2.630
ESS homepage (2013): study TR North Eastern Anatolia 2002 15+ aged, general public, North Eastern Anatolia, Turkey, 2002-2011 N = 124
Mean
= 6.043
SD
= 2.950
ESS homepage (2013): study TR Turkey East 2002 15+ aged, general public, Turkey East, Turkey, 2002-2011 N = 255
Mean
= 6.316
SD
= 3.431
ESS homepage (2013): study TR Turkey South East 2002 15+ aged, general public, Turkey South East, Turkey, 2002-2011 N = 591
Mean
= 5.344
SD
= 3.260
ESS homepage (2012): study NO South Eastern Norway 2002 15+ aged, general public, South Eastern Norway, Norway, 2002-2011 N = 1291
Mean
= 7.779
SD
= 1.676
ESS homepage (2012): study NO Western Norway 2002 15+ aged, general public, Western Norway, Norway, 2002-2011 N = 1292
Mean
= 7.736
SD
= 1.697
ESS homepage (2012): study NO Nord-Norge 2002 15+ aged, general public, Nord-Norge, Norway, 2002-2011 N = 738
Mean
= 7.809
SD
= 1.829
VanderMeer & Wielers (2013): study ZZ Europe 2004 Working people, 20 European countries, 2004. N = 11986
Mean
= 5.510
SD
= 1.700
Ferreira et al. (2013): study ZZ Europe 2002 14+ aged, general public, 23 EU nations 2002-2007 N = 81326
Mean
= 7.120
SD
= 2.170
ESS homepage (2014a): study AT 2014 15+ aged, general public, Austria, 2014 N = 1795
Mean
= 7.336
SD
= 2.085
ESS homepage (2014a): study BE 2014 15+ aged, general public, Belgium, 2014 N = 1769
Mean
= 7.453
SD
= 1.709
ESS homepage (2014a): study CH 2014 15+ aged, general public, Switzerland, 2014 N = 1532
Mean
= 8.078
SD
= 1.698
ESS homepage (2014a): study CZ 2014 15+ aged, general public, Czech Republic, 2014 N = 2148
Mean
= 6.699
SD
= 2.102
ESS homepage (2014a): study DE 2014 15+ aged, general public, Germany, 2014 N = 3045
Mean
= 7.525
SD
= 1.970
ESS homepage (2014a): study DK 2014 15+ aged, general public, Denmark, 2014 N = 1496
Mean
= 8.356
SD
= 1.610
ESS homepage (2014a): study EE 2014 15+ aged, general public, Estonia, 2014 N = 2049
Mean
= 6.396
SD
= 2.224
ESS homepage (2014a): study ES 2014 15+ aged, general public, Spain, 2014 N = 1929
Mean
= 6.961
SD
= 2.154
ESS homepage (2014a): study FI 2014 15+ aged, general public, Finland, 2014 N = 2086
Mean
= 7.920
SD
= 1.581
ESS homepage (2014a): study FR 2014 15+ aged, general public, France, 2014 N = 1917
Mean
= 6.570
SD
= 2.438
ESS homepage (2014a): study GB 2014 15+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 2014 N = 2264
Mean
= 7.272
SD
= 2.058
ESS homepage (2014a): study HU 2014 15+ aged, general public, Hungary, 2014 N = 1691
Mean
= 5.834
SD
= 2.259
ESS homepage (2014a): study IE 2014 15+ aged, general public, Ireland, 2014 N = 2390
Mean
= 7.062
SD
= 2.018
ESS homepage (2014a): study IL 2014 15+ aged, general public, Israel, 2014 N = 2562
Mean
= 7.460
SD
= 2.134
ESS homepage (2014a): study LT 2014 15+ aged, general public, Lithuania, 2014 N = 2250
Mean
= 6.100
SD
= 2.275
ESS homepage (2014a): study NL 2014 15+ aged, general public, Netherlands, 2014 N = 1919
Mean
= 7.658
SD
= 1.458
ESS homepage (2014a): study NO 2014 15+ aged, general public, Norway, 2014 N = 1436
