Correlational findings

Study Ryff (1989): study US 1984

Adults, USA, 198?
N = 321
Non Response
Questionnaire: Paper & Pencil Interview (PAPI)


Authors's Label
Purpose in life
Our Classification
Error Estimates
alpha=.90 Test-retest reliability between 6 week period (n=117)=.82
Young adults: women (m=94.92, sd=13.38), men (m=94.80, sd=11.93)
Middle aged adults: women (m=95.47, sd=17.18), men (m=97.68, sd=16.20)
Older adults: women (m=88.58, sd=16.14), men (m=92.92, sd=14.84)
Self report on 16 positive and 16 negative statements. Each rated on a 6-point scale ranging from strongly agree to disagree.
High scorers have goals in life and a sense of directedness; feel there is meaning to present and past life; hold beliefs that give life purpose; have aims and objectives for living.
Low scorers lack a sense of meaning in life; have few goals or aims, lack sense of direction; do not see purpose of past life; have no outlook or beliefs that give life meaning.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-a r = +.42 p < .001