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Correlational findings

Study Ryff (1989): study US 1984

Public
Adults, USA, 198?
Sample
Respondents
N = 321
Non Response
Assessment
Questionnaire: paper

Correlate

Authors's Label
Autonomy
Our Classification
Error Estimates
alpha=.86 Test-retest reliability between 6 week period (n=117)=.88
Distribution
Young adults: women (m=82.49, sd=12.84), men (m=82.93, sd=14.20)
Middle aged adults: women (m=87.62, sd=14.26), men (m=87.34, sd=13.35)
Older adults: women (m=86.90, sd=15.83), men (m=85.12, sd=11.30)
Operationalization
Self report on 16 positive and 16 negative statements. Each rated on a 6-point scale ranging from strongly agree to disagree.
High scorers are self-determining and independent; able to resist social pressures to think and act in certain ways; regulate behavior from within; evaluate self by personal standards.
Low scorers are concerned about the expectations and evaluations of others; rely on judgments of others to make important decisions; conform to social pressures to think and act in certain ways.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-a r = +.36 p < .001