Mean
= 7.944
SD
= 1.691
ESS homepage (2014a): study PL 2014 15+ aged, general public, Poland, 2014 N = 1615
Mean
= 6.944
SD
= 2.270
ESS homepage (2014a): study PT 2014 15+ aged, general public, Portugal, 2014 N = 1265
Mean
= 5.759
SD
= 2.545
ESS homepage (2014a): study SE 2014 15+ aged, general public, Sweden, 2014 N = 1791
Mean
= 7.905
SD
= 1.683
ESS homepage (2014a): study SI 2014 15+ aged, general public, Slovenia, 2014 N = 1224
Mean
= 6.579
SD
= 2.367
Mutz (2015): study ZZ Various nation sets 2006 15+ aged, general public, 11 EU nations, 2006-2013 N = 2057
Mean
= 6.900
SD
= 2.190
Ahmadyar (2016): study NL 2016 +18 aged Afghan immigrants, The Netherlands, 2016 N = 141
Mean
= 6.272
SD
= 2.145
Pischke (2011): study ZZ Europe 2002 20-64 aged men, Europe, 2002-2008 N = 27740
ESS homepage (2016): study AT 2016 15+ aged, general public, Austria, 2016 N = 2010
Mean
= 7.690
SD
= 1.835
ESS homepage (2016): study BE 2016 15+ aged, general public, Belgium, 2016 N = 1766
Mean
= 7.480
SD
= 1.620
ESS homepage (2016): study CH 2016 15+ aged, general public, Switzerland, 2016 N = 1525
Mean
= 8.150
SD
= 1.690
ESS homepage (2016): study CZ 2016 15+ aged, general public, Czech Republic, 2016 N = 2269
Mean
= 6.820
SD
= 1.892
ESS homepage (2016): study DE 2016 15+ aged, general public, Germany, 2016 N = 2852
Mean
= 7.520
SD
= 2.010
ESS homepage (2016): study EE 2016 15+ aged, general public, Estonia,, 2016 N = 2019
Mean
= 6.780
SD
= 2.050
ESS homepage (2016): study FI 2016 15+ aged, general public, Finland, 2016 N = 1925
Mean
= 7.980
SD
= 1.600
ESS homepage (2016): study FR 2016 15+ aged, general public, France, 2016 N = 2070
Mean
= 6.720
SD
= 2.185
ESS homepage (2016): study GB 2016 15+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 2016 N = 1959
Mean
= 7.350
SD
= 2.002
ESS homepage (2016): study IE 2016 15+ aged, general public, Ireland, 2016 N = 2766
Mean
= 7.280
SD
= 1.876
ESS homepage (2016): study IL 2016 15+ aged, general public, Israel, 2016 N = 2557
Mean
= 7.840
SD
= 1.894
ESS homepage (2016): study IS 2016 15+ aged, general public, Iceland, 2016 N = 880
Mean
= 8.040
SD
= 1.660
ESS homepage (2016): study NL 2016 15+ aged, general public, Netherlands, 2016 N = 1681
Mean
= 7.860
SD
= 1.420
ESS homepage (2016): study PL 2016 15+ aged, general public, Poland, 2016 N = 1694
Mean
= 7.160
SD
= 2.110
ESS homepage (2016): study SE 2016 15+ aged, general public, Sweden, 2016 N = 1551
Mean
= 7.890
SD
= 1.770
ESS homepage (2016): study SI 2016 15+ aged, general public, Slovenia, 2016 N = 1307
Mean
= 7.060
SD
= 2.175
Ludwigs (2014): study DE 2014 Users of a happiness app and controls, followed 9 weeks. Germany 2014 N = 349
Lelkes (2012): study ZZ EU 27 2010 65+ aged, 26 European nations, 2010-2011 N = 11000
Sabatini & Sarracino (2014): study IT 2010 18+ aged, general public, Italy, 2010-2011 N = 77560
Mean
= 7.190
SD
= 1.680
Moradian (2017): study DE 2017 Student-participants in happiness training, Germany, 2017 N = 120
