Correlational findings

Study Gundelach & Kreiner (2004): study ZZ Western Europe 1999

18 + aged, general public, 9 nations in Western Europe, 1999
N = 10517
Non Response:
Interview: face-to-face
Iceland: face to face 74%; by phone 26% in remote areas.


Authors's label
Perceived freedom and control in life
Our Classification
Selfreport on single question:
Some people feel they have completely free choice and control over their lives, while other people feel that what they do has no real effect on what happens to them. Please use this scale where 1 means "none at all" and 10 means "a great deal" to indicate how much freedom of choice and control you feel you have over the way your life turns out.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a Gs = >.15 Gs controlled for
- country of residence
- report of living in an stable relationship
- life-satisfaction (see below)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a Gs = +.37 Gs controlled for:
- country of residence
- stable relationship or not
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a = Very satisfied Ss only (score 10, N = 1,892)