Young (1937): study US 1934
- Young, P.T.
- Is Cheerfulness-Depression a General Temperamental Trait?
- Psychological Review, 1937, Vol. 44, 313 - 319
- College students, psychol. course, USA, 1934-35
- N = 34
- Non Response
- 39% dropouts
Daily and tests
Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings
- Full text:
Self report on single question, asked twice with an interval of 16 days.
"Consider your experience during the past 24 hours, being as objective and matter-of-fact as possible. Estimate honestly the prevailing or dominant level of your mood, and put a cross through the term which most accurately describes your prevailing feeling".
7 highly elated
6 moderately cheerful
5 mildly cheerful
3 wildly depressed
2 moderately depressed
1 extremely gloomy
Summation: Average of 32 scores.
- Author's label:
- Error estimates:
- Reliability: Reasonable repeat reliability as assessed by little variation in individual average deviations over 13 days (from 0.00 to 1.50 with most frequent average deviations between 0.61 and 0.90 scale points). Validity: