Findings on happiness in Lowenthal et al. (1975): study US 1969

Publication
Author(s)Lowenthal, M.F.; Chiriboga, D.A.; Thurnher, M.
TitleFour Stages of Life. A Comparative Study of Women and Men Facing Transition.
SourceJossey-Bass, 1975, San Francisco, USA
Investigation
PublicPeople in transition, metropolis,USA, 1969
Survey nameNot available
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
 A. high school seniors (facing college, job, marriage) chunk sample: class of senior high school, men N:25, women N:27 b. newly weds (facing parenthood) snowball sample: recruted by respondents and marriage lists. men N:25, women N:25 c. middle aged parents (facing empty nest) chunk sample: parents of high school students. men N:27, women N:27 d. elderly planning to retire. Snowball sample: recruted by respondents and organisations. Men N:30, women N:30
Respondents N =216
Non ResponseNot available
AssesmentInterview: face-to-face
 Lengthy interviews
General remarksSame study reported in LOWEN 73 and CHIRI 75
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on 8 questions. "During the past week, did you ever feel.....?" A very lonely B restless C bored D depressed E on top of the world F exited or interested G pleased about accomplishment H proud Answer options: 1 never 2 once 3 several times 4 often Summation: -Positive Affect Score (PAS): E+F+G+H -Negative Affect Score (NAS): A+B+C+D -Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS-NAS+13 Name: Bradburn's Affect Balance Scale (modified version)
ClassificationA-BB-cw-mq-v-4-d
Author's labelAffect Balance Score
Page in publication87
Finding used in
nation ranks
Yes
 On original range 1 - 25On range 0 - 10
Mean15.005.80
Standard deviation


Full textSelfreport on single question: Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say that you are....? 3 very happy 2 pretty happy 1 not too happy
ClassificationO-HL-c-sq-v-3-aa
Author's labelOverall happiness
Finding used in
nation ranks
Yes
 On original range 1 - 3On range 0 - 10
Mean2.306.30
Standard deviation

Scores in123
%13.048.039.0

Full textSelfreport on 3 questions: A. " Dissatisfied" and "Unhappy" responses on the Block (1961) Adjective Rating List. B. Overall happiness. Single direct question: "Taking all things together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are .......?" 3 very happy 2 pretty happy 1 not too happy C. Present-year score on Life-Evaluation Chart, ranging from: 1 low 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 high
ClassificationO-Sum-u-mq-*-0-a
Author's labelLife satifaction
Finding used in
nation ranks
Yes
 On original range 1 - 9On range 0 - 10
Mean29.307.40
Standard deviation


Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Finding
Subject description
Activity-scopeT01adCurrent time-usage
Ease-contentment activitiesL03acCurrent leisure activity
Ease-contentment activitiesT01adCurrent time-usage, also classified as above ↑
Ease-contentment activitiesA02ac05Leisure, also classified as above ↑
Ease-contentment activitiesL03ac01Leisure activity level, also classified as above ↑
Ease-contentment activitiesA02acSpecific activities, also classified as above ↑
Expressive activitiesS06abCurrent contacts
Expressive activitiesA02ac10Socializing, also classified as above ↑
Expressive activitiesT01ad06Time spend socializing, also classified as above ↑
Familial rolesR13ab01Current number of roles
Familial rolesC03aa01Ever had children (vs not), also classified as above ↑
Familial rolesF02aaFamily career (family life-cycle), also classified as above ↑
Familial rolesC01ab01Having grand-children, also classified as above ↑
Familial rolesF01ab01Number of siblings, also classified as above ↑
Growth activitiesT01adCurrent time-usage
Growth activitiesA02ac11Studying, also classified as above ↑
Hedonistic activitiesS13abCurrent use of stimulants
Hedonistic activitiesA02ac05Leisure, also classified as above ↑
Hedonistic activitiesL03ac01Leisure activity level, also classified as above ↑
Instrumental activitiesT01adCurrent time-usage
Non-goal directed activitiesA02ac15aHousehold work
Non-goal directed activitiesL03ac02gPersonal care, also classified as above ↑
Occupational rolesE02abCurrent employment status
Occupational rolesR13ab01Current number of roles, also classified as above ↑
Occupational rolesO01abCurrent occupation, also classified as above ↑
Occupational rolesS01ac01aInvolved in schooling or not, also classified as above ↑
Occupational rolesR13ab03bWork roles, also classified as above ↑
Philosophical activitiesM05adConcern about meaning
Philosophical activitiesV02ae01Concern about own values, also classified as above ↑
Philosophical activitiesR10af01Concern about religion, also classified as above ↑
Respondent- interviewer agreementS02ag02Congruency self-image and reputation
Self-criticismS02ad03dSelf-critical
Social service activitiesA02abCurrent activity pattern
Social service activitiesS11abCurrent support behavior, also classified as above ↑
Social service activitiesT01ad08Time spent on work and care, also classified as above ↑
Social service activitiesS07ab03Voluntary work, also classified as above ↑
Stage of lifeL05aa03Later life-change
Stage of lifeR12aa03Later retirement, also classified as above ↑
Stage of lifeM01ab01bRecent marriage, also classified as above ↑
Stage of lifeA04aa02Stage of life, also classified as above ↑
Total role scopeR13ab01Current number of roles