Correlational findings

Study Ryff (1989): study US 1984

Adults, USA, 198?
N = 321
Non Response
Questionnaire: Paper & Pencil Interview (PAPI)


Authors's Label
Personal growth
Our Classification
Error Estimates
alpha=.87 Test-retest reliability between 6 week period (n=117)=.81
a: women (m=102.29, sd=9.91), men (m=97.67, sd=9.90)
b: women (m=100.97, sd=13.38), men (m=98.85, sd=13.42)
c: women (m=95.51, sd=13.94), men (m=95.79, sd=11.20)
Self report on 16 positive and 16 negative statements. Each rated on a 6-point scale ranging from strongly agree to disagree.
High scorers have a feeling of continued development; see self as growing and expanding; are open to new experiences; has sense of realizing his or her potential; see improvement in self and behavior over time; are changing in ways that reflect more self-knowledge and effectiveness.
-Low scorers: have a sense of personal stagnation, lack sense of improvement or expansion over time, feel bored and interested with life, feel unable to develop new attitudes or behaviors

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-a r = +.25 p < .001