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Correlational findings

Study Peiro (2006): study ZZ 1995

Public:
16+ aged, general public, 16 nations, 1995
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 16000
Non Response:
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face

Correlate

Authors's label
Number of children
Our Classification
Operationalization
0: no children (reference)
1: one child
2: two children
3: three children
4: more than three children

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a OLRC = Argentina
1: one child:                OLRC= -.12 (ns)
2: two children:             OLRC= +.14 (ns)
3: three children:           OLRC= +.21 (ns)
4: more than three children: OLRC= -.23 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a OLRC = Australia
1: one child:                OLRC= +.02 (ns)
2: two children:             OLRC= +.01 (ns)
3: three children:           OLRC= -.02 (ns)
4: more than three children: OLRC= +.05 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a OLRC = Chile
1: one child:                OLRC= +.30 (ns)
2: two children:             OLRC= -.10 (ns)
3: three children:           OLRC= +.15 (ns)
4: more than three children: OLRC= +.53 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a OLRC = China
1: one child:                OLRC= +.22 (ns)
2: two children:             OLRC= +.32 (ns)
3: three children:           OLRC= -.01 (ns)
4: more than three children: OLRC= -.24 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a OLRC = Dominican Republic
1: one child:                OLRC= -.07  (ns)
2: two children:             OLRC= -.90  (ns)
3: three children:           OLRC= -.54  (ns)
4: more than three children: OLRC= -1.72 (01)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a OLRC = Finland
1: one child:                OLRC= -.29 (ns)
2: two children:             OLRC= -.06 (ns)
3: three children:           OLRC= +.06 (ns)
4: more than three children: OLRC= +.10 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a OLRC = Japan
1: one child:                OLRC= +.05 (ns)
2: two children:             OLRC= -.17 (ns)
3: three children:           OLRC= +.15 (ns)
4: more than three children: OLRC= +.28 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a OLRC = Nigeria
1: one child:                OLRC= +.15 (ns)
2: two children:             OLRC= +.39 (ns)
3: three children:           OLRC= +.66 (05)
4: more than three children: OLRC= +.46 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a OLRC = Peru
1: one child:                OLRC= -.39  (ns)
2: two children:             OLRC= -.43  (ns)
3: three children:           OLRC= -.79  (01)
4: more than three children: OLRC= -1.00 (01)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a OLRC = Russia
1: one child:                OLRC= +.14 (ns)
2: two children:             OLRC= +.21 (ns)
3: three children:           OLRC= +.73 (01)
4: more than three children: OLRC= +.68 (05)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a OLRC = Spain
1: one child:                OLRC= -.30 (ns)
2: two children:             OLRC= +.02 (ns)
3: three children:           OLRC= -.26 (ns)
4: more than three children: OLRC= -.32 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a OLRC = Sweden
1: one child:                OLRC= +.14 (ns)
2: two children:             OLRC= +.35 (ns)
3: three children:           OLRC= +.41 (ns)
4: more than three children: OLRC= +.73 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a OLRC = Taiwan
1: one child:                OLRC= +.95 (05)
2: two children:             OLRC= +.58 (ns)
3: three children:           OLRC= +.76 (ns)
4: more than three children: OLRC= +.93 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a OLRC = USA
1: one child:                OLRC= -.08 (ns)
2: two children:             OLRC= -.28 (ns)
3: three children:           OLRC= -.50 (05)
4: more than three children: OLRC= -.39 (ns)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a OLRC = Venezuela
1: one child:                OLRC= -.17 (ns)
2: two children:             OLRC= -.52 (05)
3: three children:           OLRC= -.34 (ns)
4: more than three children: OLRC= -.38 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa OLRC = Argentina
1: one child:                OLRC= +.11 (ns)
2: two children:             OLRC= -.04 (ns)
3: three children:           OLRC= +.21 (ns)
4: more than three children: OLRC= -.10 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa OLRC = Australia
1: one child:                OLRC= +.18 (ns)
2: two children:             OLRC= -.07 (ns)
3: three children:           OLRC= +.03 (ns)
4: more than three children: OLRC= +.31 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa OLRC = Chile
1: one child:                OLRC= +.10 (ns)
2: two children:             OLRC= -.38 (ns)
3: three children:           OLRC= -.22 (ns)
4: more than three children: OLRC= +.03 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa OLRC = China
1: one child:                OLRC= +.38 (ns)
2: two children:             OLRC= +.49 (ns)
3: three children:           OLRC= +.29 (ns)
4: more than three children: OLRC= +.54 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa OLRC = Dominican Republic
1: one child:                OLRC= -.05 (ns)
2: two children:             OLRC= -.10 (ns)
3: three children:           OLRC= +.25 (ns)
4: more than three children: OLRC= -.37 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa OLRC = Finland
1: one child:                OLRC= -.46 (05)
2: two children:             OLRC= -.24 (ns)
3: three children:           OLRC= -.19 (ns)
4: more than three children: OLRC= -.07 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa OLRC = Japan
1: one child:                OLRC= -.01 (ns)
2: two children:             OLRC= -.29 (ns)
3: three children:           OLRC= -.27 (ns)
4: more than three children: OLRC= -.09 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa OLRC = Nigeria
1: one child:                OLRC= -.32 (ns)
2: two children:             OLRC= -.46 (ns)
3: three children:           OLRC= -.46 (ns)
4: more than three children: OLRC= -.51 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa OLRC = Peru
1: one child:                OLRC= -.31 (ns)
2: two children:             OLRC= -.64 (01)
3: three children:           OLRC= -.60 (05)
4: more than three children: OLRC= -.65 (05)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa OLRC = Russia
1: one child:                OLRC= +.05 (ns)
2: two children:             OLRC= -.01 (ns)
3: three children:           OLRC= +.16 (ns)
4: more than three children: OLRC= +.60 (05)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa OLRC = Spain
1: one child:                OLRC= -.08 (ns)
2: two children:             OLRC= +.06 (ns)
3: three children:           OLRC= +.08 (ns)
4: more than three children: OLRC= -.17 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa OLRC = Sweden
1: one child:                OLRC= +.31 (ns)
2: two children:             OLRC= +.13 (ns)
3: three children:           OLRC= +.12 (ns)
4: more than three children: OLRC= +.52 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa OLRC = Taiwan
1: one child:                OLRC= +.11 (ns)
2: two children:             OLRC= -.39 (ns)
3: three children:           OLRC= -.21 (ns)
4: more than three children: OLRC= -.43 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa OLRC = USA
1: one child:                OLRC= -.26 (ns)
2: two children:             OLRC= -.43 (05)
3: three children:           OLRC= -.43 (05)
4: more than three children: OLRC= -.25 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa OLRC = Venezuela
1: one child:                OLRC= +.27 (ns)
2: two children:             OLRC= -.24 (ns)
3: three children:           OLRC= -.09 (ns)
4: more than three children: OLRC= -.06 (ns)

OLRC controlled for:
-age
-health
-gender
-marital status
-size of town
-education
-labor market status
-income.

OLRC (Ordered Logit Regression Coefficient) cannot be interpreted as an absolute effect-size. The coefficients only denote relative differences in correlation and whether the correlations are negative or positive. E.g.  in Peru and the USA there are negative correlations between happiness and having (more) children, in Sweden there are positive correlations. In most nations we see positive and negative correlations simultaneously, dependent on the actual number of children.