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Correlational findings

Study Halman et al. (1987): study ZZ EU 10 1981 /2

Public:
18+ aged, general public, EU 10, 1981
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 12464
Non Response:
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face
Highly structured

Correlate

Authors's label
Loneliness
Our Classification
Operationalization
Direct question: "Do you happen to feel lonely sometimes? Does that happen...?" (Order reversed)
1 Often          
2 Regularly
3 Seldom
4 Never

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a r = -.29 p < .01 France O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa r = -.25 p < .01 France O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a Beta = <.10 O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa r = -.30 p < .01 Great-Britain O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a r = -.33 p < .01 Great-Britain O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa r = -.40 p < .01 West Germany O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa r = -.29 p < .01 Italy O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a Beta = -.11 O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a r = -.44 p < .01 West Germany O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa r = -.26 Netherlands O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa r = -.30 p < .01 Denmark O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a Beta = -.16 O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a r = -.33 p < .01 Italy O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa r = -.36 p < .01 Belgium O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a Beta = <.10 O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa r = -.32 p < .01 Spain O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa r = -.32 p < .01 Ireland O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a r = -.28 Netherlands O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa r = -.34 p < .01 Northern Ireland O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a Beta = <.10 O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a r = -.32 p < .01 Denmark O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa r = -.33 EC

Lineair relation

O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa Beta = <.10 In none of the european countries, ß's reached .10 level in multiple regression analysis, when controlled for:satisfaction(HAPP 2.1), affect(AFF 2.3), satisfaction with health, income and family life; age, income, education, marital status, having children, work, male sex; urbanisation, type of dwelling, own home, religiousness, social participation; uncertainty about future, expected negative changes in income; satisfaction 5 years in past and future; tolerance, misantropy, hopeless about life and sense of control. O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a Beta = <.10 O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a r = -.39 p < .01 Belgium O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a Beta = -.12 O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a r = -.34 p < .01 Spain O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a Beta = -.13 O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a r = -.33 p < .01 Ireland O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a Beta = -.11 O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a r = -.33 p < .01 Northern Ireland O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a Beta = <.10 O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a r = -.37 EC O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a Beta = -.11
Lineair relation

ß's controlled for: satisfaction(HAPP 2.1), affect(AFF 2.3), satisfaction with health, income and family life; age, income, education, marital status, having children, work, male sex; urbanisation, type of dwelling, own home, religiousness, social participation; uncertainty about future, expected negative changes in income; satisfaction 5 years in past and future; tolerance, misantropy, hopeless about life and sense of control.