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Studies

Young (1937): study US 1934

Publication

Author(s):
Young, P.T.
Title:
Is Cheerfulness-Depression a General Temperamental Trait?
Source:
Psychological Review, 1937, Vol. 44, 313 - 319

Investigation

Public:
College students, psychol. course, USA, 1934-35
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 34
Non Response:
39% dropouts
Assessment:
Questionnaire: paper
Daily and tests

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Selfreport on single question, asked twice with an interval of 16 days.

"Consider your experience during the past 24 hours, being as objective and matter-of-fact as possible. Estimate honestly the prevailing or dominant level of your mood, and put a cross through the term which most accurately describes your prevailing feeling".
7  highly elated
6  moderately cheerful
5  mildly cheerful
4  indifferent
3  wildly depressed
2  moderately depressed
1  extremely gloomy


Summation: Average of 32 scores.
Classification:
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-7-a
Author's label:
Cheerfulness
Error estimates:
Reliability: Reasonable repeat reliability as assessed by little variation in individual average deviations over 13 days (from 0.00 to 1.50 with most frequent average deviations between 0.61 and 0.90 scale points). Validity:

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Inclination to recall pleasing words Positive reacting Being readily pleased by odors Positive reacting