Kaliterna Lipovcan & Prizmic-Larsen (2016): study HR 2008 18+ aged happy and unhappy people, Croatia, 2008 N = 800
Shershneva & Basabe (2012): study ZZ Europe 2006 Immigrants, Europe, Multiple nations, 2006 - 2007 N = 1368
ESS homepage (2016): study HU 2016 15+ aged, general public, Hungary, 2016 N = 1614
Mean
= 6.350
SD
= 2.211
ESS homepage (2016): study LT 2016 15+ aged, general public, Lithuania, 2016 N = 2122
Mean
= 6.120
SD
= 2.100
ESS homepage (2016): study IT 2016 15+ aged, general public, Italy, 2016 N = 2626
Mean
= 6.820
SD
= 2.098
ESS homepage (2016): study ES 2016 15+ aged, general public, Spain, 2016 N = 1958
Mean
= 7.300
SD
= 1.940
ESS homepage (2018): study AT 2018 15+ aged, general public, Austria, 2018 N = 2499
Mean
= 7.910
SD
= 1.806
ESS homepage (2012): study UA 2012 15+ aged, general public, Ukraine, 2012 N = 2178
Mean
= 5.150
SD
= 2.507
ESS homepage (2012): study AL 2012 15+ aged, general public, Albania, 2012 N = 1201
Mean
= 5.720
SD
= 3.074
ESS homepage (2012): study UA 2012 /1 15+ aged, general public, Ukraine, 2012 N = 2178
Mean
= 5.150
SD
= 2.507
ESS homepage (2002): study NO 2002 16+ aged, general public, Norway, 2002 N = 2036
Mean
= 7.760
SD
= 1.692
ESS homepage (2004): study TR 2005 16+ aged, general public, Turkey, 2004 N = 1856
Mean
= 6.290
SD
= 3.123
ESS homepage (2004): study UA 2004 16+ aged, general public, Ukraine, 2004 N = 2031
Mean
= 4.440
SD
= 2.239
ESS homepage (2006): study AT 2006 16+ aged, general public, Austria, 2006 N = 2405
Mean
= 7.630
SD
= 2.010
ESS homepage (2006): study IE 2006 16+ aged, general public, Ireland, 2006 N = 1800
Mean
= 7.540
SD
= 1.931
ESS homepage (2006): study NL 2006 16+ aged, general public, Netherlands, 2006 N = 1889
Mean
= 7.550
SD
= 1.556
ESS homepage (2006): study UA 2006 16+ aged, general public, Ukraine, 2006 N = 2002
Mean
= 4.390
SD
= 2.723
ESS homepage (2008): study CZ 2008 15+ aged, general public, Czech Republic, 2008 N = 2018
Mean
= 6.650
SD
= 2.099
ESS homepage (2008): study GR 2008 15+ aged, general public, Greece, 2008 N = 2072
ESS homepage (2008): study HR 2008 15+ aged, general public, Croatia, 2008 N = 1484
Mean
= 6.670
SD
= 2.260
ESS homepage (2008): study IE 2008 15+ aged, general public, Ireland, 2008 N = 1764
Mean
= 7.120
SD
= 2.106
ESS homepage (2008): study LV 2008 15+ aged, general public, Latvia, 2008 N = 1980
Mean
= 5.880
SD
= 2.395
ESS homepage (2008): study RO 2008 15+ aged, general public, Romania, 2008 N = 2146
Mean
= 6.140
SD
= 2.498
ESS homepage (2008): study TR 2008 15+ aged, general public, Turkey, 2008 N = 2416
Mean
= 5.540
SD
= 2.917
ESS homepage (2008): study UA 2008 15+ aged, general public, Ukraine, 2008 N = 1845
ESS homepage (2010): study CY 2010 16+ aged, general public, Cyprus, 2010 N = 1083
ESS homepage (2010): study SI 2010 16+ aged, general public, Slovenia, 2010 N = 1403
Mean
= 6.970
SD
= 2.152
ESS homepage (2010): study FI 2010 16+ aged, general public, Finland, 2010 N = 1878
ESS homepage (2010): study GR 2010 16+ aged, general public, Greece, 2010 N = 2715
