Correlational findings

Study Ryff (1989): study US 1984

Adults, USA, 198?
N = 321
Non Response
Questionnaire: Paper & Pencil Interview (PAPI)


Authors's Label
Positive relations with others
Our Classification
Error Estimates
alpha=.91, Test-retest reliability between 6 week period (n=117)=.83
Young adults: women (m=101.01, sd=13.03), men (m=89.92, sd=12.31)
Middle aged adults: women (m=96.07, sd=15.40), men (m=89.99, sd=17.04)
Older adults: women (m=95.03, sd=16.80), men (m=94.39, sd=13.81)
Self report on 16 positive and 16 negative statements. Each rated on a 6-point scale ranging from strongly agree to disagree.
High scorers have warm, satisfying, trusting relationships with others; are concerned about the welfare of others; capable of strong empathy, affection, and intimacy; understandings give and take of human relationships.
Low scorers have few close, trusting relationships with others; find it difficult to be warm, open and concerned about others; are isolated and frustrated in interpersonal relationships; not willing to make compromises to sustain importunities with others

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-a r = +.30 p < .001