Correlational findings

Study Cheng & Furnham (2003a): study GB London 2003

Students, London, UK, 2003
N = 234
Non Response
Questionnaire: Paper & Pencil Interview (PAPI)
Questionnaire completed in class


Authors's Label
Beck Depression Inventory
Our Classification
Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) comprises 21 items measuring both affects and symptoms. (Beck et al. 1961 Archives of General Psychiatry 4, 561-571).
                     Mean          SD
males            6.85            6.14
females         9.59            6.54
Self- report on 21 items
a: I am sad
b: I am afraid of the future
c: I failed as a person
d: I am not happy
e: I feel guilty
f: I have being punished
g: I feel disapointed
h: I am a bad person
i: I think often over a suicide
j: I am crying very often
k: I feel get annoyed
l: I have lack of interest in other persons
m: I have lack of dississsion
n: I am not good-looking
o: I dislike work
p: I sleep not well
q: I am fatigue
r: I have a lack of appetite
s: Ihave lost weight
t: I am afraid of my health
u: I have lack of interst in sex

Rated: Never (0); Rarely (1); Sometimes(2); Often (3)
indicating the severity of symptoms.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aa r = -.44 p < .001 A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-a r = -.56 p < .001