Mean
= 5.710
SD
= 2.347
ESS homepage (2010): study HR 2010 16+ aged, general public, Croatia, 2010 N = 1649
ESS homepage (2010): study IE 2010 16+ aged, general public, Ireland, 2010 N = 2576
Mean
= 6.590
SD
= 2.252
ESS homepage (2010): study IL 2010 16+ aged, general public, Israel, 2010 N = 2294
Mean
= 7.470
SD
= 2.161
ESS homepage (2010): study LT 2010 16+ aged, general public, Lithaunia, 2010 N = 1677
Mean
= 5.070
SD
= 2.602
ESS homepage (2010): study SK 2010 16+ aged, general public, Sovakia, 2010 N = 1856
ESS homepage (2010): study UA 2010 16+ aged, general public, Ukraine, 2010 N = 1931
Mean
= 4.820
SD
= 2.571
ESS homepage (2012): study FR 2012 15+ aged, general public, France, 2012 N = 1968
ESS homepage (2012): study HU 2012 15+ aged, general public, Hungary, 2012 N = 2014
Mean
= 5.590
SD
= 2.429
ESS homepage (2012): study IT 2012 15+ aged, general public, Italy, 2012 N = 960
Mean
= 6.680
SD
= 2.349
ESS homepage (2012): study LT 2012 15+ aged, general public, Lithuania, 2012 N = 2109
Mean
= 5.990
SD
= 2.203
ESS homepage (2018): study BE 2018 15+ aged, general public, Belgium, 2018 N = 1767
Mean
= 7.530
SD
= 1.667
ESS homepage (2018): study BG 2018 15+ aged, general public, Bulgaria, 2018 N = 2198
Mean
= 4.940
SD
= 2.525
ESS homepage (2018): study CH 2018 15+ aged, general public, Switzerland, 2018 N = 1542
Mean
= 8.150
SD
= 1.652
ESS homepage (2018): study CY 2018 15+ aged, general public, Cyprus, 2018 N = 781
Mean
= 7.060
SD
= 2.114
ESS homepage (2018): study CZ 2018 15+ aged, general public, Czech Republic, 2018 N = 2398
Mean
= 7.080
SD
= 1.775
ESS homepage (2018): study DE 2018 15+ aged, general public, Germany, 2018 N = 2358
Mean
= 7.660
SD
= 1.958
ESS homepage (2018): study EE 2018 15+ aged, general public, Estonia, 2018 N = 1904
Mean
= 7.020
SD
= 1.969
ESS homepage (2018): study FI 2018 15+ aged, general public, Finland, 2018 N = 1755
Mean
= 8.040
SD
= 1.524
ESS homepage (2018): study FR 2018 15+ aged, general public, France, 2018 N = 2010
Mean
= 6.570
SD
= 2.231
ESS homepage (2018): study GB 2018 15+ aged, general public, United Kingdom, 2018 N = 2204
Mean
= 7.310
SD
= 2.095
ESS homepage (2018): study HU 2018 15+ aged, general public, Hungary, 2018 N = 1698
Mean
= 6.170
SD
= 2.260
ESS homepage (2018): study IE 2018 15+ aged, general public, Ireland, 2018 N = 2216
Mean
= 7.250
SD
= 1.956
ESS homepage (2018): study IT 2018 15+ aged, general public, Italy, 2018 N = 2745
Mean
= 6.890
SD
= 2.037
ESS homepage (2018): study NL 2018 15+ aged, general public, Netherlands, 2018 N = 1673
Mean
= 7.900
SD
= 1.348
ESS homepage (2018): study NO 2018 15+ aged, general public, Norway, 2018 N = 1406
Mean
= 7.860
SD
= 1.658
ESS homepage (2018): study PL 2018 15+ aged, general public, Poland, 2018 N = 1500
Mean
= 7.050
SD
= 2.058
ESS homepage (2018): study RS 2018 15+ aged, general public, Serbia, 2018 N = 2043
Mean
= 6.080
SD
= 2.761
ESS homepage (2018): study SI 2018 15+ aged, general public, Slovenia, 2018 N = 1318
Mean
= 7.330
SD
= 1.977